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181. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Dan Lungu Translation and Dissemination in PostCommunist Romanian Literature
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Translation is a fundamental part of cultural dissemination. Based on an empirical qualitative research, the first part of this article presents the effects that thewave of translations after 2005, the first of utmost importance in the Romanian cultural environment, engaged in the local literary field, and in the second part there are brought into discussion some important intercultural barriers in translation and promotion of literature abroad, such as defining literature in a different way, new forms of censorship or problematic semiotic codes of literature of revolt.
182. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Dennis Ioffe The Cultural ‘Text of Behaviour’: The Moscow-Tartu School and the Religious Philosophy of Language
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This paper is focused on the major contributions of the two main schools of semiotic thought in Russia during the 20th century. It considers cultural mythologiesof behaviour as the focal point of the Moscow-Tartu school and then proceeds to the pre-semiotic school of Russian thought, which dealt with the philosophy of the (divine) Name(s). Both traditions are linked by a common preoccupation with the human sign-vehicles-cultural, artistic, literary and religious. Russian semiotics of culture (the author’s life & biography considered as a peculiar kind of a sign-text) and Russian religious philosophy of language (philosophy of the Name) are the most unique scholarly offerings to have originated within the Eastern-European tradition of semiotics.
183. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Ulani Yunus, Dominiq Tulasi Batik Semiotics as a Media of Communication in Java
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Batik industry, Indonesia’s traditional practice of dying cloth through wax resist methods, is considered an important source of intangible cultural heritage andprotected under UNESCO. The industry is very diverse and many different colors and motives are used. Research in this article focuses on Batik in Yogyakarta,Surakarta, Lasem, Tuban and Garut regions. This paper studies the connotative implications of Batik’s cultural significations that pass on from older to youngergenerations revealing the importance of visuality and touch in constructing meaning within certain cultures.
184. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Diego Busiol The Many Names of Hong Kong: Mapping Language, Silence and Culture in China
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Hong Kong is a peculiar case for the study of cultural practices. One of the most Westernized cities in Asia, Hong Kong is, to many people in China, one ofthe most ‘Chinese’ places in the country. Hong Kong’s no-place situation presents an interesting example of the tensions within and without cultural systems and their relations to language.
185. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 9 > Issue: 2
Ömer Naci Soykan On the Relationships between Syntax and Semantics with regard to the Turkish Language
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A belief commonly held in linguistics and philosophy is that semantics is defined by syntax. In this article, I will demonstrate that this does not hold true for Turkish. A fundamental syntactical rule builds around the successive order of words or speech units in a sentence. The order determines the meaning of the sentence, which in turn is rendered meaningless if the rule is not observed. In a given language, if a sentence retains meaning without this rule being applied, then the rule cannot be said to determine meaning. Turkish, with its mathematical structure, is one such language. In effect, the degree to which semantics is determined by syntax varies considerably from one language to the other. If meaning is constructed through dissimilar means in different languages, then it is not possible to talk about a single theory of meaningfulness valid for all languages. Each language is uniquely determined, and is a reflection of its proper cultural background. A theory of language must take into account this cultural framework. In this paper, I shall deal with a different way of constructing meaning whereby syntax does not determine semantics, and present the linguistic possibilities it gives rise to.
186. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Luis Cordeiro-Rodrigues South African Animal Legislation and Marxist Philosophy of Law
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Marxist Philosophy as an explanation of social reality has, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, been largely neglected. However, some philosophers have contended that it may still be relevant to explain today’s social reality. In this article, I wish to demonstrate precisely that Marxist philosophy can be relevant to understand social reality. To carry out this task, I show that Marxist philosophy of law can offer a sound explanation of Animal law in South Africa. My argument is that South African law is a superstructure that reinforces the power of the animal farming industry in South Africa. That is, the hidden purpose of the law is to benefit the industry. In order to argue for this, I present two sets of arguments. The first set argues that the law facilitates the functioning of the animal farming industry. In the second set of arguments I contend that the law socialises individuals into approving the methods of slaughtering by the animal farming industry.
187. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Leigh Duffy Action and Inaction in The Bhagavad Gita
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In this paper, I address the seeming tension found in The Bhagavad Gita in our duties as described in the practice of Karma yoga. The path of Karma yoga involves renunciation and yet we also have an obligation to act righteously. How are we to simultaneously choose a path of duty and let go of what our actions along that path produce? I will argue that the seeming tension is a result of a misunderstanding of renunciation or non-attachment as well as an incomplete view of the dualistic philosophy of yoga theory. I describe the two main paths of yoga that are emphasized in The Bhagavad Gita, Jnana yoga or the path of knowledge and Karma yoga or the path of action, and argue that it is necessary to understand Karma yoga in light of Jnana yoga and to apply Jnana yoga so that it‟s not an abstract school of thought, but a philosophy that can be applied to best live our lives.
188. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Vytis Valatka, Vaida Asakavičiūtė Ethical-cultural Maps of Classical Greek Philosophy: the Contradiction between Nature and Civilization in Ancient Cynicism
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This article restores the peculiar ethical-cultural cartography from the philosophical fragments of Ancient Greek Cynicism. Namely, the fragments of Anthistenes, Diogenes of Sinope, Crates, Dio Chrysostom as well as of the ancient historians of philosophy (Diogenes Laertius and Joanes Stobaeus) are mainly analyzed and interpreted. The methods of comparative analysis as well of rational resto-ration are applied in this article. The authors of the article concentrate on the main characteristics of the above mentioned cartography, that is, the contradiction between maps of nature and civili-zation. The article comes to the conclusion that the basis of this contradiction is the concept of the main value as well as virtue in the above mentioned cynicism, namely, natural radical temperance. According to ancient cynics, this virtue is absolutely incompatible with pleasure-driven civilization, as the latter annihilates the former. Therefore, cynics interpreted the whole territory of the world known at that time as divided between maps of nature and civilization that never overlap or even intersect. Moreover, according to ancient cynics, the territory covered by maps of civilization is considerably smaller than that enframed by the maps of nature. Moreover, the areas of nature are continuously being diminished, as civilization resolutely goes ahead. In such a situation that threatens survival of human nature the only possible way out is a return to the natural value of radical temperance. After cynics, the only effective strategy of achieving that challenging goal is askesis as excercises of temperance dedicated both to body and spirit. The authors of the article also give a certain SWOT analysis of the above mentioned cartography in the context of contemporary society. According to them, such a cartography possesses both strong and weak points. The main weak point is the contradiction itself between maps of culture and civilization. As a matter of fact, civilization does not annihilate the possibility of natural temperance, whereas a human being, according to his/her nature, is a creator of culture and civilization. On the other hand, the main positive aspect is an emphasis on virtue of temperance, which is actual, significant and relevant in any epoch, culture and civilization, and which is pretty much forgotten nowadays.
189. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Saman Rezaei, Kamyar Kobari, Ali Salami The Portrayal of Islam and Muslims in Western Media: A Critical Discourse Analysis
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With the realization of the promised global village, media, particularly online newspapers, play a significant role in delivering news to the world. However, such means of news circulation can propagate different ideologies in line with the dominant power. This, coupled with the emergence of so-called Islamic terrorist groups, has turned the focus largely on Islam and Muslims. This study attempts to shed light on the image of Islam being portrayed in Western societies through a Critical Discourse Analysis approach. To this end, a number of headlines about Islam or Muslims have been randomly culled from three leading newspapers in Western print media namely The Guardian, The Independent and The New York Times (2015). This study utilizes “ideological square” notion of Van Dijk characterized by “positive presentation” of selves and “negative presentation” of others alongside his socio-cognitive approach. Moreover, this study will take the linguistic discourses introduced by Van Leeuwen regarding “representing social actors and social practices” into consideration. The findings can be employed to unravel the mystery behind the concept of “Islamophobia” in Western societies. Besides, it can reveal how specific lexical items, as well as grammatical structures are being employed by Western media to distort the notion of impartiality.
190. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Sanja Ivic The Concept of European Values
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This inquiry investigates the concept of European values and cultural, philosophical, legal and political presuppositions on which the idea of European values is based. There are two approaches to the idea of European values. The first one is substantive approach (and includes philosophical, ethical, religious and ideological understanding of values). The substantive approach defines European values as based on the European heritage (ancient Greece and Rome, Christianity, Renaissance and humanism, Enlightenment and liberal traditions). This conception of European values is fixed. Another understanding of European values is represented by legal/political approach (that includes the definition of European values within European treatises, declarations, charters and other documents). Legal and political definition of European values includes: human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights. Most authors consider that only from this second level, from legal and political definition, general features of European values can be achieved, that is, universal rules of the game. This paper shows how these two different approaches can be integrated, relying on John Rawls's idea of overlapping consensus. It should be emphasized that the question of European values and European identity is still a topic of debate. There are different definitions and interpretations of these concepts, regardless of the legal definitions within the framework of European declarations and treaties. European identity (based on European values) is a polyphonic category, which cannot be founded on monolithic definitions. Otherwise, the entire continent would fall under the rule of one homogeneous culture.
191. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Tadd Ruetenik Victim Blaming and Victim-Blaming Shaming
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By considering various case studies drawn from contemporary culture, I propose the idea of victim-blaming shaming, which, like victim blaming, involves replicating injustice by focusing attention on the particular situation rather than the general problem. In cases of victim-blaming shaming, a person is criticized for in any way addressing a problem by addressing the victim. Victim-blaming not only involves an inconsistent ethic, but because of this inconsistency promotes that which it opposes. It responds to a social problem by directing attention to an individual within that problematic social situation.
192. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
I Wayan Mudra Image Brayut on The Creation of Ceramic Sculpture
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Men Brayut is one of the interesting stories of Balinese people since ancient times until present that acts as a source of inspiration in art. This study aimed creating and describing the ceramic sculptures inspired by the Men Brayut story. This research uses qualitative descriptive approach in which the researcher becomes the main instrument. Data collection by observation and documentation. This statue was made using SP Gustami's creation method namely exploration, improvisation and embodiment. The results show that the creation process of ceramic sculpture featuring Brayut image can be separated into two, they are the process of making the main character of Men Brayut and the process of making Brayut‟s children as an ornamental media that can show the image of Brayut on the sculpture. The creation this sculpture was started from the bottom using the combined technique of slab, pinching, and coil. Based on its function, the creation of this statue is functioned as the ornamentation and the practice as well as the ornamentation. This work implemented the green, blue and brown glazes with the combustion tempera-ture was 1200°C. Some of the created works were titled to Joy, Fatigue, Affection, and Affection 2.
193. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Eugenia Zaiţev Works of Art as Support for Axiological Memory
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Among the meritorious attempts to unravel the enigma of artistic creation are the views of Immanuel Kant and Arthur Schopenhauer. In the following, we want to emphasise an aspect that is less discussed in the specialised literature, namely the relation between memory and creation. We are talking about the authentic creation that Kant and Schopenhauer consider to be the one that carries in itself the Aesthetic Ideas. With minor differences, the concept, as well as the associated linguistic expression, come together in the work of both German philosophers. An authentic work of art is the work of genius and it has the role of transmitting Ideas. Thus, we will be able to observe “the secret” of a work of art – the Aesthetic Idea.
194. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Qingben Li, Jinghua Guo Grammatological Deconstruction of Linguistics: From Marx to Derrida
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Derrida considered himself Marx's successor in Spectres of Marx, as manifested in his grammatological deconstruction of linguistics. Proceeding from linguistics, Derrida questioned the traditional linguistics represented by Saussure, overturned the metaphysics based on linguistic signs, and thereby deconstructed logocentrism. In Derrida's view, logocentrism is the belief that there is an ultimate reality such as being, essence, truth and ideas, which actually doesn't exist and needs to be negated. In linguistics, logocentrism, or rather phonocentrism, maintains that speech alone conveys ideas smoothly while writing is a simple supplement. Contrary to this idea, Derrida argued that writing could also convey meanings just as speech according to social convention. This deconstruction of traditional linguistics by Derrida shows his adoption of Marxist theory and methodology as well as the significant linguistic influence of Marxist theory with its contemporary perspective.
195. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Iryna Melnychuk, Nadiya Fedchyshyn, Oleg Pylypyshyn, Anatolii Vykhrushch Philosophical and Cultural Aspects of Medical Profession: Philosophical and Conceptual Peculiarities
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The article analyzes the philosophical and cultural view of 'doctor’s professional culture' as a result of centuries-old practice of human relations, which is characterized by constancy and passed from generation to generation. Medicine is a complex system in which an important role is played by: philosophical outlook of a doctor, philosophical culture, ecological culture, moral culture, aesthetic culture, artistic culture. We have found that within the system “doctor-patient” the degree of cultural proximity becomes a factor that influences the health or life of a patient. Thus, the following factors are important here: 1) communication that suppresses a sick person; 2) the balance of cultural and intellectual levels; 3) the cultural environment of a patient which has much more powerful impact on a patient than the medical one.At the present stage, the interdependence of professional and humanitarian training of future specialists is predominant, as a highly skilled specialist can not but become a subject of philosophizing. We outlined the sphere where the doctors present a genre variety of philosophizing (philosophical novels, apologies, dialogues, diaries, aphorisms, confessions, essays, etc.). This tradition represents the original variations in the formation of future doctor’s communicative competences, which are formed in the process of medical students’ professional training.A survey conducted among medical students made it possible to establish their professional values, which are indicators of the formation of philosophical and culturological competence. It was found out that 92% of respondents believed that a doctor should demonstrate a high level of health culture (avoid drinking and smoking habits, etc.) 99% of respondents favoured a high level of personal qualities of a doctor which would allow methods and forms of medical practice to assert higher human ideals of truth, goodness and beauty that are the subject area of cultural studies and philosophy.
196. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 1
Soochul Kim, Kyung Han You The Affective Politics of Citizenship in Reality Television Programs Featuring North Korean Resettlers
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This study examines the dynamics of cultural politics in reality television shows featuring North Korean resettlers (NKR2) in South Korea. As existing studies focus on the role of media representation reproducing a dominant ideology for the resettlers, this paper focuses on the specific media rituals of NKR2 programs, which can be seen as a product of the neoliberalist localization process of the global media industry. In doing so, this paper demonstrates how NKR2 programs interrupt the current dynamics of emotions in regard to North Korean resettlers in South Korea. We argue that in shaping civic identity as an effect of the NKR2 show, cultural politics of citizenship in South Korea on North Korean resettlers serve the formation of relatively conservative and sexist civic identity.
197. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Nerijus Stasiulis Visual Communication in the Politico-Cultural Sphere
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The article reviews the developing studies of visuality with respect to their own focus on cultural and political fields in which visual communication unfolds. I found that that some of the academic interests related to visuality can be located within the broader or intersecting field of cultural and political studies and provide successful tools of analysing and describing the communicational interactions within local communities situated in broader contexts of mobility. Some light is shed on the visualisations of the current condition of the nation-state with respect to globalizing or Europeanising tendencies. Also, I discuss a more general impact of mobility and novel visualisations of the public and cultural sphere.
198. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Peina Zhuang Renewed Anthropocenic Body Narrative in The Anthropocene
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The participation of humanists, artists and social scientists has added much impetus to the study and story of the "anthropocene". Zhao Defa, the contemporary Chinese writer, is one of the pacesetters in this regard. His inspiration from the concept of the "anthropocene" transforms the body narrative in the novel The Anthropocene. This article argues that the changed triad of body narrative, or more specifically, the highly encoded bodily metaphors, the function of body in narrative and the relation between nature and body, succeeds in modelling a body charged with ballooning desires in the "anthropocene", which constitutes the humanity's the existential basis and the very cause of the "anthropocene", and if not hurdled, will bring fatal catastrophe to this planet.
199. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Carlo Alvaro The Incoherence of Moral Relativism
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This paper is a response to Park Seungbae’s article, “Defence of Cultural Relativism”. Some of the typical criticisms of moral relativism are the following: moral relativism is erroneously committed to the principle of tolerance, which is a universal principle; there are a number of objective moral rules; a moral relativist must admit that Hitler was right, which is absurd; a moral relativist must deny, in the face of evidence, that moral progress is possible; and, since every individual belongs to multiple cultures at once, the concept of moral relativism is vague. Park argues that such contentions do not affect moral relativism and that the moral relativist may respond that the value of tolerance, Hitler’s actions, and the concept of culture are themselves relative. In what follows, I show that Park’s adroit strategy is unsuccessful. Consequently, moral relativism is incoherent.
200. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Reena Cheruvalath Analysing the Concept of "Paradox" in the Liar Paradox Arguments
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This paper examines the concept of "paradox" in the Liar paradox. The paradox in the "Liar Paradox" arguments is created with the support of law of contradiction. Four arguments consist of different versions of the Liar paradox are analysed. The author explains the issues related to communication, beliefs and the principle of identity in the various arguments of the Liar paradox leading to inconsistencies. There are ambiguities in these arguments and if the ambiguities are removed, then there is no contradiction which constitutes the paradox. Thus, the "paradox" in the "Liar Paradox" arguments is questionable.