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121. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Yoshihisa Yamamoto Thomas Aquinas on the Ontology of Friendship: Selfness and Otherness
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The purpose of this paper is to highlight the ontological character of Friendship in Aquinas. The originality of Aquinas's theory is found in the ontological foundation expressed by Neoplatonic concepts (unio, unitas, communicatio). By integrating such Neoplatonic concepts with his analysis on the transcendentals(aliquid, unum), I will make a new ontological foundation to the theory of amicitia. In order that a man is a one (unum), he must establish himself as something different (aliud quid) in the midst of the relationship with others and then has to return to himself. So long as he stays self-contained without moving outward, he cannot constitute himself as an independent being which is different from other beings (aliquid). The ontological oneness (unitas) as an independent rational substance makes it possible for a man to form the mutual relationship of unity (unio) without losing himself in the midst of the deep relationship with someone else.
122. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
George Heffernan Augustinian Skepticism in Augustine’s Confessions
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The goal of this paper is to show that Augustine’s Confessions, understood “sub specie dubitationis”, constitute a substantive argument for the philosophical position that may be described as “Augustinian skepticism”. The point is that, according to Augustine’s conversion narrative, what human beings can know becomes thematic only within the horizon of what they must believe, and therefore a doxic attitude other than rationality plays the primary and ultimate role in their quest for answers to questions about the meaning of life and death. An explication of the text of the Confessions suggests that a failure to understand Augustinianskepticism makes it impossible to account for a long list of big philosophical topics in Augustine’s thought.
123. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Santiago Argüello Overcoming an Anaxagorian Conception of Noûs by a Metaphysical Theory of the Best Possible: From Socrates to Aquinas
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This paper intends to show that our reception of Plato’s criticism of Anaxagoras’ philosophy of mind (noûs) is mediated by Thomas Aquinas’ conception of freedom. The Socratic-Platonic Metaphysical theory of mind as essentially connected to the best is transformed by Aristotle into a theory of the intelligence which, in its acting, necessarily records the possibility of performing the opposites or contraries. Therefore, ‘the (Platonic) best’ is now specifically understood as ‘the best possible’. Within this Metaphysical conception, Aquinas distinguishes two levels (which are also to be found in ‘freedom’). In the first or more superfical one–here called ‘horizontal’–, the mind chooses to perform the best possible or not, that is, it can fulfill the science which is within the mind itself or not. In the second or more radical one –here called ‘vertical’–, the mind has to perform a reflexive act, by means of which it chooses willing or not its necessary possibility of performing the science that the mind possesses.
124. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Konul Bunyadzade Pantheism in Thinking of the Medieval East
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Pantheist thinking in Islamic East and its adequacy to western pantheism is complicated and controversy problem. To make the problem somewhat clearer, it needs first of all to emphasize that it is possible to divide the development of the theories of world outlook and trends relied on essence of Koran’s esoteric meaning and religion towards inner world in Islamic East, into two direction: pantheist and “vahdat al-vujud”. The trend, in organization and formation of which ismailism, hurufism, nogtavism played important role and some sects of tasavvuf considered to be heretic may be referred to the first orientation. As far as the second one, only tasavvuf may be referred to it. Though some issues, categories of each of them (orientations) seem alike at first sight, however there are the important differences in their fundamental principles from both ontological and epistemological points of view, it stipulated that, first of all, by the factors and purposes of their formation. Each trends of the first direction, philosophy of which been significant part of thinking system in Islamic East, left its traces in history ofphilosophy and possessed a vast circle of influence. There were many prominent figures whose works ranked among the philosophical treatises of the period, need particular study to complete Islamic philosophical panorama.
125. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Alec Gordon Philosophical Translation, Metalanguage, and the Medieval Concept of Supposition
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In his Welcome Message for the XXII World Congress of Philosophy hosted by Seoul National University in August 2008 the President of the International Federation of Philosophical Societies (FISP), Peter Kemp, said that—inter alia—it will be an occasion “for rethinking the great philosophical questions.” Amongst there questions how we in the present understand the philosophical past is surely a perennial query before us. In this short paper I will refer to the endeavor of understanding past philosophical thought on its own terms or as presented in a current idiom as “philosophical translation.” The latter can take three forms: logical, analytical, or hermeneutic. This paper will briefly discuss all three forms vis-à-vis modern attempts to understand the medieval concept of “supposition” with special regard to the role metalanguage plays in philosophical translation.
126. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Faiza Muhammad The Chaotic Paradigm of Complexity: A Metaphysical Approach
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Contemporary research, across various disciplines, alludes to notion of complexity. Indeed, the phenomenon has even been accredited for comprising a new “world-view” that not only heralds theory construction but also instigates miscellaneous nifty yet practical avenues. On the other hand, however, the complexityparadigm has frequently been criticized of obscurity, contestation and scope imprecision. In addition, its various mutually incommensurable philosophical implications have lead to much heated debates regarding methodological pluralism and metaphorical applications, within literature. To elaborately discussand resolve these concerns, this paper will be organized in three sections: The first section will build on the idiosyncratic characteristics of complexity that differentiate it from related notions of chaos and complicatedness. The second section will shed light on the philosophical deliberations of individual complexityattributes, toward metaphysics of complexity, through elaborately drawn diagrams. Also, this section will draw attention to several conflicting perspectives encompassing the theological, epistemological and ontological domain of complexity. The third section will trace the origins of such paradoxical debates, in the complexity literature, through a ‘Super-System-Outlook’ (SSO) framework. The framework is likely to be of particular significance as it aims to not only divulge an eradicable joint cause of the disparity governing complexity studies but also to propose a possible assimilation of such deliberations.
127. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Anastasia Shulyndina Vladimir Soloviev and His School on System of Universal Sphere of Knowledge
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One of the most powerful tendencies of the World scientific thought development of XIX – the first half of XX century was analysing all sorts of knowledge, accumulated by mankind in the form of universal synthetic system combining science, religion and philosophy into the Universal Sphere of Knowledge that gives the humanity the possibility to achieve a new deeper level of understanding the reality. By the founder of the Classical Russian Systematic School of Philosophy (according to me – A.Sh.) V.S.Soloviev - for the first time in history - the Idea of the Universal Sphere of Knowledge which is depicted by the Greek term Θεω-Σοφιαwas descriptively defined. The followers of V.S. Soloviev’s school in the middle of XIX – the beginning of XX century worked out many aspects of the Concept of Ontological Synthesis of dispersed Spheres of knowledge, among which the Philosophy is an important and homogeneous part of synthesis of Science and Theology. This Spheres of Knowledge look different and it was aggravated in the course of historically developed separation of their methods, spheres ofexperience and types of thinking. Nevertheless to find the new ways to reach the new level of knowledge for the mankind they must be concentrated on the investigation of the Absolute Elements of the World : TrulyExisting [Λογος] (suprasystematic Element) in its real manifestation. The main (or the basic) method of knowledge is the inner experience of mystic origin. The findings of Russian Philosophers are confirmed by the studies of scientific methods which made it possible to achieve great staggering discoveries and inventions which will for a long time remain mysterious for the majority of human beings.
128. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Matteo Morganti Identity, Individuality and Indiscernibility
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This paper deals with the identity and individuality of material objects. In particular, the view that identity is derivative on the qualities of things, based on the endorsement of the Principle of the Identity of the Indiscernibles, is studied in detail. This provides what seems to be a much-needed unitary look at, and up-to-date critical analysis of, the vast literature on the Identity of the Indiscernibles. It is concluded that the ‘reductionist’ view, dating back to Quine and, earlier, to Leibniz, possesses no compelling justification, neither from the conceptual, a priori point of view, nor from the methodological perspective, nor as far as empiricalevidence (as the latter is described by our best current science) is concerned. That is to say, the Principle has not been (perhaps, cannot be) shown to be either a necessary or a contingent truth. Therefore, it can be argued that the whole reductionist view of the individuality of material entities can be dispensed with in favour of an interpretation of reality in terms of objects provided with primitive identity. A suggestion in this latter sense that preserves the appeal of a property-based ontology is very briefly made.
129. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Popkov Valerian, Baturin Andrey Philosophic Rethinking of Poincaré Topological Complex
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The key philosophic concepts - wholeness and duality - are analyzed on the basis of general scientific and vision ideas of H. Poincaré. His cellular structure with full set of topological invariants (cycles) can be considered as a model of dual arrangement of the World. The World is seen as a multidimensional process, consisting not of parts, but of local processes, adjoining each other. It is demonstrated, that a set of cycles at each structural level not only resolve paradoxes of wholeness and development, but represents a recommencing process, which reproduces its own environment. The wholeness – world is considered as a duality of flows and potentials, which arrange and produce absolutely different structures, being closely conjugated, as cycles and co-cycles within the whole. Thestreams are structured and coordinated towards decrease of structural level dimensions: from the general to the particular, from the concrete to the abstract, from the depth to the surface. This is the direction of differentiation of the whole. Potentials are coordinated in the opposite direction, with increase of dimension, through structural elements of higher dimensions. The world is gathered, integrated, joined, specified through stresses; differentiated parts tend to scatter, connections between them strain and turn them back to their whole. A penetration of the scientist into more complicated processes turns out to be a movement within a closed multidimensional surface (closed manifold), enriched with new dimensions with inclusion of new processes. Those concrete examples illustrate importance of Poincaré duality theorem for closed manifolds.
130. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Gan Hun Ahn An Analysis of Semi-Compatibilism
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Semi-compatibilists intend to reconcile moral responsibility with causal determinism, even if determinism is incompatible with freedom to do otherwise. For them, moral responsibility does not require free will, which is not a necessary condition for moral responsibility. They agree with the view that causal determinism is incompatible with free will. Free will is incompatible with determinism as well as moral responsibility. Both compatibilists and semi-compatibilists argue for the compatibility between determinism and moral responsibility. However, the latter fails to prove sufficiently the reason why determinism is compatible with moral responsibility.
131. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Konstantin S. Khroutski Introducing RealCosmism and BioCosmology: In the Search for a True Universalizing Metaphysics
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Author brings forward a BioCosmological (metaphysical) conception that primarily explores the reasons of present ongoing and increasing global crises. In the issue, author substantively arrives at the conclusion (‘diagnosis’) of the current ‘cosmological insufficiency’ of modern philosophical and cultural community,wherein the leading ‘clinical form’ turns out to be the modern mainstream ‘presentism’, while the ‘patient's treatment’ (perceiving that ‘the patient’ signifies the whole process of life on Earth) – proves to be the urgent rehabilitation of Aristotelism and Russian philosophy and science (neo-Aristotelism). Precisely in this course, author’s BioCosmological conception carries out a realistic and rational proposal that strives to construct a substantive comprehensive theoretical framework – for the tackling of these actual issues.
132. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
William L. Wang A New Analysis on Metaphysics and Ontology
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By means of comparison between Lao Tzu’s theory of Tao in ancient China and the concept of metaphysics originated from ancient Greece, the author redefined the concept of “form” and therefore, elaborated the meaning of metaphysics from its Chinese translation. According to the author’s re-interpretation of Tao Te Ching, Lao Tzu had resolved the ontological questions in a different way with that of ancient Greek philosophers, and he had answered the question of “One and Many”. In the past, people had omitted the fact that there are actually two different “ones” in this question, and hence, metaphysics and ontology had been remained in a confused state. By giving an example in natural science, the author had illustrated clearly what is the metaphysical Tao, and then extendedthe idea to metaphysics of morals. As a conclusion, the author suggests that it is better to use a new term to replace the imperfectly defined “metaphysics”, for example, metaformology.
133. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Erik Anderson Scientific Essentialism, Could’ve Done Otherwise, and the Possibility of Freedom
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Philosophers concerned with the problem of freedom and determinism differ strikingly over the analysis of the concept of human freedom of the will. Compatibilists and incompatibilists, determinists and indeterminists populate the conceptual landscape with a dizzying array of theories differing in complex and subtle ways. Each of these analyses faces an under-appreciated potential challenge: the challenge from scientific essentialism. Might all traditional analyses of freedom of the will be radically ill-conceived because the concept—the nature of freedom itself—is something discoverable only by empirical science? I explore this vexing question.
134. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Lee-Sun Choi Essence and Identity
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In this paper, I am going to ask what the general criteria for identity are and exactly how essence is related to that. Two notions are related to this question: Essential properties (necessary properties) and individual essences. Only the notion of individual essence has been involved in the criteria of transworld identity. The disputes of transworld have centered on the intrinsic properties necessarily connected to thisness. Through introducing a notion of part-rigidity, however, we can see that there can be an entity that does not have an individual essence as an intrinsic property necessarily connected to thisness, the non-part-rigid structure. Being this structure is an intrinsic property that is relational and compositional. An entity that has a relational and compositional intrinsic property as its necessary property seems to have no individual essence. For this kind of entities, just an essential property (or a necessary property) is involved in the criteria of transworldidentity.
135. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Ming Wong Ying Yang Theory: A Metaphysics of Negative Entropy Being
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For the Life system, behind the physics being, there is a metaphysics being that poses a non-equilibrium thermodynamics system which consist high negative entropy. Western science, western philosophy, including Western rationalism, and the nonrational, post-modernism can not completely explain this being. Theyin and yang theory can clearly illustrate it. The Yin and Yang is the knowledge of metaphysics being of life, is the metaphysics theory under the law of negative entropy.
136. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Guo Yi The Philosophy of Yi: Reconstructing the Chinese Metaphysics
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The New Chinese philosophy should face the main issues in traditional philosophy and modern philosophy. The biggest issue in traditional Chinese philosophy during the last 800 years is Xing (Nature) is Li 性即理 or Xin (Mind) is Li 心即理. The biggest issue in modern Western philosophy is how to fortify value in thisera of knowledge explosion. This paper tries to do some exploration on these issues through reconstruction the Chinese metaphysics. It puts forward a theory of Four Substances 四體說. The so called Four Substances include Yi Ti 易體 or the substance of Yi, Xing Ti 性體 or the substance of Nature, Xin Ti 心體 or the substance of Mind, and Dao Ti 道體 or the substance of the Way. The sphere of Yi 易 is the origin of the universe and the root of the world. The substance of Yiis formed by three fundamental cosmic ideas or energies, namely Zhi 恉 or meaning, Li 理 or reason or principle, and Qi 氣 or matter. Zhi 恉 is the being of Value and meaning. Li 理is the being of knowledge. Zhi 恉 and Li 理 are forms, and Qi 氣 is matter. Yi Ti 易體 or the substance of Yi is an inexhaustible value source. Just like Confucianism has developed its Dao or the Way and Orthodoxy, other value systems in the world have also developed their own Dao or the Way and Orthodoxy.
137. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Popkov Valerian, Baturin Andrey Philosophic Rethinking of Poincaré Topological Complex
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The key philosophic concepts - wholeness and duality - are analyzed on the basis of general scientific and vision ideas of H. Poincaré. His cellular structure with full set of topological invariants (cycles) can be considered as a model of dual arrangement of the World. The World is seen as a multidimensional process, consisting not of parts, but of local processes, adjoining each other. It is demonstrated, that a set of cycles at each structural level not only resolve paradoxes of wholeness and development, but represents a recommencing process, which reproduces its own environment. The wholeness – world is considered as a duality of flows and potentials, which arrange and produce absolutely different structures, being closely conjugated, as cycles and co-cycles within the whole. Thestreams are structured and coordinated towards decrease of structural level dimensions: from the general to the particular, from the concrete to the abstract, from the depth to the surface. This is the direction of differentiation of the whole. Potentials are coordinated in the opposite direction, with increase of dimension, through structural elements of higher dimensions. The world is gathered, integrated, joined, specified through stresses; differentiated parts tend to scatter, connections between them strain and turn them back to their whole. A penetration of the scientist into more complicated processes turns out to be a movement within a closed multidimensional surface (closed manifold), enriched with new dimensions with inclusion of new processes. Those concrete examples illustrate importance of Poincaré duality theorem for closed manifolds.
138. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Yi Jiang Philosophical Topology: A Method or a New Branch in Philosophy?
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In this paper I will try to argue for a new version in philosophy entitled as Philosophical Topology. It is inspired by the thought of Peter Strawson as well as ones of some of so-called Continental philosophers like Heidgger. Unlike any of metaphilosophy in general, the philosophical topology focuses rather on analyses of processes of make-up in philosophers’ thinking, especially by revealing the internal logic of philosophical ideas in making and processing in order to explain the intrinsic continuation of philosophical ideas in particular philosophers’ thinking. In this sense the philosophical topology is not one of philosophical methodsbut a new branch in philosophy that is characterized as being concerned with continuation of ideas as its basic task. So, in this way, it is available to analyses of various doctrines in philosophy. Main issues in the philosophical topology are as follows: 1) to analyze the internal law-likes in the development of philosophy with the perspective of topology; 2) to interpret the general routes of Western philosophy in terms of the philosophical topology; 3) to view the philosophical topology as a way to inquire into metaphysics; 4) to deal properly with the relation of the philosophical topology to other branches in contemporary philosophy such as the philosophy of language, of logic, of science and ethics.
139. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Natalia Martishina Metaphisics as a Study of True Reality
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Classic of Russian philosophy Alexandr I. Vvedensky proposed a definition of metaphysics as a study of true reality contrary to apparent one. This definition seems to be useful in contemporary issues. It's an apt definition because it describes an ancient metaphysics as good as classical tradition and concerns all branches of the philosophical knowledge. A number of philosophical subjects are connected with the difference of true and apparent reality as their foundation. For instance, Philosophical Anthropology differentiates between real and formal personal existence. Epistemology discusses a problem of a criterion of real existence and notes that any language does not contain such internal criterion. The Philosophy of science analyses a conventional reality created by people, and so does the Philosophy of art. Social and Political Philosophy due to understand a nature of special phenomena which have no substance but are real and objective. Finally, contemporary Philosophy of technology concentrates on the virtual reality as a special kind of existence. So, the problem of the distinction between true and apparent reality manifests itself in all philosophical disciplines, and this fact determines a major meaning of the metaphysics in the philosophy.
140. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Andrew Moon Against Rea on Presentism and Fatalism
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T In [Rea 2006], Michael Rea presents an argument that presentism is incompatible with a libertarian view of human freedom and the unrestricted principle of bivalence. I aim to show that Rea’s argument fails. The outline of my paper is as follows. In Part I, I briefly explain the above three views and I present Rea’sargument. In Part II, I argue that one of the premises of the argument is unjustified.