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21. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Tetiana Matusevych Transitional Society: (Re)Evolution of Values
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This article examines the attributes of the existence and the transformation of values in transitional society (eclecticism). Also the possibilities and limits of the relativistic application of the concepts of revolution and evolution in defining the processes of transformation of values in a transitional society are discussed.
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22. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Vihren Bouzov Orcid-ID Security as a Political and Social Value
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Security can be defined as the process of support of a satisfactory control by the subject over harmful effects of the environment. In this aspect it is a political and social value of the same type as justice, democracy and freedom. Following the analysis of the existing conflicts in the world today, we conclude that the notion of security in its neoliberal interpretation has collapsed and it could be rejected and defended successfully only as a communitarian value.
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23. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Jean-François Gava Philosophy of History and Heterodox Marxism
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We would like here to contribute to lower the fracture between orthodox Marxism and heterodox Marxism, which means grosso modo: between historical materialism and the critique of value. There, of course, would be for the former a high price to pay, that of an important redefinition of the philosophy of history. But the latter also should recognize that a philosophy of history is an inseparable presupposition of Wertkritik, that one has long, among heterodox Marxists, thought capable of prancing autonomously from the former.
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24. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Pepa Petkova How to Build a Just Society: In the Defence of Communitarianism
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This paper analyses and critically compares three approaches to social and political values: utilitarianism, liberalism and communitarianism, which postulate different views on justice and on ways to make society better. We can establish a justified approach to the promotion of justice as a principal value of the collective life on the basis of public debates and democratic civic pressure: we can build a just society based on communitarian values such as solidarity, mutual aid and respect for the values and ideals of each community.
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25. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Liu Jingzhao The Theoretical and Practical Logics of Social Advancement Promoted by Ideological Innovation
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This paper claims that behind each social advancement in the history of human civilization, there has always been an ideological innovation, an “invisible hand.” If social advancement is promoted by the joint force of politics, economics, culture, life as well as the spiritual, ideological innovation will be the engine of the joint force. In the process where social advancement is promoted by ideological innovation, theoretical and practical logics come into being. These two logics have four implications: First, theoretical logic is a theoretical exploration which is based on rational thinking and aims at establishing a thinking paradigm. Practical logic is a series of trial-and-error experimental process which is based on practical rationality. Secondly, theoretical logic is oriented to human’s cognitive framework of the world, whereas practical logic to their social practices and their ways of life. Thirdly, theoretical logic is meant to explain the world, whereas practical logic to solve problems. Fourthly, theoretical logic starts from “what it ought to be …,” pointing out with the inherent logical strength of a theory the path that social advancement should follow and the result that will inevitably come about. Practical logic starts from “what the fact is …,” always relying on facts and oriented to existing problems.
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26. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Temisanren Ebijuwa Culture, Identity and Human Values in Africa
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Without glorifying any cultural standpoint I argue that the best model that accounts for the interests and aspirations of Africa cannot be that which promotes and emphasizes traditional ideas since such a model would be unnecessarily insular and prevent us from engaging the aspects of our cultures which are needed in coping with Africa’s challenges. I contend that this does not amount to an imposition of any form of metanarrative but rather to critically engage those forces that are detrimental to survival and social stability.
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27. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Bogdan Ivascu From Meaning of History to Meaning in History: Eric Voegelin’s Non-Ideological Philosophy of History
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The paper intends to examine Eric Voegelin’s philosophy of history, distinguishing its several stages. The main thesis of the paper is that Voegelin’s philosophy of history is atypical when compared to the famous representatives of the genus. For Voegelin “meaning of history” is a perverted, ideological concept, obscuring the real relationship between man and history because man cannot grasp its “meaning” from a vantage point. Voegelin attempts to provide history rather as a “web” endowed with a “noumenal depth,” rather than the linear, “historiogenetic” history, subdued to chronology. The main characteristic of history is no longer its chronological structure but its structure of an “experience of an encounter.”
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28. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Małgorzata Czarnocka, Emily Tajsin Values and Ideals. Theory and Praxis
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29. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Marshall Steven Lewis Experimental and Applied Religious Studies for Reducing Religious Intolerance
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If we wish to increase peace in the world, we must reduce religious intolerance. Potentially, the way we learn about religion and conceive religion can be a strategy toward this goal. How might we design and continually improve learning about religion if our intention is specifically to reduce religious intolerance? This requires experimentation to determine demonstrably effective solutions. In this paper, I briefly unpack the challenge at hand, describe an approach toward collaborative experimentation, and outline a set of mutually-supporting hypotheses with which to design solutions.
