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161. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
David Saiia Field research in sustainability: The Maquipucuna project
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This paper discusses a formulation of the sustainabihty concept as applied to a specific setting. This framework, inspired by the work of Bächtold and Berwert (1998), explores sustainability relationsbips and was initially presented at the Paris lABS meeting by Michalik, Saiia and Schmidt (1999). The author fiuther explores the implications for stakeholder identification and strategic management by applying this framework to a field situation at the Maquipucuna Cloud-forest reserve in Ecuador. When issues of sustainabihty are raised the concept of eco-efficiency or doing more with less quickly comes to mind (McDonough & Braungart, 1998). This paper suggests that simply pursuing eco-efficiency does not go far enough to address the underlying problems in modem corporate society and ultimately will not lead us to a sustainable future. A handicraft commercialization project in Ecuador is being pursued to assist communities surrounding the Maquipucuna Cloud-forest reserve in creating altemative sources of income with the objective of sustainabihty for the entire Maquipucuna ecosystem (including the human subsystem).
162. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Sanjay Sharma Differences in Regulatory Styles and Environmental Strategy in the Canadian and U.S. Energy Sectors
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On the one hand, the environmental management literature argues that firms will not adopt minimum environmental standards unless they are subject to stringent command-and-control regulations and that stringent regulations stimulate innovation. On the other hand, it is argued that command-and-control regulations stifle innovation and that flexible regulations encourage proactive environmental strategies that lead to competitive benefits for organizations. This study comparing the environmental strategies and competitiveness of the oil and gas firms in two different regulatory contexts- the command-and-control based U.S. environmental context and the flexible collaborative Canadian context- found no significant differences in the degree to which firms in the two countries were more or less proactive in their environmental strategies and the competitive impact of these strategies.
163. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
William P. Smith Examining the Shareholder Activism Process: The Case of Exxon and Global Warming
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Several religious investors are using shareholder acdvist strategies to protest ExxonMobil's critical position on the possibility of rising global temperatures. A review of the shareholder activism process ia provided, and the each side's quest for legitimacy is discussed
164. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Kelly C. Strong, Magdalen Mayer A Re-Examination of the German "Green Dot" Law: Lessons Leamed in Recyclate Markets
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The history of the German "green dot" recycling law is reviewed, including successes and refinements during the nine years since its introduction. The August 1998 amendment and the extension to industrial packaging have helped improve the efficiency and equity of the legislation. Although consumer behaviors have changed dramatically, free-rider issues remain problematic in the implementation of the law. Differences in industrial packaging markets have led to continued dialogue between German companies and the govemment.
165. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
John E. Mack, Frances M. Amatucci Determinants of Ethical Business Behavior in Russia: Values Emanating from Religion and Folklore
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This paper examines the role of religion and folklore as societal determinants of personal ethics and business ethical behavior in the new Russian economy. A historical overview of the Russian Orthodox Church describes the influence of religion on the Russian culture and mindset. Analysis of the role of folklore in Russian society and the major themes of popular Russian fairy tales shows moral values and themes similar to those in Westem countries. Further examination of values promulgated from communism and capitalism, as well as the interrelationships among the four factors is warranted.
166. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Bryan W. Husted, David B. Allen An Exploratory Study of Corporate Social Strategy in Argentina
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This paper reports the results of a survey that examines the corporate social responsibility projects of Argentine firms in order to first learn what is the nature of these projects and their management and second to study the relationship between corporate social strategy and the financial performance of Argentine firms. It finds that the management of social responsibility by Argentine firms follows patterns of general management in the region. It also finds that firms with a strategic approach to social responsibility are able to achieve greater profitability than firms without a strategic approach.
167. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Pasi Sajasalo Internationalization of a Key Industry of a Small and Open Economy - Case Finland
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An evolutionary process is analyzed in which an important industry of a small economy gradually became more intemational. Some findings of the effects of intemationalization of a key industry on the society are discussed.
168. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Mark Schwartz How to Measure Business Ethics Activity Around the World: A 'Global Business Ethics Index'
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A research instrument is developed to measure global business ethics activity. The primary dimensions measured include: (1) academia; and (2) the corporate sector. The secondary dimensions include: (3) social/ethical investment, and (4) business ethics organizations. The instrument, a 'Global Business Ethics (GBE) Index,' is used to preliminarily assess the level of business ethics activity in four countries: (a) the United States; (b) Canada; (c) the United Kingdom; and (d) Israel. The paper concludes with future research directions for the instrument.
169. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Jean Boddewyn, Steven N. Brenner, Jennifer J. Griffin, John Mahon, Bill Birtcil Public Affairs Entering the New Millenium: What have we Learned from the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s?
170. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Jean J. Boddewyn Public Affairs in the 1970s
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The 1970s were very turbulent and hostile to large firms - particularly, multinational enterprises (MNEs). The modem Public-Affairs (PA) function was essentially bom then in terms of expanded mission, structure, activities and staffing. I analyze and interpret this significant development even though major PA problems remained unresolved at the end of this decade.
171. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Kathleen A. Rehbein, Douglas A. Schuler Corporate Political Involvement: Does It Buy Political Access?
