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21. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Kelly C. Strong, G. Dale Meyer An Expioratory Analysis of Differences in Perception of Philanthropic Responsibility Between CEOs and Other Managers
22. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jean Pasquero Trends in international corporate philanthropy
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The interes for Corporate Philanthropy as a form of social involvement is growing around the world. An analysis of available data for a number of countries shows definite common trends despite the widely different social political national contexts. It also shows major differences in the types of corporate philanthropy being practiced. Trends indicate that corporate plilanthropy may be heading for a substantial change in essence, which may raise various difficulties wiih the concept and its operation in Ihe future.
23. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Judith K. Thompson, Howard L. Smith Charitable Contributions By Small Businesses: An Exploratory Study
24. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Wallace W. Davidson III, Dan L. Worrell Product and Recall Announcements, Shareholder Wealth, and the Agency Theory of the Firm
25. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Karen Paul, Steven D. Lydenberg Corporate Social Monitoring: Types, Methods, and Goals
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Corporate social monitoring has evolved in the past twenty years. This paper discusses several types of monitoring currently practiced, the methods used in various approaches, and the goals of social monitoring.Public auditing is done for the benefit of external constituencies, with the results often being used to guide action aimed at influencing the corporation from the outside, through consumer, investor, or possibly government action. Private auditing is done by corporations themselves to enable them to make internal adjustments in areas perceived as being of high potential significance.Corporate social monitoring may be relative or absolute. Relative scales evaluate corporations on the basis of their performance with respect to other corporations, as with the Sullivan Principles, and may differentiate by various-gradations, again exemplified by the Sullivan scale. Absolute measures include awards naming companies as outstanding in some area of social performance, or as a member of a group having some desired characteristic, as with the listing that comprises "America's 100 Best Companies to Work For."Methodological issues include the following: focus on a single dimension or focus on multiple dimensions; the extent of independence or dependence of auditors on company or industry sources; and the degree of advocacy or neutrality presented by auditing personnel.Goals of corporate social monitoring aim at influencing action, sometimes promoted from within the corporation itself but often in response to external constituencies, especially investors and consumers. The general impact of corporate social monitoring is that moral sanctions may be applied in a systematic and publicly visible way to companies on the basis of ethical considerations that have not yet become formalized in law.Corporate social monitoring acts to supplement legal and regulatory systems. Social monitoring has the potential of being applied when political circumstances make legal standards difficult to enact, as in issues of international significance. This type of monitoring can give voice to organized groups which may be relatively small in numbers but have specifically defined pragmatic or ideological concerns, and may serve to institutionalize and legitimate emerging social issues.
26. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Sara A. Morris, Kathleen A. Rehbein, Jamshid C. Hosseini, Robert L. Armacost Building a Current Profile of Socially Responsive Firms
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CEOs of U.S. manufacturing firms were surveyed with regard to various social response mechanisms. The sample was designed to include privately-held as well as publicly-held firms. Discriminant analysis was used to profile socially responsive firms based on their size, social exposure, long-term profitability, form of ownership, and the career path of the CEO. Long-term profitability and size were important discriminators across models, and high social exposure was a predictor of the existence of a public affairs office.
27. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Carol K. Jacobson The Impact of Changes in Health Policy on the Market Performance of Firms in the Health Care Industry
28. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Dean Ludwig, Clinton Longenecker The Bathsheba Syndrome: The Ethical Failure of Successful Leaders
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Reports of ethical violations by upper level managers continue to multiply despite increasing attention being given to ethics by firms and business schools. Much of the discussion of these violations focuses on the competitive pressures which these leaders/managers face. Much of the aliention by firms and business schools focuses on the training of managers to make ethical choices in the face of these competitive pressures. While valuable, this "competitive pressure" analysts is incomplete.This paper suggests that many ethical violations by upper managers are the by-product of success—not of competitive pressures. Our research suggests that many managers are poorly prepared to deal with success. First, success often allows managers to become complacent and to lose focus, diverting attention to things other than the management of their business. Second, success, whether personal or organizational, often leads to privileged access to information, people or objects. Third, with success usually comes increasingly unrestrained control of organizational resources. And fourth, success can inflate a manager's belief in his or her personal ability to manipulate outcomes. Even individuals with a highly developed moral sense can be challenged (tempted?) by the "opportunities" resulting from the convergence of these dynamics. We label the inability to cope with and respond to the by-products of success "the Bathsheba Syndrome," based on the account of the good King David (a story familiar in a variety of traditions). Recognition of this phenomenon implies that we change or broaden our approach io the teaching of business ethics. It also implies that organizations must reevaluate and change structures, procedures, and practices which enhance the likelihood of managers falling victim to the Bathsheba Syndrome.In our research of the Bathsheba Syndrome we have identified critical ethical situations and patterns that leaders/managers must be well equipped lo deal with on the path to success. Our discussion will focus on helping both researcher and practitioner to better deal with the ethical perils of success.
29. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
John E. Fleming Managing Business Ethics
30. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
James W. Evans Defining Business Ethics: Gender Differences of Fortune 500 Executives
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This paper presents the responses of a random sample of Fortune 500 executives to an open-ended survey examining gender differences of business ethics and basic beliefs. 854 questionnaires were returned out of 866 distributed for a 68% return rate. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Results show gender differences with sales egoistic, and females altruistic. It is postulated that these differences are linked to underlying ideologies with males believing in a Lockean. individualistic model and females a Rousseauian, communitarian model. These two ideologies would approximate Martin and Lodge's (1975) ideological constructs.
31. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Edward Shafer Overcoming Conflicts Between Strategic and Ethics Models
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In the field of Business Ethics there is a common belief that ethical conflicts can be resolved within existing organizational and ethical frameworks, i.e., that these frameworks are or can be made compatible. This paper suggests that fundamental differences between strategic and ethics models render them incompatible.Strategic models are outcome oriented. Ethics models focus on means. Other critical differences exist. Many ethics models are inconsistent with each other, making it difficult to find a common ground for use with strategy . Ethics models are normative, static and seek universal behavior; strategic models are situational and adaptive. This difference is particularly critical in light of the rapid changes in technology, the increasing globalization of business and the merger and acquisition trend of recent years. Perhaps the most critical difference is that ethics models rarely measure results in financial terms whereas strategic models almost always do so.These differences are examined in support of the view that the current strategic and ethics models are irreconcilable. Suggestions are offered for developing new models which recognize the differences and seek to reconcile them.
32. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Patricia C. Kelley, Bradley R. Agle The Past as a Predictor of the Future: Political Action Committees' Solicitation Techniques
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Since 1971, approximalely 1800 corporate Political Action Committees (PACs) have been establishad by businesses in the United Stales (FEC Record, 1989). Since this time, techniques to solicit contributions by companies have developed which have enhanced the fund generating capabilities of PACs. Based on field research conducted during the summer of 1989, this paper isolates the factors contributing to the effectiveness of a company's solicitation activities. From these findings, future management trends for the 1990's in this area are extrapolated.
33. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Kelly C. Strong Employment Rights: A Lockean Perspective
34. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
A. James Granito An Adjunct Judicial System: Design and Cost
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This is a conceptual paper. It does not attempt to cover the possible legislative or constitutional impediments to implementation. It does not even suggest that it should be implemented. Yet it is not simply a statement of frustration. It is a proffer. Here is the design of a structure— complete in outline, but lacking in details and testing. Almost naive in its willingness to remold major institutions, it is neither humble nor proud in adherence to "indefatigable idealism."
35. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Eugene Szwajkowski Accounting for Organizational Misconduct
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Organizational misconduct (white collar, corporate and occupational crime, unethical behavior, rule violations, etc.) is an increasingly important social concern. This paper proposes that a necessary step toward preventing and treating such misconduct is the understanding of the explanations, called accounts, given by the actor. We argue that the theorizing and findings in the literature on accounts can be organized into a 2x2 matrix framework.The first dimension centers on whether or not the actor admits that some net harm is done by the act , and the second consists of whether or not the actor admits responsibility. When both are admitted (cell 1), the account is a concession, while denial of both constitutes a refusal (cell 4). Admitting responsibility but not harm equates to a justification (cell 2), and the opposite condition is an excuse (cell 3). Building on this matrix, we specify a typology of explanations with in each cell which will highlight inter-cell differences. Finally, we explore the implications of this analysis for managers, regulators, and the public.
36. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Charles W. L. Hill An Empirical Examination of the Determinants of OSHA Violations
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It has been argued that a firm's propensity to violate federal laws and regulations is related to firm size, diversity, financial pressures, and decentralization (Clinard & Yeager, 1980). The current paper tests these propositions using OSHA data. The findings offer at best only weak support for some of these propositions, while strongly suggesting that most are invalid.
37. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jeanne M. Logsdon Responses to Early Discovery of Groundwater Chemical Contamination
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This study compares the responses of five high technology firms that initially discovered groundwater chemical contanination in Silicon Valley in the early 1980s. The contamination was caused by leaks fron underground chemical storage tanks. These discoveries preceded regulations, and firms had to decide how to address the issue voluntarily. After public disclosure in 1982, regulatory oversight brought requirements to which these firms had to respond. This paper describes actions taken before and after public disclosure to assess how consistently firms exhibit patterns of response to evolving social issues.
38. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Linda Klebe Trevino, Bart Victor Peer Management: A Model and Investigation
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One of the principal functions of magement is to control employee behavior. However, control through direct supervision can be difficult and costly. This paper presents theory and evidence to suggest that the employee control function may be shared by coworkers through the specification of a peer managenent role. The model suggests that peer management is more likely to be accepted and to occur under two conditions: 1) when a group member's misconduct threatens the group's interests and 2) when the group adopts the resort to extra-group control as part of its identity. Two scenario studies were conducted to test the study hypotheses, one in an academic cheating context and the other representing a fast-food employee theft situation. The results generally supported the hypotheses, which somewhat different findings in the two contexts. Group identity evidenced the greatest influence in the academic cheating context, while group interests were more influential in the fast food theft context. Explanations are provided for the differential results, along with implications for management and future research.
39. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Douglas Nigh Exploring the International Dimension of Business and Society: Research, Teaching, and Professional Development
40. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jean Pasquero "The International Dimension of Business and Society": Notes for a panel organized by Doug Nigh (USC)