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21. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Любовь Владиленовна Денисова Свобода совести, как универсальное право человека
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Freedom of conscience belongs to universal natural rights. It is defined as claim of the possibility to confess any religion or to confess no reli-gion at all, individually. Freedom of conscience has natural boundaries for its realization. First, this is a characteristic of the subject of religion, depending on age. Secondly, it is the abuse, which humiliates religious freedom and, thirdly, it is an incitement to a crime that leads beyond the boundaries of loyalty and annulation of rights. The boundaries of freedom of conscience are primarily manifested by the right of propagation of religious views and the right of ac-complishment of religious rites.
22. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Anvar Niyazmetov Burkhanuddin al-Marginani: The Great Representative of the Sharia Science
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Ali ibn Abu Bakr ibn Abdulzhalil al-Ferghani ar-Rishtani al-Marginani (1123-1197) is one of scientists who made a huge contribution to the development of theology. He received the initial knowledge in Margelan, later he moved to Samarkand and remained there till the end of his life. He made pilgrimage to Mecca in 1444. In the book Kitab ul mashoyy (The book about Sheikhs) he provided names more than forty scientists from whom he got his education. The biggest, world renowned Burhanuddin al-Marginani’s work is the Al-Khidoya. Thanks to this work he became very known scientist in all Islamic world. In the previous works on a science about laws of Sharia, only insignificant questions in the jurisprudence sphere were considered, while there were the problems connected with national life of the population, and the society and state. From this point of view, detailed studying of unstable conditions, during his time, to distinguish priority questions from minor tasks, decision making process, and comprehensive study and deep supervision of these matters were demanded by the author. According to the scientists, the carrying-out research on Marginani’s work could help solving these problems.
23. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Alena Apaeva Мартин Хайдеггер о предельном философском мышлении
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Проблема бытия человека в мире – одна из главных проблем в философии М. Хайдеггера. Но такая многогранная тема не может быть в целостности схвачена в одной небольшой статье. В данной статье внимание обращено к самим фундаментальным основаниям человеческого бытия, к самому бытию, в котором становится возможным бытие человека. Бытие для людей в современном мире не является больше подлинной трансценденцией, как философия перестала для них быть истинным делом. Хайдеггер стремится вернуть фундаментальную философию. Он обращается к древнегреческому понятию φύσις, в котором скрывалось то, что еще полновластно определяло человеческое бытие. Φύσις, как самообразующее владычество, охватывает и держит в своей власти все в мире. Пусть постижения φύσις в современном мире может быть только через отрицание, через постижение Ничто.
24. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Anatoliy Kosichenko Philosophy and the Philosopher in the Modern World
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Today, philosophy has lost its importance as “guide of humanity”. Why has it happen? Firstly, because the philosophy, as well as philosopher has changed the essence of philosophy - being “science” about wisdom, being wisdom, to live in accordance with the demands of wisdom. Philosopher cannot be an immoral, but, today he is obviously immoral, he is a same consumer of material benefits as every other human. To demand moral behavior from philosopher, today, is ridiculous: philosopher is dissolved in being that has lost its meaning. What to do in this case? It seems, one should return to intelligent life, especially, when any other attempt to live (to live out of sense, out of creation, out of comprehension) lead neither to success, nor to happiness, nor to the hope of meeting with. Moral - conscience – meaning of life are inseparable unity, a human in order to be a human being should join in himself these determinacies of being, otherwise – crash of human and humanity is inevitable. Today, the task set before the philosophy is to return its high importance, before philosopher is to recover the moral content of his service – these are the purpose and meaning of the present philosophy.
25. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Valeri Zakharov Статус метафизики в естественных науках
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Since the antique Greeks “the cognition of the world” was not considered as an aggregate of the knowledges about the world but a comprehension of the “thing roots”. The Greek natural philosophers searched for the world principles but not the causes of the phenomena. The modern physics goes back to the Greek sources. It goes away more and more from the knowledges system and strives for the comprehension system. It replaces the causal description by the comprehension. A cognitive power intensiication of a theory (that is a comprehension factor) is accompanied by its prognostic power diminution. The special relativity has stated that any events cannot be connected one with other causally. The general relativity has revealed the space-time domains whose topology does not allow any prediction: it is the domains containing the singularities (black holes, Big Bang). The quantum mechanics has revealed the nonlocalities which rule out the common meaning of the causality. The quantum mechanics predicts what our mind chooses. The mind of a modern physicist allows the noumena, that is the objects being beyond the experience and beyond the Kantian Anschaulichkeit. A modern physical theory is based on the free metaphysical convention. That determines the status of the metaphysics in the modern philosophy of the natural science. (Zakharov V.D. Physics and freedom // Philosophy and the future of the civilization. Theses of reports in IV Russian philosophical congress, Moscow, 2005. Vol. 1: 449-450).
26. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Anastasia Shulyndina The World Outlook Systems: Ideological Aspect
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The research of the world outlook system is one of the main subjects of philosophy. The basis of any world-views is some world outlook or “mythological basis” (structure), which forms all elements of the system. The theistic and the a-theistic systems, to my mind, can be considered as the extreme points of understanding of this main core. Any world outlook is a consequence of the valuable experience of the human being. However, any such experience is connected with the certain “level of access” to the knowledge of the laws of the Universe. The author argues that the selection of central core is made according to free internal choice. The philosophical systems, according to which the world is a complex system of self-identified self-realized subjects, with varying degrees of freedom, most fully reflect the reality. Such, for example, is the philosophical system of Nikolai Losskii. Need of structuring of world outlook systems requires the recognition of the fact that the basis of any world outlook is directly dependent on the internal selection. To identify these is the task of the researcher, who is making an attempt to penetrate into the world-view from the inside and to maximally structure our knowledge of the world vision systems.
27. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Eduard I. Sorkin Метафизичность сознания
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Considering metaphysics as one of the ways of human thinking we have to take in account the very concept of thinking itself. We may describe the latter as a special and highest product of organized matter. Thus, the sufficient level of organization of the matter may provide a certain level of its self-knowledge. But there is still no convincing explanation, what is fundamentally different in organization of the nerve tissue of the brain, which perceives, for example, the color red petals of roses, from one hand, and the biological tissue of these petals, from another, and why one type of matter - the substance of the brain - can reflect the properties of the matter of another species - the color of roses. We may talk a good deal about functional specifics, information processes, thin quantum effects, etc. But as the 19th century Russian religious philosopher P. Yurkevich wrote: “If physiologist observes the changes, the processes in the sensory nerves [...] with the help of the most perfect microscope, anyway, in addition to the physical or chemical changes of the nerve cells, no feeling, no thought he would not see [...] The natural order of study refers us to a metaphysical thought [...] It’s not in the electrical current in the nerves that [...] but in something else, that there is in the whole content of the world.” Leibniz in “Reflections on Metaphysics” referred to the “perception of qualities such as color, warmth, which does not exist outside of us; every substance (man – E. S.) is as if the whole world and the mirror of God or the whole of the universe”. An attempt to correlate the phenomenon of thinking and consciousness with the whole of the positions of metaphysics helps to develop some kind of the holographic model, which gives the opportunity to link the well-known and rationally perceived scientific facts to ideas of supra-rational knowledge, as well as with the idea of Revelation.
28. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Йозеф Шмайс Эволюционная онтология как духовная парадигма для XXI века
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Эволюционная онтология от традиционной отличается: 1) предметом; 2) способом его интерпретации; 3) общественной ролью. 1) Предметом традиционной онтологии было абстрактное понимание бытия. Предметом эволюционной онтологии наряду с природным бытием, а также онтически оппозиционным бытием культурным является его онтический конфликт с природой. 2) Традиционная онтология в трактовке природного бытия предпочитала стабильность, пассивность и обратимость, эволюционная онтология подчеркивает процессуальность, онтическую активность и необратимость. 3) Традиционная онтология была абстрактно академичной и индивидуально утешающей. Эволюционная онтология, которая открывает суть глобального экологического кризиса, может выполнять функцию культурно-парадигматическую. С помощью этой онтологии, опирающейся на научную аргументацию, мы должны попробовать переломить духовную хищническую парадигму.
29. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Fan Valishin Pythagoras and Ontological (Monistic) Tradition
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On the basis of the formulation and solution of the Initial Problem of Reality, namely, the Problem of the Beginning, first, the initial structure of Reality is revealed that penetrates all worlds including the physical nature, human being, universe… - Ontology and Monism coincide. This means that the Occam’s Razor is reduced to the Ontological Imperative, to the requirement of the completeness of Reality; second, the presence of the Initial World Tradition is revealed, namely, the Ontological (Monistic) Tradition with its Historical Breeding Grounds, each of which is a Philosophical-Methodological Center according to the structure of Ontology; third, it is established that this Tradition is alive only then and is discovered only then when it is found that it is born anew – the appearance of the FMTs-Dynamism with its strategy of dynamism makes it possible to elucidate the structure of the historical Breeding Grounds of the Initial Tradition, including the structure of Pyphagorean. It is shown that Sufficient and Necessary in the initial Mathematical Units and Formulas cor-relate with the structure of the Ontological Formulas. Sufficient has the nature of Algebra and Necessary has the nature of Geometry. In turn, the structure of Algebra itself corresponds to the essential measurements of Reality, corresponds to the structure of Motion; Geometry as the measurement of Reality from the side of Existence corresponds to the ontological fact of Meeting of all worlds. A New Era appears along with the appearance of a New Ontology on the Earth. Philosophy plays the role of a Cosmic Grain and Methodology the role of means to process the Earth’s ground for this Grain. The structure of this ground is composed of the state of the art of science, technology, art, literature, politics, economy, culture. According to the new continuation of the Ontological (Monistic) Tradition, the Era of Dy-namism begins now. The first step in launching the strategy of dynamism is the creation of the Program of designing Science correlated with Ontology. Such Program is created at the FMTs-Dynamism, and many things are already implemented: Postulate of Dynamism; Process—State concept; a new variation principle called the local variation principle (LVP); the mathematical apparatus suitable for the new continuation of the optical-mechanistic analogy and the study of the nature of the physical vacuum opening prospects for the creation of a new, namely, trajectory-wave physics.
30. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Дмитрий Александрович Щербаков Бытие прошлого
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Автор ставит задачу найти онтологические основания для понимания прошлого как бытия. Автор показывает, что бытие не должно отождествляться только лишь с действительностью настоящего, потому что настоящее не имеет длительности и пребывает в движении к будущему. Автор указывает, что обычно в философии категорией «небытие» объемлются различные онтологические феномены. Он предлагает провести границу между двумя типами небытия: небытие положительное (небытие того, что было и исчезло, превратившись в нечто другое) и небытие отрицательное или абсолютное (небытие того, чего вообще никогда не было). В статье делается вывод, что реальность прошлого, неразрывно связанная с действительностью моментального настоящего, раскрывающего возможности будущего создают представление о длящемся бытии, как единстве прошлого, настоящего и будущего.
31. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Suhrob Norkulov The Modern Understanding of Personal Being
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The ontology is one of the most ancient philosophical disciplines. Problems of being interested ancient wise men more than all other philosophical questions. Eventually the problematics of understanding of being became complicated. If in Antiquity as being was understood micro- and macrocosm, and in the Middle Ages Divine being, that, since an era of New time and to the present being finds itself in all spheres of life of society, forms of public consciousness, in natural, humanitarian and technical sciences. The most important form of being in the modern world is being of society and being of the person. Personal being represents the whole world of the individual with his pleasures, pain, fears, dreams etc. Interaction between persons assumes also interaction of various spheres of being at interpersonal and personal and public levels. The person in the process of knowledge of his being faces various situations, such as life, illness, death, loss, desire, disappointment, etc. However, it doesn’t mean that the person starts to realize the life completely by any intermediate boundary. This process can occupy all life and there is no guarantee that on a life outcome the person can answer all interesting his questions.
32. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Геннадий Николаевич Мезенцев Прогнозообразующая природа свойств вещей в свете демаркации онтологии и эпистемологии
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One of the most important problems of cognition is data acquisition to support the possibility of human activity, including prediction of the effects of human actions during the interaction with the objects of reality and the interaction of the latter among themselves. In response to this need the subject of cognition starts to distort, in some cases, the features of being in itself and ascribe to it attributes that are not peculiar to it. These attributes include the epistemological effects that consist in the identification of possible outcomes of interaction of the things and the characteristics of the things and the associated with one of the most common types of their description in the terms of properties and quality. The content of the concepts property and quality is something new, which is different from the interacting objects themselves. Many “truths” of language have been incorporated in the pre-reflexive period of development of cognition. The human everyday experience, which is effected through common sense situations, become the meanings of the language. In this connection, the methodological principles of analytic philosophy, such as “the world is a text”, require a more critical stance. Concepts continue to being incorporated in the “truths” of language even during the contemporary reflexive period of cognition. Among such concepts are the potential energy, the inertial mass of the body, and, at a deeper level, the gravitational mass. The results of the physical sciences, on which philosophy of physics and ontology traditionally rely, should be perceived more critically when analyzing the ontological problems that concern the understanding of certain aspects of the Being.
33. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Дмитрий Николаевич Воропаев Я и Ничто
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В работе рассматривается проблема понимания категории «Я» в связи с категориями «бытие», «небытие», «Ничто». Автор предлагает понимать категорию Ничто как тотальное несовпадение с бытием и небытием. Такой подход, на его взгляд, позволит приблизиться к разгадке человеческого Я, постоянно ускользающего от непосредственного познания. Автор указывает, что Я трудно обнаружить по той причине, что оно ищется в бытии теми же методами, которые используются для познания бытия. Однако, наличие Я (как субстанционального ядра) совсем не то же самое, что наличность вещей в бытии. Я не то же самое, что структуры, образующие личность человека, т.к. элементы этой структуры формируемы в бытии.
34. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
A. A. Belostotsky Тезисы о бытии и мышлении
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All processes in both objective and subjective reality can be naturally derived from basal representations of things and their mutual influences. Cogitative operations and facts of perceptible world are quite similar though they are not fully symmetric. Proceeding from this it is easy to describe different cogitative operations and cognition as well as to solve the knowledge reliability problem. That was demonstrated in the following work presented in a theses form.
35. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Kazhimurat Abishev О субъектах гражданского общества
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What is the difference between the individual who has become an independent subject of civil society, and the individual of a certain community that belongs in a social plan and what does his independence and autonomy mean? It becomes clarified, especially in comparison to the communal individual who is not acting only on his own, but acts on behalf of the community, as his representative. His significant acts are community acts, instead of his own. For this reason, when the communal individual is punished for certain offenses, he is punished as a particular organic part of a whole, established by the whole. If a person harms other community members, not only him punished but all the community, any other members of his community. In a word, each associate bears responsibility for the acts of each other member. But it also means that unity of the individual with the community isn’t absolute and the final decision is his own. Unlike the communal individual the independent subject is individually responsible for all his acts: he is both the starting and terminal point where the act is born. For this reason, when each person is considered as the unique reason of his acts and affairs, all demands following from such status return to him. Therefore, the person within his subjectivity can’t refer to any other reasons, on circumstances compelling him for acts harming to community, or to other people.
36. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Pavel Ramdisovich Finageev Проблема сущности человека: одна из основных во всей мировой философской мысли
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The problem of the person is one of the main in all world philosophical thought and along with the problem of existence of the person is the key in the sphere of philosophical doctrine about the person. According to modern the science, at the heart of human development lies its labor activity, which the person carries out always within a social context. I analyze how philosophers of antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Renaissance consider the problem of human essence, and also in Modern Times what representatives of the German classical philosophy have said about it. Finally I consider the solution of this problem as is presented in works of the Russian philosophers.
37. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Сергей Фёдорович Денисов Философско-антропологический анализ иронии
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Irony is considered as a form of negative attitude of a man to-wards reality. Three evolutionary forms of irony have been distinguished – the antique, the romantic and the postmodern. It is shown that in the course of development of irony the scope of its criticism has expanded. The scope of antique irony is the erudite (scholar?), that of the romantic irony is the erudite and the aesthete and the scope of postmodern irony is the erudite, the aesthete and the user. Two philosophical anthropological senses of irony have been revealed. First, irony fixes (registers) dangerous existence as a stray one, sec-ondly, irony introduces the strategy of achieving a safe existence by a man, which is reduced to the actions of recovery.
38. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Valerii Tsaplin A Philosopho-Semiotic Aspect of Man’s Origin
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Anthropological finds such as “Lucy” and “Toumai” have finally destroyed the labour theory of F. Engels. The appearance of upright walking before the formation of labour created a problem of man’s origin in a new way, as upright walking is one of the ineffective ways of movement. A historic appearance of a powerful compensatory mechanism overcoming defects of upright walking was necessary. Such a compensatory mechanism was the emergence of a sign language, allowing the ancestors of humans to survive and then to take the dominant position in nature. It is possible to outline the solution of the problem only from philosophical positions. I believe that only one quality separates the evolutionary stages of life. And the possibility of its appearance is the interaction between two tendencies (by K. Lorenz): intra-specific and interspecific aggression. This is the peculiarity of a philosophical approach to anthropology. The origin of the language in the form of gestures was considered by Condillac E. and supported by academician N. Marr. But they were not able to define the reason for the appearance of the sign language. The process of man’s origin began 15 million years ago on the basis of sociality existing in the animal world in the form of herd or flock. Under the influence of intraspecific aggression (according to K. Lorenz) the group of similar phenomena such as a language (primarily in the form of a sign language), formation of labour (on the basis of a sign language), and the appearance of consciousness as a generalized reflection of reality sequentially appeared. It is after the appearance of consciousness that man appears.
39. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Владимир Владимирович Михайлов Является ли человек разумным существом?
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By “reason” we define the ability for independent sustainable progressive development. Beings that possesses this ability, even if they have no knowledge or skill of something, can learn everything within some time. However, modern man, at least massively, does not possess this ability. That is why he is doomed to external control and permanent degradation, described in the myths about the Fall and the Yugas, that extend over whole centuries, from the golden age to the lean years. In our view, man is a being prone to various self-zonking (drug addictions) and senseless destructive activity, slavery and mechanistic behaviour according to prescribed programs (tradition, religion, laws, education, etc.). There are huge amounts of evidence supporting this. For instance, is it possible for a community of intelligent beings to have as the most profitable business, drug trafficking and arms trade for killing its own kind? A great abundance of similar questions can be raised. A pretentious definition of Homo sapiens appeared only in the New Times. Earlier, man was considered rational creature only potentially, which is proved by the phenomenon of Mowgli. Erasmus of Rotterdam considered insanity to be an attribute of man. In general, human insanity is one of the perennial themes of philosophy. The genealogy of man is also a dark question. Which really is? Who is the ancestor of man?
40. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Tatiana Sidorova Bioethics as Practice of Normalization
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Practices of normalization were the subject of philosophical attention of M. Foucault. Normalization is the mechanism that turns knowledge into power. This idea can be used in bioethics to explain its regulatory content. Bioethics is multidimensional, and, therefore, has many definitions. Callahan highlighted the theoretical, clinical, normative and cultural Bioethics (Callahan 1995). In the normative and cultural Bioethics moral choice involves an ideological, social context. Foucault’s structuralist methodology pointed out the historical conditioning of epistemes, which become the basis for constructing the power relations in society. If the ideas of what is normal historically and culturally are relative, then how is the norm stated in Bioethics? The subject of bioethical debates can be understood as a question: what is considered normal in relation to life and death of a man, his nature? For the representatives of conservative Bioethics liberal position in an excuse of ‘abnormal’. A need for a child can be perceived in society either as a norm or deviation from norm depending on family type, method of reproduction, the concept of ‘own’ child, sex-role functions of male and female in gamete donation. After normalization of value in Bioethics proceeds its socialization. Social stability is an absolute value, therefore the norms that may conflict with individual choice, but help to preserve unity in the community are supported.