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161. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Harald Stelzer Climate Change Induced Risk Imposition – Challenging Sufficientarianism
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Climate change induced uncertainties put forward important challenges to normative theory, as we cannot say that we harm future generations directly, but rather impose risks of harms on them by our actions. In the paper I will take up this challenge by outlining a risk-averse interpretation of intergenerational sufficientarianism. I will show that even though such an approach seems promising it gives rise to different problems. As an example I will refer to the Climate Engineering technique of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI). Even though it seems realistic to assume due to the great uncertainties and the severe risks that a possible deployment of SAI would extend below the sufficiency threshold, we cannot exclude SAI as a possible legitimate option based on the permissibility of non-avoidable risk imposition, ‘worngless harmdoing‘, and distributive aspects of taking and imposing risks. This clearly indicates – or so I will argue – the need for developing a more complex account of a sufficientarian approach, one that allows the weighing of risks and to make trade-offs between losses and benefits.
162. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Manasvini M. Yogi We are What We Buy: Consumption and Morality
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Business and commerce take place in a defined framework, defined by unwritten rules. Within the business arena, normal ethics is suspended. The aim of philosophy for business is to understand the rules that define the business framework, in other words, to grasp from an ethical perspective how business is possible. But if normal ethics is suspended then what are the consequences? But how fair is the business game, really? On the face of it, producers and consumers have a very different view. The marketplace is not a level playing field, and the chief culprit is advertising. The dream is not extraneous to the product. It is part of the complete package. The treasure that is the collected works of Plato has added to the value of philosophy, not just through novel arguments or its addition to the storehouse of human knowledge but through the sheer seductive power of Plato’s storytelling. Living and breathing the atmosphere of the dialogues we become more, we become better, we are enhanced. But is that also true out there in the commercial marketplace, where we barter out love of material goods, succumb to the dreams that advertisers sell?
163. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Jinfen Yan Moral Authority in John Stuart Mill’s the Spirit of the Age
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This paper examines moral authority and its relation with worldly power through a study of the uses and meanings of spirit in John Stuart Mill’s the Spirit of the Age for the purpose of further exploration of the ways in which spirit transformed into and became central in Mill’s later philosophy. Here spirit plays an important role in shaping, motivating, and empowering the minds historical agents who effect change. Spirit as a category of analysis structured Mill’s thought and gave 19th century liberalism, religion and utili-tarianism a new kind of coherence and power. Mill’s substantive argument in the Spirit of the Age focuses on the two states of morality as moral influence and moral authority that are correspond to conditions of worldly power in the two states of ages. Spirit used here is a self or self-control power that organizes both personalities and societies, infusing both with purpose and will. Mill’s opinions in the Spirit of the Age are challenged by some as diametrically op-posite to some of his later ideas. I attempt to show that there is coherence con-sidering the relation between individuality, that the spirit of the age fostered, and moral authority.
164. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Yuan Yu On the ‘Le’ Thought of Wang Yang-ming
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Wang Yang-ming is the most prominent philosopher in Ming Dynasty. His system of Hsin Hsüeh (mind-study), which assembles the characteristics of his contemporary Neo-Confucianists, has rich connotations and a far-reaching influence. Le is a substantial part in the system. His philosophical dialectic blends with his hardship and ‘Le’, which is the further development of ‘Le’ from ancient Confucianists, and affected by his family’s inherence and is both the comprehension of sufferings and the concentration of his living wisdom. Wang Yang-ming said clearly that ‘Le’ is the noumenon of Hsin, thinking ‘Le’ is a natural state, which presents itself during living experiences as a reality. As a noumenon, it determines the state of ‘Le’ as a should-be existence. Thus, ‘Le’ is identical with noumenon, effect and spiritual realm, with the starting point of life, the pursuit of life and the final goal of life. These three dimensions is the basic theoretical frame to the study of ‘Le’. They are three dimensions in logic, but are homoousia in existence. ‘Le’ becomes the expression of Wang’s ideal state, which is the ultimate state with the experience of ‘Le’ as noumenon, ‘Le’ as effect.
165. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Olga Zubets Morality as Subjectness
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The paper is devoted to the philosophical understanding of morality which is essentially different from any other way of cognition of moral phenomena and is able to reconstruct morality as the subjectness. Human being lives in the world of absolute determination, but, at the same time, acts on one’s own behalf and takes responsibility for the action and for the whole world created by this action, both in the past and the future. The one overcomes her subjectiveness by reaffirming her subjectness — as I sweep away the importance and influence over my responsibility for the world, all of my subjective motives, intentions, abilities to cognize and understand the world in general, as well as every particular situation where an action takes place.
166. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Yuhua Yu The Moral Inquiry into the Lack of Corporate Social Responsibility
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The corporate social responsibilities (CSR) can neither be detached from the considerations of profit-making, nor only confined to that. Only if explained from an inner perspective of an enterprise, The CSR can be regarded as a moral one. The moral CSR means that an enterprise, having its ethical personality, is an ethical player in economic activities and also a player which fulfills social responsibilities. An enterprise’s ethical personality is incessantly and closely related with its economic activities, and represents the pursuit and manifestation of human nature herein. It is the ethical personality of the enterprise that keeps it sticking to the life principle and shared social responsibilities. The enterprise’s ethical personality can be built up only when it harmonizes its economic and social commitment and unifies its profit-oriented and ethical-personality-oriented activities.
167. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
M. Rakibuz Zaman Moral Skepticism: A Critical Note
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Skepticism is a recurrent theme in the philosopher’s concern about knowledge, be it knowledge of the external world, other minds, the past, values, God and after life. It touches everything that one claims to know, but in different ways and with different effects. Within the broad scheme of skepticism I wish, in the first section of the paper, to distinguish between epistemological skepticism and moral skepticism. In the second part I proceed by sketching out moral skepticism. In the third part, I discuss the case of skepticism, with a special reference to J. L. Mackie. I close this discussion referring to the widespread suspicion that moral skepticism would have a pernicious influence on society. Paraphrasing Dostoyevsky, one might declare “If there is no moral truth, then everything is permitted”. There is the fear that moral skepticism will lead to moral anarchy.
168. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Rosa Josefina Fantoni Ethical Challenges to Democracy
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Thought and ethical actions in contemporary society are marked by uncertainty and paradox. It delineates a complex web of thought and social action that cannot visualize a defined and constituted ethical horizon, but paradoxically, makes of the uncertainty an opportunity to recognize the non-ethical predetermination, and therefore reconstitute its configuration from responsibility. The debate and current events in the ethical-political relationship, requires us, before insisting on the conditions and situations we live in, to point out some keys to building an ethical agenda that supports minimum conditions of democracy. All this is about rethinking and building an ethics like an open strategy without a closure, to re-discover the principles hidden in culture, society and history. We need to rethink the ethical-political relationship from an approach that takes responsibility of situations and processes that asks about the conditions of a realization of democracy, not to reduce the analysis to justificatory descriptivism, but to rethink political practices in light of the multidimensionality of human problems and assume their destiny and future.
169. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Nigel Gibson Lived Experience and Fanonian Practices in South Africa
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Fanon’s ideas made their way across the Limpopo into apartheid South Africa in the late 1960s with US Black theology intellectuals like James Cone providing an important link between Fanon and the emergent Black Consciousness movement articulated by Steve Biko. Forty years after Biko’s articulation of Black Consciousness as a critique of the bad faith of white liberalism and his warning that a “new” South Africa could mask systematic inequality and dehumanization, a new turning point has arisen in post-apartheid South Africa marked by the terrible massacre of 34 African miners by the South African police. A Fanonian critique of post-apartheid South Africa is important. And yet it is also in the responses to the crises of contemporary South Africa and the liberation party’s social treason that the high point of the struggle that Fanonian practices can be recast. The maturity of our age means that a non-state directed politics based in what Fanon calls “the rationality of revolt,” which begins in the refusal to remain quiet and stay in place, can as be understood not simply voluntaristic but a movement emerging from and in reaction to in lived experience, understood socially. Thus rather than reducing Fanon to the past or a politics of the existential to intellectual self-reflection, perhaps we can take Fanon’s writings as interlocutions in which different historical moments and movements bring out new resonances and explicate new insights.
170. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Samuel Asuquo Ekanem Personal Responsibility and Social Development: Implication for Global Ethics
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Modernity and globalization are contemporary concepts that tend to promote individualism within the social context. This is largely due to the competitive nature of the present age. Several institutions such as the economic, political, legal and educational seem to be constructed on the basis of the individuals. This has placed a burden on the individual as to what he does, and it is on the basis of this that personal responsibility as an obligation to oneself becomes a rational discourse within the context of social development. This is anchored on the Platonic notion that society is man’s-writ-large. It is your individual duty to ensure your good character and behaviour irrespective of how you were brought up. When an individual accepts the fact that he is morally bound and responsible for his action(s), then such action(s) will be taken positively to bring about individual good deeds. When all the individuals in a given society act within the bounds of responsibility and with good conscience, the society will develop. This paper, posits that personal responsibility promotes social development where such responsibility is tainted with moral imperatives that constitute the social norm. This will be approached from the perspectives of existentialism and essencism.
171. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Samani Chaityaprajna Existential Phenomenology and Jainism with Special Reference to Svaparaprakāśakatva in Jaina Epistemology and Existential Phenomenology in Sartre’s Philosophy
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Whether in the field of metaphysics or in that of epistemology, Jaina thinkers outlined their views in a manner which can be seen to have parallels in thinking of modern and postmodern philosophers. Each particular line of thinking has its own peculiarities which make it somewhat unique. These peculiarities always constitute the points of disagreement between one view with the other. The present study is a trial to study two streams, i.e. Jainism and Sartre in the light of each other in terms of their similarities and differences regarding intentionality. After describing the concept of svaparaprakāśakatva (self and other revealing nature) of knowledge in Jainism and intentionality in Sartre’s philosophy and their analysis, of the major areas of differences and similarities between both the streams are speculated. The study concludes that Jaina philosophers have already broken new grounds in the field of epistemology through their conception of svaparaprakāśakatva long before Sartre; and further, despite of the basic underlying differences in concept of intentionality and Jain epistemology, the svaparaprakāśakatva can very well be shown to square with Sartres’s conception of positional and non-positional awareness.
172. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Maximilian Gregor Hepach Dasein as an Answer from Nothingness
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In Being and Time Heidegger analyses the structure of Dasein, making transparent how and what we are in the world. Yet Heidegger’s writing becomes increasingly vague the closer he comes to describing what Dasein actually is. It seems the possibility of authentic Being grounds in the state-of-mind of anxiety, confronting us with a meaningless world and making Dasein transparent to itself. In three grammatically ambiguous sentences Heidegger explains that we experience nothingness, yet not ‘total’ nothingness, in moments of anxiety. This short passage seems of utmost importance to me. I argue that only in experiencing nothingness are we able to lead an authentic and self-owned life, independent of interpretations of others. From this insight I turn to Bernhard Waldenfels’ work Phenomenology of the Alien, my idea being that experiencing nothingness is an alien experience par excellence. Waldenfels analyses how we answer to alien expiereinces, and what type of answers we can give. My thesis is that the possibitly of authentic Being lies in an answer from nothingness, which does not just repeat what has already been said but must give new answers.
173. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Nadezda Kasavina The Basic Character of Existential Experience
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The paper offers an insight into existential experience as a synthesis of the phenomenology of life situations and their conceptual structuring and understanding. Existential experience appears as a personal story of being, in the course of which a person clarifies the key values, as well as a form of reconciliation with existence, of continuous listening to life, of spiritual awakening, and overcoming anxiety. In the paper, the understanding of the existential experience as the phenomenon of individual existence and personal development is complemented by the socio-cultural context of its formation. The cultural-historical type of existential experience is taken as a combination of reified existential experiences. Existential experience, acquiring the linguistic and symbolic form in communication, becomes a socio-cultural phenomenon and is included into a cultural tradition due to its interpretation and practical following its behavioral patterns. Existential experience is also defined as an experience of the problematic existence; it covers the situations of conscious personal choice, which is inseparably connected with doubt. It is the experience of overcoming the spiritual dissatisfaction that changes the life world and personal attitude to oneself and represents an indicator of existential quest.
174. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Carl-Fredrick Korsnes Sandberg The Human Destiny of Being: A Critique of Jean-Paul Sartre’s Concept of Anxiety
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In this paper it is argued that Sartre’s concept of anxiety is both incomplete and invalid within his own philosophy and then useless as a theory, and it is compared with Kierkegaard’s philosophy of anxiety. Also, according to Sartre, life constantly consists of choices and therefore, to acknowledge our being is to recognize that we have the freedom to choose. These choices can be difficult to make, and can cause frustration. To equalize such frustration, however, with anxiety consequently equalizes anxiety with fear. It is further argued why a distinction between fear and anxiety is necessary at all and why Sartre’s notion of anxiety as simply the difficulty of making choices cannot be regarded as the state of anxiety. Later, connections to the religious, or metaphysical, aspects of this discussion is drawn, as one of Sartre’s points is that we are making choices on our own, separated from all divine power because we have realized the inexistence of any divinity. However, it is argued that first when one recognizes that one’s state of existence includes an aspect of life outside of one’s control – the human destiny of being – one can attain a pure consciousness of being, a base for anxiety.
175. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Adriana Varlan The Meaning of Death and Life in Emil Cioran
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What is Death? Or, I could ask about what do we feel when we think about it. Fear? Agony? Angst? Curiosity? Some kind of freedom? The hope to cross over into a world that our mind can’t even imagine? One of the Romanian philosophers that wrote about it with the intensity of a man tortured by it was Emil Cioran.
176. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Anuradha Sharma Violence as an Existential Phenomenon
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The issue of violence has been approached differently in various disciplines of social sciences. The ethical approach to the discourse of violence has often been ignored and thus need our attention. How the “body-subject” experiences the presence of violence as a ubiquitous phenomenon prevalent in the lived-world? I have made a distinction between grand narratives and small narratives1 within the discourse of violence in order to comprehend the operationality of violence in the inter-subjective world. My concern in this paper is that the various discourses of social sciences on violence have not dealt with this issue adequately. Violence has been understood so far by social sciences in terms of finding causes and consequences of the event of violence rather than as an experience that affects the intentionality of an individual. Violence needs to be looked at as a phenomenon rather than as an abstract concept. Violence is experienced by the subject in one’s everyday existence when one is engaged with the “commonsense world”. How an individual makes sense of the lived-world and one’s existence within the pre-given structures of the lived-world? The prominence has been given to the existential/ first person perspective of an individual as an experiencing self and also as an acting self. To have the wholistic picture of violence one not only has to look at the various structures of the lived-world but also at different relations that an individual share with the pre-given inter-subjective world.
177. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Marina F. Bykova On the Interpretation of Geist in Hegel
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The paper explores Hegel’s notion of Geist how it appears in his philosophical system. Critically analyzing a recently resurgent interpretation of Geist as a supernatural or divine principle determining the development of the system and guiding human civilization and history, the author shows its interpretive mistakes and shortcomings. Rejecting the divine interpretation of Hegel’s account of Geist as erroneous, the author provides a more accurate reading of the above concept which does justice to intended meaning of the term and also allows adequately understanding and appreciating Hegel’s insights into social philosophy, especially the importance he attached to universality and fundamental universal elements within his system. What Hegel designates “Geist” is our collective effort of a social being. Thus the exposition of self-development of Geist reveals the communal nature of humanity.
178. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Jeremiah Alberg Reading Kant: From Rousseau to Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason
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This paper extends Richard Velkely’s interpretation of the influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the philosophy of Immanuel Kant by examining it in the light of the concept of “scandal.” Kant himself saw the “scandal of ostensible contradiction of reason with itself” as what drove him to a critical examination of reason. My own research has shown that Rousseau’s system is rooted in scandal, so the task it to connect these two facts. First, the exact meaning and nature of scandal has to be determined through a close reading of Kant’s Remarks in the Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. Next, one must trace the connection between Kant’s reading of Rousseau and the problem that eventually becomes known as the antinomy of pure reason.
179. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Richard Feist Warfare and Ethics: Toward the Idea of War’s Influence on Philosophy
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I argue that warfare, typically seen as essentially and solely destructive, should be seen as essentially destructive, but accidentally creative. This view of war is then applied to the relationship between philosophy (ethics) and warfare. The argument is made that the nature of warfare has been an influence on philosophy. This argument is made by considering the Athenian experience in the conflict at Delium where Socrates is known to have taken part.
180. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Rodica Croitoru Platonic Idea and Transcendental Idea as Investigation and Opening to Life
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Thinking of the system of rational ideas as extensions of conceiving, Kant deemed as necessary to pay his respects to Plato, the first who mapped out the philosophical career of those instruments of rational investigation. From the view of his transcendental idealism, he appreciated two elements: the utilization of ideas as a cognitive instrument distinct from senses, as well as the involvement of the human reason in their operationalization. Kant does not attach himself to the supra-individual force represented by the prototypes of things, because every source of knowledge excepting human faculties is deemed as devoid of any real ground. In consequence, the human faculty of reason is the one which gave Kant the opportunity to conceive the ideas of reason as investigations through systematic reflection, but also as an opening to three philosophical disciplines, which means three life options; among them especially the last one, aiming at the express orientation of life towards the moral faith, is a character modeler.