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121. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Aldo Rocco Vitale Unified Opposition to Surrogacy: Comparing Feminist and Catholic Views
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This article briefly examines the topic of surrogacy in light of two opposing perspectives, mainstream feminism and Catholicism, which despite very different moral dimensions, arrive at the same conclusion. The author discusses the similarities between these two moral perspectives that are nor­mally considered to be opposed to each other.
122. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Denis A. Scrandis Jacques Maritain on the Rights of Man and the Common Good
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The notion of a properly functioning human nature as a moral standard is a tenet of Western culture and is at the core Western humanism, Christian moral teaching, and natural law theory. Although these traditions recognize that the virtue of justice is exercised by giving one’s neighbor his due, they did not explore a person’s legitimate claims to goods in a modern theory of human rights. Enlightenment thinkers, as materialists and atheists, theorized that human rights are not related to God or human nature but are privileges granted by government. Jacques Maritain (1882–1973) developed theories of natural law and human rights. Maritain’s theory of human rights, employing a Thomistic methodology and founded on God and nature, is applicable to contemporary disputes, such as claims to a right to “same-sex” marriage.
123. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Daniel Patrone Compensation for the Moral Costs of Research-Related Injury
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In the United States, researchers are not legally required to compensate trial participants for research-related injuries. Nevertheless, institutional review boards (IRBs) ought to require that all research proposals include broad compensation plans. However, the standard justifications for mandatory compensation cannot reconcile the need for adequate participant protections with a duty on the part of the research community to provide them. This situation can be resolved only through a deeper analysis of research-related costs. Once mere costs are distinguished from moral costs, a compelling case can be made that the principle of respect for persons, or human dignity, provides a sound moral foundation for assigning responsibility for research-related injuries.
124. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Michael G. Brungardt A Study of Accompaniment at the End of Life
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In discussions of end-of-life care and what the often-used but often-misunderstood buzzword “accompaniment” means, the core of the issue has often been missed, leading to inappropriate responses by physicians, loved ones, and the dying persons themselves. Emphasis is often placed on the care of circumstances rather than the care of persons. In what follows, these issues are systematically addressed to show that when patients face physical death, a truly ethical response is authentic, loving accompaniment of them. This form of such accompaniment is explored.
125. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Christopher Kaczor Philosophy and Theology
126. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Paul W. Hruz The Use of Cross-Sex Steroids in the Treatment of Gender Dysphoria
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Current clinical guidelines for the treatment of individuals who experience gender dysphoria include the administration of testosterone to women who desire to appear as men and estrogen to men who desire to appear as women. Despite the rapid and widespread adoption of this practice, strikingly little scientific evidence supports this treatment approach as a safe and effective medical intervention to prevent associated depression and suicide. Although low-quality, short-term studies have demonstrated a reduction of dysphoria, emerging evidence reveals significant bodily harm from this practice and a lack of long-term benefit in preventing depression and suicide. From an ethical perspective, this practice distorts a proper view of human nature and violates bodily integrity by directly inducing sterility. The use of exogenous cross-sex hormones reinforces rather than alleviates underlying psychiatric dysfunction while significantly increasing the risk of other medical morbidities. Despite the valid goal of alleviating suffering, this practice cannot be justified by the use of the principles of totality or double effect.
127. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Marie T. Hilliard Religious and Moral Exemptions and Accommodations for Coverage of Certain Preventive Services: NCBC Letter of Comment on the Contraception Mandate
128. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
David A. Prentice Science
129. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Bernard Mulcahy Alasdair MacIntyre, Charles Taylor, and the Demise of Naturalism:Reunifying Political Theory and Social Science
130. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
John Berkman Beyond the Abortion Wars: A Way Forward for a New Generation
131. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Brian Welter Debating Medieval Natural Law: A Survey
132. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Christopher J. Wolfe The Rise and Decline of American Religious Freedom
133. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Ignatius Perkins Improving Access to HIV Care:Lessons from Five US Sites
134. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Thomas P. Sheahen Particles of Faith: A Catholic Guide to Navigating Science
135. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Books Received
136. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 17 > Issue: 4
Index to Volume 17
137. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Becket Gremmels In This Issue
138. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Daniel J. Hurst Colloquy
139. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Birgitta Sujdak Mackiewicz Essential Goals of Ethics Committees and the Role of Professional Ethicists
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Ethics committees in Catholic health care are responsible for con­sultation, education, and policy development and review. Historically, ethics committees were reactive and had no articulated goals. This article argues that the essential goals of Catholic ethics committees are (1) to promote the human dignity of patients and staff; (2) to promote the common good; (3) to promote institutional identity, integrity, and ethical climate; and (4) to improve quality of care. These goals are most effectively met when ethics committees are proactive and integrated in the institution, embrace systems thinking, and utilize professional ethicists locally or regionally.
140. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Mark Repenshek Examining Quality and Value in Ethics Consultation Services
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The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities poses a chal­lenge in Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation: health care ethics consultation services “should be able to demonstrate their value to those who pay for the service, as well as to those whom the service is intended to serve.” To respond to this challenge, this article provides a brief review of the literature on evaluating ethics consultation in its traditional frameworks of quality outcomes. The author follows this discussion with a new methodology to evaluate ethics consultation on the basis of the intrinsic good of the service. He ends with a novel risk-based assessment to complement the evaluation of clinical ethics services grounded in the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services.