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21. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
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22. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Carlos Minguez Sobre el valor de las matemáticas: Juan Luis Vives y el Prefacio de Osiander
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This paper analyses some aspects in Osiander’s (1498-1552) “Preface” to De Revolutionibus (1543) by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1453) and the “Preface Letter” also by Copernicus to the Pope Paul III (1468-1549). The reading is carried out from the intellectual framework where the works are written, taking as a reference De Disciplinis (1531) by Juan Luis Vives (1492-1538), whose pedagogical thought had great influence on the 16th century. This paper points at the coincidence of attitudes as to the function of Mathematics, and therefore, of Astronomy, for both a purely probabilistic assessment of theastronomical hypotheses, and the overcoming of the instrumentality of the calculations by means of their practical use. This last channel, promoted by a sceptic academicism which was already present in the first half of the 16th century, contributes to a better understanding of the reality of the progressive acceptation of a new structure of the world. Vives has very frequently been talked of as the clear antecedent of the great masters of thought of the modern culture, but his style and the dynamics of his thought -totally Humanist- are very different from those of Copernicus and Osiander, and thus, this paper aims to analyse his cultural context and his reflections about himself.
23. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Dov M. Gabbay A General Theory of Structured Consequence Relations
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There are several areas in logic where the monotonicity of the consequence relation fails to hold. Roughly these are the traditional non-monotonic systems arising in Artificial Intelligence (such as defeasible logics, circumscription, defaults, ete), numerical non-monotonic systems (probabilistic systems, fuzzy logics, belief functions), resource logics (also called substructural logics such as relevance logic, linear logic, Lambek calculus), and the logic of theory change (also called belief revision, see Alchourron, Gärdenfors, Makinson [2224]). We are seeking a common axiomatic and semantical approach to the notion of consequence whieh can be specialised to any of the above areas. This paper introduces the notions of structured consequence relation, shift operators and structural connectives, and shows an intrinsic connection between the above areas.
24. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 10 > Issue: 3
John Corcoran Information Recovery Problems
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An information recovery problem is the problem of constructing a proposition containing the information dropped in going from a given premise to a given conclusion that folIows. The proposition(s) to beconstructed can be required to satisfy other conditions as well, e.g. being independent of the conclusion, or being “informationally unconnected” with the conclusion, or some other condition dictated by the context. This paper discusses various types of such problems, it presents techniques and principles useful in solving them, and it develops algorithmic methods for certain classes of such problems. The results are then applied to classical number theory, in particular, to questions concerning possible refinements of the 1931 Gödel Axiom Set, e.g. whether any of its axioms can be analyzed into “informational atoms”. Two propositions are “informationally unconnected” [with each other] if no informative (nontautological) consequence of one also follows from the other. A proposition is an “informational atom” if it is informative but no information can be dropped from it without rendering it uninformative (tautological). Presentation, employment, and investigation of these two new concepts are prominent features of this paper.
25. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 10 > Issue: 3
Víctor Sanchez de Zavala Towards a less simple but sounder (psychologieal) Pragmatics III
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Before processual analyses of the activities of Iinguistic emission and reception are performed, a modicum of elaboration of the notions and technical devices previously suggested is necessary. First, theoretical resources previously developed are revised in two different fashions: some require to be elaborated in higher detail, while in other cases what is needed is to remove, at least in part, some restrictions initially laid down for simplification purposes. Then some notional clarifications and new specific distinctions a.nd notions are suggested for the study of emission, since the fact that this kind of linguistic performance is all but ignored in traditional (psychological) Pragmatics calls for an attempt to dispel some confusions originating in such a virtual neglect, and, on the other hand, for creation of a suitable array of such theoretical tools.
26. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 10 > Issue: 3
Víctor Sanchez de Zavala In memoriam Miguel Sánchez-Mazas
27. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 10 > Issue: 3
Boletín de suscripción
28. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
Víctor Sanchez de Zavala Towards a less simple but sounder (psychological) Pragmatics, & IV
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This final part of the essay begins by exploring some linguistic resources that organize the overall structure of utterances and longer stretches of discourse. Then specific study of emission is broached: after touching upon some further constraints and patterns of interpersonal behavior, the previously developed general sketch of (actionlike) activities’ inception is applied to several types of speech (soliloquy, full other-addressed speech and an intermediate type); the section ends with an assessment of results. Study of linguistic reception is prefaced by a general sketch of processes occurring in perception-like activities, which is then specified for Iinguistic reception; on this basis alternative preferential interpretations of an example are delved into. After an appraisal of results and perspectives and a section on general (mainly methodological) conclusions, the essay comes to a close with several Appendixes.
29. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
Rom Harré Rhetoric and Realism
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Does the deconstruction of scientific discourse and experimental procedures undercut realism? In this paper I want to argue that the revelation of the rhetorical character of science serves rather to support realism, since it is in the interests of the presentation of scientific writing as factual and of scientific experiments as disclosing or revealing reality that the various rhetorical devices are employed.
30. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
Eleonora Montuschi Metaphor in Social Science
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It is widely acknowledged that scientific discourse is full of metaphors. Does this undermine the commitment of such a discourse to truth and objective knowledge? Does this mean that the scientist (any scientist) is, after all, only a ‘rhetorician in disguise’?In what follows I will try to argue for quite the opposite view. I will show that metaphor is not simply a rhetorical device -at least, in the derogatory sense of rhetoric. There are metaphors which can be used to increment our knowledge, and to explore new conceptual domains. This appears to be the case not only for natural science, but also for the so-called ‘sciences of the social’.
31. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
Alistair C. Crombie Commitments and Styles of European Scientific Thinking
32. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
Javier Echeverria, Andoni Ibarra Presentation
33. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
Boletín de suscripción / Order Form
34. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
LIBROS RECIBIDOS / BOOKS RECEIVED
35. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 1
Ton Sales Logic of Assertions
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Logicians treat assertions as true, believed or merely hypothesized sentences. The reasoner who uses them, however, is the sole referee who can validate their truth, their aptness to describe an actual situation, their strength (as beliefs) or the relevance of their use in the current logical context. Moreover, the reasoner actively counts on these factors, as part of the reasoning process itself, and should normally be capable, when asked to do so, to assign consistently relative strengths to the assertions used. The paper assumes, first, that assertions have -each- an associated, measurable strength, and that, second, this strength has significant -and measurable- effects on the truth of the sentences, the validity of the conclusion and the soundness of the reasoning. The concepts and formulas required for this are explored, and a semantics and proof theory for a sentential calculus of assertions are proposed as a natural extension of ordinary two-valued reasoning. The resulting theory, though reminiscent of Probability,is autonomous, self-contained and of a purely logical nature.
36. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 2
Jon Perez Laraudogoitia New Difficulties with 'If..Then'. The Paradox of the Businessman
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A new problem about 'if...then...' is posed which is related to Curry's paradox much as the barber's paradox parallels Russell's paradox. However, it is not obvious how to solve it.
37. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 2
Julia Barragan A Type-Logic Approach to Refinement
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Beyond any doubt the pragmatical-based improvements introduced in the rules of inference during the process of refinement of a legal expert system may be efficient but they hardly will be capable to provide a point of reference for a more general correctness measure. During the refinement of KBSLEX the debate of the Theory of Legal Argument has contributed to illuminate the point suggesting that the modeling of legal reasoning and legal decision making should be grounded on a logical approach but without limiting itself to the tools of the classical logic.
38. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 2
Jesus Ezquerro, Mauricio Iza Knowledge Representation, Reflexive Reasoning and Discourse Processing
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Classical approaches such as frames, scripts,... have been unable to deal with the kind of inferences necessary in natural language processing situations such as text comprehension. Shastri & Ajjanagadde (1993), proposed a local connectionist model for the sort of reasoning requiring such a fast inference. The problem with this system is that it controls only the adequacy of argument- fillers, leaving untouched the activation control issue, namely, why we perform certain inferences, and not others, in a given situation. The aim of this paper is to examine how a focus, in the sense of Grosz (1981). could operate as a theoretic constraint with the above reasoner system to handle two aspects: inference control and anaphora resolution (i.e., antecedent activation), during text understanding.
39. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
AGENDA / NOTEBOOK
40. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Rohit Parikh Vague Predicates and Language Games
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Attempts to give a Logic or Semantics for vague predicates and to defuse the Sorites paradoxes have been largely a failure. We point out yet another problem with these predicates which has not been remarked on before,namely that different people do and must use these predicates in individually different ways. Thus even if there were a semantics for vague predicates, people would not be able to share it. To explain the occurrence nonetheless of these troublesome predicates in language, we propose a different approach based on asking the question, “How do these vague predicates help people to communicate with each other?” We show that in general, even though different people assign different extensions to vague predicates, they usually benefit from receiving information framed in terms of them.