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30. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Robin S. Seelan SJ Humanizing and Dignifying Cultures: Dialogues with Religious Utopias
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Cultures can be divided into two kinds: exclusive and inclusive. Exclusive cultures are oppressed, vulnerable, and dehumanizing. Inclusive cultures are dignifying and humanizing, and they move towards the ideals of egalitarianism, prosperity, justice, etc. Religion, as part of culture, plays influential roles in the formation and promotion of ideals. This promotion can be located in religious utopias, because almost all religions hold utopias as central to their ideals and chart their ideologies towards these. In the context of exclusion and inclusion, the poor, the oppressed, the marginalized, the vulnerable etc. need to be included into the main stream of social life and this requires values such as liberation, justice, compassion, mercy, charity, etc. No authentic culture is possible without the inclusion of the poor. The awakening of such inclusion is offered by religious utopias. Hence dialogues between cultures and religious utopias and also between various religious utopias are essential. This paper seeks to understand how religious utopias can contribute to the dignifying and humanizing of cultures.
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31. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Konrad Waloszczyk On Three Philosophical Premises of Religious Tolerance
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My contention is to adumbrate three general premises leading to religious tolerance. The first is that emphasis should be laid much more on ethics than on metaphysics. Religions greatly differ in supernatural beliefs but all advocate justice, love, truthfulness, self-control and other virtues. Second, the beliefs about God are not true in their exact meaning, but rather as remote analogies to scientific truth. Religion is more resemblant of poetry than science. Third, real tolerance consists in the readiness to assimilate some of the values of other religions, since no one has expressed the transcendent in an exhausting and perfect way.
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32. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Manjulika Ghosh Autonomy of Art and Its Value
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The problem investigated in this paper is that of the value of art in terms of its autonomy. The value of art does not reside in the imitation of life nor does it consist in its representational function. This idea is as old as Plato. Art’s autonomy wherein we locate its value, is actually the autonomy of the artist. The artist is not merely free to choose his subject matter, he is also free to bring about the contrasts and the syntheses among the diverse constituents of the work in a particular medium. Artist’s function in this regard is one of problem-solving. To the aesthetic mind problem solving suggests finding for the line, arrangement of mass, colour, shape, etc., a support which passes through them and goes beyond itself to the less definable. If this autonomy of the artist is compromised, art becomes causally determined and is made to serve some ideological agenda.There are, indeed, great works of art which have inspired the human mind and enabled it to withstand unabashed inhumanity; in which man has taken refuge in suffering and death. It may promote inter-cultural understanding. Yet, the value of art is not to be judged by ends extraneous to it. It is not given antecedently nor is it an established property of things. The value of art is intrinsic to it unfolding the inexhaustibility of the aesthetic spirit.
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33. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
C. E. Emmer Burkean Beauty in the Service of Violence
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Examining the images of war displayed on front pages of the New York Times, David Shields makes the case that they ultimately glamorize military conflict. He anchors his case with an excerpt on the delight of the sublime from Edmund Burke’s aesthetic theory in A Philosophical Enquiry. By contrast, this essay considers violence and warfare using not the Burkean sublime, but instead the beautiful in Burke’s aesthetics, and argues that forming identities on the beautiful in the Burkean sense can ultimately shut down dialogue and feed the lust for violence and revenge.
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34. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Tatjana M. Shatunova Why Be Beautiful?
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The subject of the article is the problem of necessity of being beautiful. The beauty of the person is presented as a human value that can be achieved by the person herself/himself. Nevertheless, beautiful people are considered to be guilty of all sins. That is why beauty needs justification. The article provides a number of arguments to protect beauty. Creating beauty is—as it is shown—an anthropological task of the human being. Hence the main thesis of the paper is: We have to philosophize aesthetic virtues, and we are responsible for being beautiful.
