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141. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Fernando Cipriani Un Dibattito Socioantropoplogico nel Settecento. Il Mito del Buon Selvaggio
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A socioanthropological debate in the 17th Century. The Myth of the Good Savage. The myth of the Good Savage was born and developed especially in the17th century, but it already had its ethnological bases in the geographical discoveries of the 15th century and in the colonial conquests. The French Enlightenment questions about the Occidental civilization and the moral principles that were the bases of the colonial expansions of the European powers. The cultural debate, extended by the anthropological science, was directed to the attempt to knowledge the submissive populations who became the colonial populations. Any kind of reduction of the social debate to the superiority of the Occidental human being is progressively surpassed by the comparison of two worlds, initially opposed and than more and more close to one another: the civilization world and the primitive one. In Voltaire’s stories the moment of the overtaking of the natural state, specific to the savage, is more important, through one necessary acculturation, while in the autobiographic and traveling stories, under the impulse of the ethnical similarities reminded by Rousseau and by the anthropological philosophers, is asserted the equality of people’s rights. In this way the natural condition is „sweetened” by the knowledge of the nature and of its laws, which is inspired from the recognition of the equality between social condition and birth. To fallow the laws of nature means to surpass the social conventions and to give back to the civilized man the naturalness of his own feelings, the innocence and the purity of his customs. In the rational way, to fallow the laws of the nature means the reconciliation between Rousseau’s principles and Voltaire’s ones. In this way the paradoxes of the civilized world and the ones of the primitive world are eliminated through the integration of the two in one united concept.
142. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Gloria Vergara La Experiencia Estética en el Pensamiento de Roman Ingarden
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The Aesthetic Experience in Roman Ingarden’s thinking . In this article we study the ideas of the Polish philosopher, Roman Ingarden, as an essential key inthe discussion on literary reception. The notion of "aesthetic experience" is revised, especially in The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art. Ingarden begins aesthetic discussion, trying to answer two fundamental questions: How is the literary work structured? and Which procedure will lead to an understanding of the literary art work of art? These questions, besides serving in his defense against psychologism and positivism of his time, also help him develop his two most popular works in Spanish: The Literary Work of Art and The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art, in which the Polish philosopher clarifies the principles that of the Reception Theory. Nevertheless, the importance of the aesthetic experience in the linguistic and phenomenology dimensions of the literary text is only understood when we study both works. Ingarden, as his translator to Spanish, Gerald Nyenhuis recognizes, presupposes in his second book the first one where he performs a constant trip from ontology to phenomenology in the literary work of art. It is precisely in this search where he nails his concept of aesthetic experience that we study today in relation with other concepts, such as the aesthetic attitude, the pre-aesthetic knowledge, the role of the aesthetic values and the aesthetic object.
143. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Ovidiu Balan Betrachtungen über die Anfänge der altgriechischen Lehre der Seelenwanderung
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In this article I argue that attendant on the acceptance of the idea of an immortal soul is a legitimate question concerning the soul's status before the individual's birth and after its death. Whether the Greeks were the originators of the doctrine of the transmigration of souls or this was an influence from another culture is still open to debate.
144. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
David Cornberg Humanimality: An Exploration of Human/Animal Fusion in Nature Poetry
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From the Greek satyr to the American Mickey Mouse and from the Chinese dragon to the Egyptian Sphinx, animals and animal/humans have come throughhuman imagination into myth, legend and story. This combination or fusion of animal and human in literature presents a double signification. At the same time that our attention goes to the animality of the human, we may also entertain the human(al)ity of the animal. Besides blending of physical and psychological characteristics, these ancient and modern characters of world texts may embed authentic experiences of communion or communication between humans and animals. The texts may be understood as signifying the limits of both the human and the animal and the possibility of the humanimal. Humanimality signifies the fusion of human and animal which dissolves the ordinary dualism of human subject and animal object and allows for intersubjectivity unmarked by specific biological limitations. This kind of intersubjectivity occurs in the contact of communication and is often an occasion for awe on the part of the human if not of the animal. We may understand such awesome communication as imitation, non-verbal cooperation, and as teaching and learning. Three poems by the author, reproduced in the Appendix, “The Ravens Fly Yet,” “Neighbors,” and “The Lesson,” provide the literary fields in which humanimal phenomena may appear.
145. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Alexandru Boboc „Pragmatic Turn” dans la Pensée Contemporaine
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The “Pragmatic Turn” in Actual Thinking . The study of a pragmatic dimension to semiotics appears only late in the history of the discipline. „Pragmatic” seems the last one called into the dispute of signs. The study capitalizes on semiotics and the theory of action, with the distinction operated between „pragmatism” and„practical” matters within this philosophical discipline. The theory of the speech acts is investigated and related to the perspectives opened in the semiotics in order to highlight further avenues for research.
146. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Nancy Mardas Billias Listening to Language: the Possibility of Translation
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This essay examines the itinerary of the word in translation. How does the process of translation unfold? When a work is translated, what is lost, what is gained,what is left behind, and what is carried forward? Is there some quality peculiar to poetic language that makes translation more difficult – or easier? In this essay I articulate the stages that I go through when translating a poem. The work is heuristic in part, but rooted in Heidegger’s essays on Hölderlin and Rilke.
147. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Kiymet Selvi Future Aims of Science Curriculum for Primary School
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Science and technology have significant roles in life. Most of the researches and discussions about science education are related to development of sciencecurriculum and science education in school. Science curriculum must be developed based on student and society needs, scientific and technological developments in the field of science and educational science. The aims of science curriculum should reflect these elements given above. The aims of science curriculum also refer to changing philosophy of education. In this study, the results of the two studies, which were conducted with 314 primary school class teachers and science teachers, and literature reviews are discussed under the heading of "Future aims of science curriculum for primary school”.
148. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Traian D. Stănciulescu The Hierarchies of Light: from Biblical Intuition to Scientific Reason
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To understand – intuitively and analytically both – that man is a „being of light” created as a perfect „face and alikeness” and, implicitly, as a becoming measure of the cosmic „wave patterns”, is the main purpose of the present paper. To recuperate the language of the religion by the privilege of a new „living fields” science (biophotonics) means to realize rationally the millenary expectancy of the ESSENTIAL UNITY: man, cosmos, and divinity, harmoniously together.
149. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Ioan Alexandru Tofan Early Theological Works Towards an Archeology of Certain Late Hegelian Motifs
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This article discusses the response which Hegel gives in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy to a problem which is first posed in his early writings. The problem is that of the possibility to comprehend the Absolute, the Infinity („Life” is the term Hegel uses in his Early Writings) using the reflexion as instrument. The later response is to see the concept (Begriff) in his speculative sense (in fact the form of absolute reflexion) as a spiritual, historical entity and so, as tradition of representation (Vorstellung). The tradition of a thought is what marks the passage from dominative, intelectual thinking to integrative, reasonable thinking.
150. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Angela Ales Bello The Study of the Soul between Psychology and Phenomenology at Edith Stein
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In the study of the soul between psychology and phenomenology in Edith Stein works it becomes clearer that it is only phenomenology that really comes to gripswith the question of psychic causality by correlating the two moments and it is therefore only phenomenology that can respond to Hume’s objections while yetremaining on his selfsame terrain. It is very important to distinguish between psychology and phenomenology and also to clarify the relationship between psyche and consciousness; there is thus reproposed the distinction already made by Husserl, who stressed that when one sets out to look for the causes that determine psychic life, they must not be sought in life feelings (Lebensgefühle) but rather in the „modes” of a life force (Lebenskraft) that is announced in them. All this is indicated here within limits because psychology in itself is undoubtedly not a science of the spirit, though the psychic states, on the other hand, will not be validly understood unless and until one arrives, as is demonstrated in the essay under consideration, at the motivation and therefore the spiritual sphere. We would say that our body is animated by a psyche and further enlivened by the spirit.
151. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Richard L. Lanigan Communicology: Towards A New Science of Semiotic Phenomenology
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The paper is a paradigmatic presentation of what the new science of communicology represents: the semiotic and phenomenological study of humandiscourse and the critical study of discourse and practice both, an interaction of communication, mass communications, popular culture, public relations, advertising, marketing, linguistics, discourse analysis, political economy, institutional analysis, organization of urban and rural spaces, ergonomics, body culture, clinical practice, health care, constructions of disease, health, and rehabilitation, human factors, signage, and so forth. Communicology is the human science research result in which validity and reliability are logic constructs based in the necessary and sufficient conditions of discovered systems (codes), whether eidetic (based in consciousness) or empirical (based in experience).
152. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Carmen Cozma Mapping the Offer of the Phenomenology in Arts
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Among other modalities of arts” approach, phenomenological apparatus offers us a fruitful one in the endeavour to disclose part of the rich and in-depthmeanings that art in general unfolds through its products. Here, we are especially interested in phenomenology as a style of philosophizing and as a method of analysis, able to open new dimensions to the process of interpretation and comprehension the peculiar living of man in relation with arts. There are some paradigms that have been acknowledged by phenomenologists within the topics of dwelling upon the fullness of artistic logos in its potential of life experiencing, finally. In this essay we try to point out part of phenomenology”s opportunities to scrutinize, in an appropriate way, art as a significant creative phenomenon; and thus to reveal much more about an ideal essence communicating a fundamental order of beingness to which man has access.
153. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Daniel Ungureanu De paidéuma à la shari`a
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“From Paideuma to Shari’a”. Paideuma, concept developed by Leo Frobenius at the beginning of the XXth century, seems to regain its proper actuality when we try to understand the Islamic civilization. Among the roots which define a paideuma, in the particular case of Islam we identified the shari’a as being the most significant one. Shari`a also brings with it a new dimension: the continuous extension of the paideuma, which overpasses frontiers and national identities. The famous sartrian expression “hell is the other” may occur only if we don`t know the Other enough.
154. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Nicolae Rambu Genio e Weltanschauung da Kant a Hitler
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During the Nazi regime, Immanuel Kant was the most studied German philosopher. The most important in this context is the theory of the genius and of thecreation of the genius that is developed especially in the Critique of Judgement. Kant defines the genius as the natural capacity of the personality to impose its own rules to the art. The Nazi ideologists had invoked this fact to justify philosophically the right of the Führer to impose its own rules to the art of politics. This is the reason of the attempt of the Nazi propaganda to project in the public conscience the image of one genius leader who, like the genius artist, imposes his own rules to the politics.
155. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Vlad Ichim The Political Plato
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This study deals with the issue of Plato’s political interest. Some say he had none. We’ll try to show that in fact he was very political, to the extent that the core ofhis work is a political agenda, and is politically orientated. There’s also the aspect of the relation between metaphysics and politics in his work; that is a delicate issue, as some consider that Plato “disguised” his political convictions in myths. That too will be taken into consideration.1. The number of metaphysical dialogues is small, compared to the vast majority of the platonic dialogues2. No only the writings, but also the life of Plato show him as political3. Even the “metaphysical” dialogues have a political agendaThere are authors that consider Plato to be no less than a forerunner of Christianity, a mystic conscious of the contemplation of an ideal “beyond”. One should bear in mind that Plato has even been declared a saint by the Orthodox Church. We choose to be more cautious in dealing with the interest that Socrates’ pupil is supposed to have taken into mystics (theory or practice). In the following pages, we’ll try to explain these reserves.
156. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Radu I. Petrescu Le baromètre de Flaubert ou Littérature et Réalité
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”The Barometer of Flaubert or Literature and Reality”. Discussing the relationship between literature and reality, this study focuses on the analysis of the“reality effect” (effet de réel) which is applied to the narrative technique in Gogol’s novel Dead Souls by revisiting it through a Nabokovian perspective.
157. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Phyllis Vandenberg Relationships and the spectator perspectives in Hutcheson, Hume, and Smith
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Looking closely at Adam Smith’s account of the spectator perspective – along with the compatible spectator accounts in Hutcheson and Hume – is especiallyhelpful to understanding one of the main themes of the Scottish Enlightenment. The Scots in response to Hobbesian egoism described a morality that does not need to overcome a human nature that pits individuals against each other. Rather each of the three Scots describes the empirical formation of our humanity and our moral sentiments in the context of relating to and observing others. The three spectator accounts of Smith, Hutcheson, and Hume clearly describe this involvement of others in the formation of morality. Adam Smith explicitly gives an accounting of the importance and, in fact, necessity of others in the formulating of not only our moral evaluations but also the very possibility of understanding one’s humanity and having an idea of morality at all. In this paper, I explain Smith’s account specifically along with its similarity to Hutcheson’s and Hume’s and argue that these empiricists ground moral sentiments in person to person relationships. For the three Scots, being human and developing a morality is begun in interactions with others. We formulate who it is we are and can be and determine acceptable ways to interact in the company of others.
158. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Simona Mitroiu The Culture at the Crossing between the Memory and the Oblivion
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The culture defines some of the elements that we consider identity guide marks. The continuity of the identity is very closely bonded to these cultural elements.The understanding of the modality to represent the identity is possible through the analysis of some of these cultural elements and of the correlations that these establish in the context of memory and oblivion. This paper analyzes the dynamics of these three elements: memory, identity and oblivion, in literature.
159. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Kazimierz Mrówka Le Concept de Logos chez Héraclite. L’Analyse Du Fragment B1
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“The concept of Logos at Heraclitus. The analyze of B1 fragment”. “Logos” is the most important word in the Heraclitus’ philosophy. One can tell, that Heraclitusis the philosopher of logos. The way of interpretation of this notion influences the comprehention of all work of the Greek thinker.The word appears eleven times in the following fragments : B 1, B 2, B 31, B 39, B 45, B 50, B 72, B 87, B 108, B 115 [numeration of Diels-Kranz]. Logos contains several notions, and it can not be reduced to one, as for exemple reason, speach, fire or god. The analyse of B1, where the logos apperas for the first time, shows the complexity of this term.
160. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Dan Chiţoiu The Theme of the Simplicity of the Mind as the Presupposition of the Byzantine Cultural Model
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This article discuss the origin of the Byzantine Cultural Model, influenced by the patristic anthropologic perspective, which discerns that present-day man is notgeneric man, but is at an intermediate stage, between a lost condition and one that could be attained. A dimension of the Eastern Christian understanding of man that is less known nowadays is related to the theme of the garment of skin. This is connected with another one, the theme of the simplicity of the mind.