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21. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Laura Radulian Marketing of Harmful Products
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The paper focuses on the rapidly evolving concept of “harmful products” and its connection with marketing practices. It examines (a) products generally recognized as harmful, and (b) innocuous products that are sometimes (unintentionally) transformed into harmful ones by marketing activities. We indicate how the effects of these activities depend on individual perceptions as well as the norms of social and business ethics. We advocate the creation of marketing codes of ethics for particular product categories, as well as the dissemination of product information that can link the ethical codes with individual values. We illustrate these concepts with a case study of the fragrance industry and olfactory marketing.
22. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Vivien T. Supangco Exploring Organizational Determinants and Consequences of Contingent Employment in the Phillipines
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This study looks into the factors that foster the use of contingent employment in the Philippines, and its consequences. It also explores the relationship between corporate social performance and the nature of contingent employment. Results indicate an inverse relationship between levels of social performance and utilization of contingent employment. There is a direct relationship between the size and intensity of utilization of temporary employees and the combined effects of unionization and total employment size. Publicly listed companies exhibit higher utilization of temporary employees. However, factors that foster the use of project employees need tobe explored further. Benefits are influenced by the intensity of utilization of contingent employees. Formalization of the use of contingent employees tends to blur the difference between casual and regular employees. The use of subcontracting positively influences the number of benefits provided and diminishes the differential benefits between regular and project employees. Unionization, however, tends to increase the differential benefits between regular employees and project employees.
23. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Preface
24. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Asolo Adeyeye Adewole Corporate Social Responsibility, Self-Regulation, and the Problems of Unethical Business Practices in Africa: A Case for the Establishment of a United Nations Global Business Regulatory Agency
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The paper examines the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) against the backdrop of its self-regulatory posture. Using the African experience as a case study, the paper observes that the activities of multinationals show very clearly that they are grossly irresponsible despite their professed self-regulation. Instead, the multinationals have created an image of terror due to their deep-rooted involvements in human rights abuses, environmental degradation, tax evasion, bribery, market manipulation, and other forms of unethical practices, notwithstanding their so-called self-regulation. The paper concludes by advocating the establishment of a broad-based United Nations Global Business Regulatory Agency to fully take charge of corporate regulation in the global business terrain.
25. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Rama B. Rao Good Corporate Governance Initiative to Ensure Corporate Social Responsibility: A Study of the State of the Art in Rwanda
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Rwanda is recovering from the trauma of the 1994 war and genocide but continues to have a weak corporate and industrial infrastructure. Against this background, the present study was undertaken with the aim of tracing to what extent Rwandan enterprises are geared for the fulfillment of social responsibility within a strained socioeconomic milieu. The objectives of the study are to review the concept of corporate governance and its relation to corporate social responsibility (CSR), to describe the current state of corporate governance in Rwanda, to establish the relationship between corporate governance and CSR and standard ethical practice, and to suggest solutions for problems encountered in the system.
26. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Junwei Shi, Haiyan Fu, Lijun Hu Social Responsibility, Social Capital, and Corporate Competitive Advantage in Transitional China
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In this paper, we analyze the impact of interaction between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social capital on corporate competitiveadvantage in a transitional context. Using survey data of Chinese companies, we examine the theoretical relationship empirically. Results show that CSR has no direct association with corporate financial performance or organizational reputation. However, corporate social capital can very much magnify the impact of CSR in a transitional context. Specifically, the social responsibility of a firm with higher social capital is more positively related to organizational reputation than that of a firm with lower social capital, and this expands the theory of CSR. We present the strategic implication that the interaction between CSR and social capital improves corporate sustainable advantage.
27. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Douglas K. Peterson Partner Selection for Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts: The Case of Choosing NGO Partners
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The objective of this paper is to suggest types of analysis that can help managers effectively choose NGO partners that help them meet their international corporate sustainability and social responsibility goals. NGO partner choices should offer a good fit to corporate goals/objectives and create opportunities to reap the benefits of social responsibility and sustainability efforts, which include public image, environmental protection, customer and stakeholder satisfaction, employee morale, and (most importantly) the completion of work that serves a social responsibility or sustainability goal. Examples of this type of goal include providing income generation activities for persons with HIV/AIDS, and educational opportunities for people who would not normally get them. The paper exploresthree lenses through which partner choice may be viewed: agency theory, transaction cost economics, and resource dependency. Areas for further exploration are suggested, and a comprehensive research agenda/model is discussed.
28. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Eric Palmer Corporate Responsibility and Freedom
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Milton Friedman’s famous comment on Corporate Social Responsibility is that “there is one and only one social responsibility of business—to use its resources and engage in activities to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game.” I reply to Friedman, Michael Jensen, and others, in argument that accepts their implicit premise—that business can be a virtuous mechanism of free society—but that denies their delimitation of responsibility. The reply hinges upon precisely the virtue of “freedom” these authors clearly consider intrinsically valuable. In the extreme case where maximizing profits would place government underthreat, such activity will not coincide with maximizing social value and would undermine the freedoms these authors claim to value. Responsibilities will also apply in less extreme cases, if we develop Amartya Sen’s argument showing that, “we have to see individual freedom as a social commitment.”
29. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Runa Sarkar Policy Approaches to Induce Corporate Social Responsibility in Public and Private-Sector Firms in Developing Countries
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) concerns the realm of business behavior in which the firm tries to effectively manage its business and non-market environment interface. Coerced CSR refers to taking socially responsible action in response to or in anticipation of retaliation in some form (boycott, adverse publicity, introduction of regulatory laws, etc.) from interest groups who are not directly part of the market to which the firm caters. In contrast, strategic CSR or altruistic CSR refers to socially responsible activities undertaken out of enlightened self-interest. The focus of this paper is to understand whether the impact of coercion is different for government-owned organizations and privately owned firms in developing countries. Activities that are in response to or in anticipationof threats by interest groups are identified and compared across publicly and privately owned firms, against the backdrop of weak enforcement of fairly stringent environmental regulation. We then generalize our observations and attempt to distinguish the intensity of pressures felt by public and privately owned firms and their speed of response. As a result of this understanding, we attempt to suggest specific policy mixes for various types of industry, depending on whether they are dominated by the public sector or private sector.
30. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Jeanne M. Logsdon, Harry J. Van Buren III National Styles of Corporate Social Responsibility: Exploring Macro Influences on Responsible Business Behavior
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While the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) suggests that its form and content differ at least somewhat from country to country, it has not begun to address whether CSR practices converge or diverge over time as countries benefit from higher levels of economic development, or whether these practices relate to specific cultural values and institutional structures. This paper proposes an initial conceptual model and propositions to begin to assess whether and how the different levels of economic development, cultural values, and institutional structures influence CSR behaviors. Mediating variables related to industry sector and executive moral development are also included in the model. The paper begins to lay the groundwork for empirical country and regional studies that cancontribute to a greater understanding of the factors that influence CSR behaviors.