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This research focuses on which U.S. manufacturing firms are able to gain access to the political process. In an exploratory effort, we draw from the resource based view of the firm and collective action theory to develop testable propositions about a firm's extemal environment and firm specific characteristics, that enable firms to gain political access. We find that firms which invest in a political strategy, using lobbyists and/or funding political campaigns are much more likely to succeed in achieving political access.
172. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Steven N. Brenner Public Affairs in the 1980s
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Public affairs units were closely examined during the 1980s at least partly because of their rapid deployment in major American firms in the 1970s. Academic research focused on: describing the nature of such boundary spanning units, understanding their selection of activities and explaining their efifort to improve corporate performance. The most intenally influential PA units were found to deal with specific problems whose issues were actively being debated in the public policy process
173. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Barbara W. Altman The Potential of Corporate/Community Partnerships as a Corporate Citizenship Tool: The Case of Minnesota HEALS
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This paper presents the case of a multi-sector partnership in Minneapolis, Minnesota whose initial goal was to reduce crime around the neighborhoods of the three corporate partners - General Mills, Honeywell Corporation, and Allina Health Systems. The project has been very successful in reducing crime and revitalizing inner city neighborhoods. The partnership holds lessons for corporations building partnerships with other corporations, neighborhood groups, govemmental and non-profit agencies. The case and its lessons are related to relevant literature on partnerships and corporate citizenship, drawing implications for similar partnership forms.
174. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Jennifer J. Griffin Public Affairs in the 1990s
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This paper reflects on 1990s academic and professional literatures regarding the corporate public affairs (PA) function to systematically understand the theoretical and practical changes and challenges within PA. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative studies, the findings suggest that PA has changed significantly by broadening its scope of activities, its strategic orientation, formalization and integration within the firm.
175. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Jörg Andriol Managing Social Risk Through Stakeholder Partnership Building
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Paper presents the findings of a stakeholder partnership building research. It is the reasoning involved in making a logical judgement on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observations. The defining elements of partnership alchemy are transformed into the 4-Ps for stakeholder partnership building. These four elements of partnership alchemy are part of an emerging paradigm of social innovations. Each analysed stakeholder partnership represents a diverse purpose, pact, power relationship and process of partnership development. Therefore, all analysed stakeholder partnerships are fundamentally different in every defining partnership alchemy element. For each element, five describing variables have been identified which enable the similarities and differences between various purposes, pacts, power relalionships, and processes of stakeholder partnership developments to be analysed.
176. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Marc Orlitzky, Diane L. Swanson Constructions of the Self: From Object Relations to Stakeholder Relations
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Managerial decisions do not occur in a vacuum in which emotional forces and attachments are irrelevant. To recognize the intra- and interpersonal context of managers' value neglect (Swanson, 1999), we offer object relations theory as one of many possible conceptual additions to prior overly rational and positivist models of stakeholder management. We build on Carroll (1979), Kohlberg (1981), and Gilligan (1982) to argue how closely misconstruction of the Self is intertwined with making myopic business decisions. "Moral acuity" is the outcome of an integrative view of the individual's private Self and public Self.
177. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Ronald M. Roman Changing the World while Failing at Home: The Failure of Affirmative Action in the High-Technology Industry
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Recently high technology firms in Silicon Valley have been criticized for failing to meet Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) requirements as specified by the U.S. Department of Labor (Angwin & Castaneda, 1998; Dreyfuss, 1999). Why would these firms, often known for their liberal benefit plans and innovative work practices, largely fail to meet EEO requirements? In this paper I argue that although high-tech companies typically view the EEOC as a legitimate stakeholder, they do not perceive the EEOC's claim—that affirmative action programs are needed—as a valid claim. I offer that this perception is the result of cognitive heuristics (Tversky & Kahneman, 1982) and industry characteristics. Together these help to explain the failure of affirmative action programs in Silicon Valley's high-tech companies.
178. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Tara J. Radin Women in the Workplace: Freedom of Choice, or Freedom from Choice
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The purpose of this paper is to confront some of the difficulties experienced by women and firms as a result of conflicts between child-rearing and traditional professional endeavors. Law firm expectations and consequences are analyzed in order to bring some of the underlying issues to the surface.
179. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay Reconciling Work, Family and Equity for Women through Working Time Reduction: Some Results from a Research conducted in Canada
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We have researched the issue of time constraints and work-family balancing in Canada and Quebec, and done a survey on this question. In the first part of our paper, we present the general perspective on working time evolution and time constraints in Canada. We then present data on working time and problems of work-family balancing, and investigate some means - working time arrangements and reduction - designed to alleviate the difficulties.
180. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2000
Cecile G. Betit, William Martello Talking Their Walk When the Employees Become Owners: The Process of Designed Change in the Carris Companies
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The focus of this session was the Carris Financial Corporation (CFC), a privately-held entrepreneurial manufacturing company founded in Rutland, Vermont in 1951 by Henry Carris and now led by Henry's son, William H. (Bill) Carris. Six representatives from the company actively involved in the long-term organizational change process discussed their activities, examined positives and pitfalls, and projected future directions for their firm. The CFC is in the process of implementing the Long Term Plan (LTP) which involves: the sale of the company to employees through an Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP); employee training in ownership rights and responsibilities, business. Interpersonal, and general skill development; employee education on global social and working conditions through the Full Circle trips to developing countries; and tithing activities through site gift Giving Committees and the Carris Foundation.