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35. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Stefan-Sebastian Maftei The Elusive Sensus Communis of Nowadays Aesthetic Cosmopolitanism
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The theory of aesthetic cosmopolitanism is a part of a new trend in cultural sociology. In recent years, varieties of cosmopolitanism surfaced in cosmopolitanism theory, one such version IS the aesthetic cosmopolitanism. Inspired by the new cosmopolitanism theories, sociologists and philosophers translate the difference between normative cosmopolitanism and “lived” cosmopolitanism into the aesthetic realm, arguing that the aesthetic cosmopolitanism which can be found in the perceptual qualities brought to light by the contemporary artworks is a version of the lived cosmopolitanism accepted by cultural sociology today. Our study will try to shed light on the elusiveness of the notion of sensus communis which lies at the heart of contemporary aesthetic cosmopolitanism.
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36. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Tetiana Gardashuk Bioart as a Dialogue
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Three definitions of bioart are analyzed in the paper: bioart—as a part of science art, as the creation of some new exciting artworks, and/or as the visualization of certain stages of biomedical and life science research. Bioart is an in vivo practice which produces “living artworks” and creates a new reality. It represents the dialogue between art, science and technology and between academic and amateur science. It promotes the dialogue aimed at rethinking the phenomenon of life. It blurs the boundaries between natural and artificial and the limits of human manipulations with the fundamentals of life.
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37. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Ilektra Stampoulou Re-framing the Abyss: the Visual Writing
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In this paper I intend to discuss some notions encountered in Jacques Derrida’s The Truth in Painting (1978) immediately linked to the manner in which the art object is understood and addressed, its limits, what it does/does not include/exclude, what it touches upon—if we can use such formalist terms in a deconstructive framework. These notions have perhaps formed in the past decades the art object, even though there is no frequent reference of Derridean deconstruction in texts regarding art.3 The ones I will mostly refer to are the parergon, the frame and the abyss. I intend to support that Derrida has not just doubted the limits between ergon and parergon but has also illustrated in an almost painterly manner the abyss and the parergon, thus reframing fields of aesthetics, philosophically and visually.
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38. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Elçin Marasli Orange Alternative at the Convergence of Play, Performance and Agency
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By observing the mediating role of Pomarańczowa Alternatywa (Orange Alternative), the Polish artistic-activist formation of the 80s and 90s, this paper aims to determine the properties, values and ideals that make a piece of art a public act that can engage people from different social groups in play, and can allow them to reveal their self-determining agency in light of social change. Within the system of varying degrees of social permission, art should allow for the transition from the realm of the “unofficial” to the realm of the “forbidden,” and should facilitate a transformation from the realm of thought to the realm of action. Art introduces an element of play into the sphere of collective behavior, and is a bridge over dichotomous social and political forces
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39. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Vladimir Przhilenskiy Theoretical and Post-Theoretical Philosophy
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An important revolution in modern philosophy consists in postulating that philosophy does not cognize the world, but is able only to study thinking, or, which in this context is the same, to cognize knowledge. This thesis has allowed reorganizing the pattern of interaction between philosophers and the representatives of special sciences. Ancient philosophers created general theories of the world by basing on the principles “revealed by the power of the mind” and then entrusted it as an intellectual weapon to other intellectuals. Nowadays philosophers develop theories of knowledge; transmit the methods built on their basis to the special sciences, and wait for the results of its application. It is assumed that the theories of the animate and inanimate nature, of the humans and society, constructed by using the scientific method, could be generalized, and only on this basis an ontology, i.e. a philosophical theory of being, can be built. Then philosophers must be re-engaged in performing generalization and reflection, which replaces speculation. But today, philosophy is neither speculation nor reflection. Philosophy seems to become “post-theoretical thinking,” which determines the boundaries of a theory, and articulates the use of theoretical knowledge in a variety of intellectual and social practices.
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40. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 3
Martha C. Beck Neuroscience, Ancient Wisdom and the ISUD: Is There Anything New under the Sun?
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This paper links the claims of neuroscientist Antonio Damasio to the civilization of the Ancient Greeks. Although Damasio’s book, Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow and the Feeling Brain, makes the argument for the connection between Spinoza and neuroscience, he says that he prefers Aristotle’s model of human flourishing, but he does not describe Aristotle’s model. I explain Aristotle’s model and connect neuroscience to Aristotle and to the educational system underlying Greek mythology, Hesiod, Homer, tragedy and other aspects of Greek culture, including the role of the arts, religious rituals and the institutions of Greek democracy.
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