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21. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Kelly C. Strong, G. Dale Meyer An Expioratory Analysis of Differences in Perception of Philanthropic Responsibility Between CEOs and Other Managers
22. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jean Pasquero Trends in international corporate philanthropy
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The interes for Corporate Philanthropy as a form of social involvement is growing around the world. An analysis of available data for a number of countries shows definite common trends despite the widely different social political national contexts. It also shows major differences in the types of corporate philanthropy being practiced. Trends indicate that corporate plilanthropy may be heading for a substantial change in essence, which may raise various difficulties wiih the concept and its operation in Ihe future.
23. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Judith K. Thompson, Howard L. Smith Charitable Contributions By Small Businesses: An Exploratory Study
24. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Wallace W. Davidson III, Dan L. Worrell Product and Recall Announcements, Shareholder Wealth, and the Agency Theory of the Firm
25. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Karen Paul, Steven D. Lydenberg Corporate Social Monitoring: Types, Methods, and Goals
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Corporate social monitoring has evolved in the past twenty years. This paper discusses several types of monitoring currently practiced, the methods used in various approaches, and the goals of social monitoring.Public auditing is done for the benefit of external constituencies, with the results often being used to guide action aimed at influencing the corporation from the outside, through consumer, investor, or possibly government action. Private auditing is done by corporations themselves to enable them to make internal adjustments in areas perceived as being of high potential significance.Corporate social monitoring may be relative or absolute. Relative scales evaluate corporations on the basis of their performance with respect to other corporations, as with the Sullivan Principles, and may differentiate by various-gradations, again exemplified by the Sullivan scale. Absolute measures include awards naming companies as outstanding in some area of social performance, or as a member of a group having some desired characteristic, as with the listing that comprises "America's 100 Best Companies to Work For."Methodological issues include the following: focus on a single dimension or focus on multiple dimensions; the extent of independence or dependence of auditors on company or industry sources; and the degree of advocacy or neutrality presented by auditing personnel.Goals of corporate social monitoring aim at influencing action, sometimes promoted from within the corporation itself but often in response to external constituencies, especially investors and consumers. The general impact of corporate social monitoring is that moral sanctions may be applied in a systematic and publicly visible way to companies on the basis of ethical considerations that have not yet become formalized in law.Corporate social monitoring acts to supplement legal and regulatory systems. Social monitoring has the potential of being applied when political circumstances make legal standards difficult to enact, as in issues of international significance. This type of monitoring can give voice to organized groups which may be relatively small in numbers but have specifically defined pragmatic or ideological concerns, and may serve to institutionalize and legitimate emerging social issues.
26. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Sara A. Morris, Kathleen A. Rehbein, Jamshid C. Hosseini, Robert L. Armacost Building a Current Profile of Socially Responsive Firms
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CEOs of U.S. manufacturing firms were surveyed with regard to various social response mechanisms. The sample was designed to include privately-held as well as publicly-held firms. Discriminant analysis was used to profile socially responsive firms based on their size, social exposure, long-term profitability, form of ownership, and the career path of the CEO. Long-term profitability and size were important discriminators across models, and high social exposure was a predictor of the existence of a public affairs office.
27. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Carol K. Jacobson The Impact of Changes in Health Policy on the Market Performance of Firms in the Health Care Industry
28. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Dean Ludwig, Clinton Longenecker The Bathsheba Syndrome: The Ethical Failure of Successful Leaders
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Reports of ethical violations by upper level managers continue to multiply despite increasing attention being given to ethics by firms and business schools. Much of the discussion of these violations focuses on the competitive pressures which these leaders/managers face. Much of the aliention by firms and business schools focuses on the training of managers to make ethical choices in the face of these competitive pressures. While valuable, this "competitive pressure" analysts is incomplete.This paper suggests that many ethical violations by upper managers are the by-product of success—not of competitive pressures. Our research suggests that many managers are poorly prepared to deal with success. First, success often allows managers to become complacent and to lose focus, diverting attention to things other than the management of their business. Second, success, whether personal or organizational, often leads to privileged access to information, people or objects. Third, with success usually comes increasingly unrestrained control of organizational resources. And fourth, success can inflate a manager's belief in his or her personal ability to manipulate outcomes. Even individuals with a highly developed moral sense can be challenged (tempted?) by the "opportunities" resulting from the convergence of these dynamics. We label the inability to cope with and respond to the by-products of success "the Bathsheba Syndrome," based on the account of the good King David (a story familiar in a variety of traditions). Recognition of this phenomenon implies that we change or broaden our approach io the teaching of business ethics. It also implies that organizations must reevaluate and change structures, procedures, and practices which enhance the likelihood of managers falling victim to the Bathsheba Syndrome.In our research of the Bathsheba Syndrome we have identified critical ethical situations and patterns that leaders/managers must be well equipped lo deal with on the path to success. Our discussion will focus on helping both researcher and practitioner to better deal with the ethical perils of success.
29. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
John E. Fleming Managing Business Ethics
30. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
James W. Evans Defining Business Ethics: Gender Differences of Fortune 500 Executives
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This paper presents the responses of a random sample of Fortune 500 executives to an open-ended survey examining gender differences of business ethics and basic beliefs. 854 questionnaires were returned out of 866 distributed for a 68% return rate. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Results show gender differences with sales egoistic, and females altruistic. It is postulated that these differences are linked to underlying ideologies with males believing in a Lockean. individualistic model and females a Rousseauian, communitarian model. These two ideologies would approximate Martin and Lodge's (1975) ideological constructs.