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101. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Lorenz Moises J. Festin Friendship as Paradigm of Aristotelian ‘eudaimonia
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Happiness is essentially an actualization [energeia], whereby a potentiality comes to be realized. Such a process of actualization is then viewed not simply as a means to an end but as instantiating the end itself. In this regard, the exercise of moral virtue may be viewed as forming part of what could be considered happiness. Consequently, a neat differentiation can hardly be made between what constitutes the means and what pertains to the end. As a moral virtue, friendship is an essential element of a happy life. “For without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods.” [Nicomachean Ethics, 1155a 5-6] How essential is friendship in happiness? What role does it play in the experience and realization of human ultimate good? And in what way can friendship help us understand the nature of happiness? The paper first argues why it is essential to view eudaimonia as actualization. It then takes into account the nature of friendship, pointing out its parallelism with happiness. And it aims to explain how friendship, insofar as it is paradigmatic of eudaimonia, can clarify the Aristotelian notion of happiness.
102. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Javier Echeñique Human Life as a Grounding Basic Good in the New Natural Law Ethics
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In this paper I critically examine the key normative claim of the so-called ‘new Natural Law ethics’, namely, the claim that being alive, in the biological sense of the word, has an intrinsically valuable standing. This claim is at the basis of the absolute condemnation of all acts aiming at destroying such a good. After explaining the meaning of this fundamental normative claim, I engage in a dialectical argument between the suicidal person and the new Natural Law ethicists in order to show that, despite the reluctance of new Natural Law ethicists to argue in favour of the intrinsically valuable standing of life, such argument is absolutely necessary. Finally, I critically examine the arguments that have been adduced to support it and reject them.
103. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Edgard José Jorge Filho Concerning the Proof of Freedom in Kant
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In the Preface to the Critique of Practical Reason Kant claims to afford a proof of the objective reality of transcendental freedom, which can be found in the Analytic of this work. However, the Transcendental Dialectic of the Critique of Pure Reason had already established the impossibility of a legitimate theoretical proof of that reality. So, in this study I attempt to interpret the proof developed in the second Critique as a practical one. I consider, first, that this proof would not be a theoretical transcendental deduction. Then, I investigate what might be a practical proof, by means of inquiring into its conditions and their fulfillment. One of these conditions would require the reference of the Idea of freedom to an object not as a possible datum, but as a possible accomplishment of pure practical reason. A strong candidate for this object would be the feeling of respect for the law, whose origin is pure. Finally, I argue that the supposed practical proof of freedom is inconclusive.
104. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Jesus Adrian Escudero Heidegger: Being and Time as a Way of Life
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The secret of Being and Time and of its constant cultural and philosophical presence lies in its unusual hermeneutical richness. It becomes, so to speak, a precise seismometer capable of detecting, with surprising accuracy, the slips and falls of the contemporary era, offering us an exact scan of the ethical and moral conscience of our time. Being and Time does not develop a philosophical theory among others, but rather it faces the challenge of thoroughly reflecting upon the dilemma that is constantly present in philosophy, namely the question of human being and its relation to being in general. From this point of view I would like to consider the possibility of reading this Heidegger’s fundamental work as an ethics of existence, that is, as a book that promotes a cultivation of the self.
105. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Vasil Gluchman Theories of Professional Ethics
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Professional ethics is most frequently associated with deontological ethics; however, lately it has been developed in the context of virtue ethics. A great number of authors have criticised the possible alignment of professional ethics with consequentialist ethics. Author defines the structure of professional ethics that would correspond to the needs of forming a professional ethical framework as well as the value tendencies of consequentialist ethics in its non-utilitarian form. There is an emphasis on the values of humanity, human dignity and moral right of man, also taking into regard values of justice, liability, tolerance and responsibility (all that in an effort to achieve a prevalence of positive over negative consequences.
106. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Lixin Hao Goodness: The Ultimate Integration of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in China
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Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism were regarded as the ‘Three Teachings’ of China, and they were highly influential to Chinese people. In spite of the obvious differences among these three teachings, the ultimate integration of them manifests in exhorting people to pursuing Goodness (shan 善) in this life. They all believe in the good nature of human beings, and therefore Despite divergent approaches to the actual process of moral and spiritual self-development, the three teachings all share the same fundamental belief that human beings can be perfected and reach the ultimate goodness through self-cultivation.
107. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Letian Gao Concerning Yourself: Foucault’s Skill Ethics of Self
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The concept of the self is at the core of Foucault’s ethics. The Self is a reflective concept. How are we to know ‘self’? The answer to this question has a long history in Western philosophical tradition, and Foucault’s ethics attempts to answer it. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the concept of the self through the history of Western Philosophy first, and examine Foucault’s ethics under this light.
108. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Stylianos Giamarelos Contemporary Pursuits of Philosophy as a Way of Life: Cooper, Hadot, Nehamas
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The recent (2012) publication of John M. Cooper’s latest work, Pursuits of Wisdom. Six Ways of Life in Ancient Philosophy from Socrates to Plotinus proves to be the ideal occasion to initiate a dialogue between the three major philosophers of the art of living of our age (John M. Cooper, Pierre Hadot and Alexander Nehamas). By serially addressing the same question to all three of them, this paper retraces and explores their respective (possible) replies on the contemporary relevance of the ancient conception of philosophy as a way of life. Thus, the intellectualism stemming from Cooper’s conception of philosophy as a way of life might imply a challenging reconsideration of our prevalent models of psychological motivation, as well as a radical re-placement of philosophy at the zenith of human knowledge. By granting autonomy to the existential stances, practices and spiritual exercises that originally stemmed from the ancient philosophical schools and their specific discourses, Hadot manages to assert the perpetual relevance of philosophy as an ethical way of life. This serves as a counterpoint to a philosophical art of living that is more akin to a (post-) Nietzschean aesthetics of existence, as exemplified by the last reply offered by Nehamas.
109. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Scott Forschler The “Necessity” Fallacy in Kantian Ethics
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A common strategy in ethical argumentation tries to derive ethical obligations from the rational necessity of not acting against certain “necessary” conditions for satisfying some good end. This strategy is very often fallacious, and works by equivocating over what counts as a “necessary” condition. Very often, what is counted as a necessary condition is not logically necessary for the end in question, but is at most related to it by affecting the probability of the end’s satisfaction. If other conditions affecting the probability of satisfying this (or similar) ends are then discounted as merely “instrumental” or “probabilistic” (in contrast to others imagined as being “necessary”), this strategy has the function of hypocritically privileging some of the arguer’s preferred values over others. We should instead recognize that nearly all conditions affecting the probability of satisfying some good end borrow some value from the value of the end, in proportion to how much they tend to affect its probability of satisfaction. The fallacy tends to support rigid deontological norms; once we abandon it, many arguments against consequentialism are revealed merely as special pleading. Many ethical arguments use this fallacy, but I focus here on its use by Immanuel Kant.
110. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Gerasimos Kakoliris Some Problems with Jacques Derrida’s Concept of Hospitality
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My text focuses on Derrida’s ethics of hospitality. For Derrida, the logic of the concept of hospitality is governed by an absolute antinomy or aporia. On the one hand, there is the law of unlimited hospitality that ordains the unconditional reception of the stranger. On the other, there are the conditional laws of hospitality, which relate to the unconditional law through the imposition of terms and conditions (political, juridical, and moral) upon it. For Derrida, the responsible political action and decision consists of the need to continuously negotiate between these two heterogeneous requirements. One of the problems I trace in Derrida’s aforementioned position is that it resorts to the use of terms such as “pure”, “real”, “genuine” or “absolute”, in order to describe unconditional hospitality and to differentiate it from conditional hospitality. Yet, such terms have been placed into question by deconstruction itself. Moreover, the disjunctive distinction that Derrida installs, at an initial level, between “unconditional” and “conditional” hospitality contradicts the work which he had undertaken during the 1960s and the 1970s of deconstructing basic conceptual hierarchical binary oppositions that govern Western metaphysical thought. Against the rather problematic guiding concept of “unconditional” hospitality, I counter-propose a continuous, incessant effort of limiting violence towards the arriving stranger. My argument draws from the particularly insightful remarks of Derrida regarding the violence that inescapably resides in every act of hospitality as a result of the host’s exercise of sovereignty over his/her home.
111. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Kathie Jenni Bearing Witness for the Animal Dead
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Images of human violence to animals challenge us both psychologically and morally. Sometimes images are so graphic, the treatment they capture so degrading and cruel, that they approach the pornographic. How can we responsibly approach them? Is it more respectful to witness such suffering, or to look away? I explore the notion of bearing witness to animal suffering as a manifestation of respect. I begin by asking why it is important to bear witness to human atrocities such as the Holocaust. Some rationales are forward-looking and consequentialist. We bear witness in the spirit of “never again”: to stir moral motivation and preventive action. But there are also backward-looking and expressive reasons: to show respect for the dead, to express our solidarity and grief, to affirm the moral value of both the lost and the saved. Some might argue that differences between human and nonhuman victims of violence make the latter rationales irrelevant when animal victims are in question. The animal dead did not value being remembered; animal survivors do not share a degrading collective memory of horror and do not care if we acknowledge it. Yet obligations of memory do find a foothold here. Bearing witness to human-animal violence affirms the moral status of animals; it expresses respect and is part of constitutive justice. Bearing witness, however, carries moral risks, so that it matters greatly how one does so. One problem is that witnesses’ “testimony” - usually visual documentation of animal abuse - does not find its way only to compassionate audiences, but also to others who will use it in pernicious ways and some who are simply voyeurs. In this way, the witness can unwillingly become “a pornographer of pain.” Given the motive of paying respect to the animal dead, this is the last outcome a moral witness desires. Yet showing atrocities done to animals in all their horrific detail is among the most powerful ways of gaining allies in the struggle to end animal abuse. In light of such dilemmas, I explore the importance of bearing witness in private and as communal activity, of who attends to animal suffering, and of how and through what media we do so.
112. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Toshihiko Ise Generality and Partiality from a Humean Point of View
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Hume offers two ways of reconciling the partiality of people’s feelings with the generality of moral thinking. First, the general point of view in moral evaluation is not that of a disinterested observer, but of another person who has a close relationship with the person to be judged. Here I find something analogous to the idea of Nel Noddings, who attempts to build an ethical theory on the basis of caring relationships. Second, according to Hume, the generality of the rules of justice is also compatible with partial feelings. Such rules allow everyone to pursue his or her goals without fear of violent intervention from others. My idea is that these rules are comparable to those of a competitive game. The idea of fair competition is not necessarily alien to Noddings’ type of ethical theory. As children, human beings normally learn to be fair in competitive games, along with caring for family members and friends. An ethical ideal of fairness may develop through competitions and help people get along with others beyond narrow circles. Taking into account of the competitive elements in relationship between people will be helpful in giving a fuller picture of a broadly Humean, sentimentalist ethical theory.
113. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Georgy Ishmaev Privacy as an Ethical Value: Is it Natural or Relative?
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Ethics of privacy is not a new but rather well developed topic especially in such areas as medical ethics and genome research. However it is safe to say that this problem is far less explored in moral philosophy. Namely there is a lack of consensus on Meta ethical status of privacy as moral value. This essay suggests some clarifications on the notion of privacy in the ethics of ICT and considers possible approaches to research on privacy issues in ethics. Moral relativism suggests that privacy is a conventional value and it is possible to accept that it may become obsolete if confronted with changing social and cultural environment. Such approach also contributes to the view that privacy is an individual value and it may come in contradiction with societal values. Naturalistic approach on the other hand suggests that privacy is a value intrinsic to human nature, as it is deeply interrelated with phenomena of self-identity. Thus privacy is a crucial value not only to individual but to society as well.
114. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Baruch Herzl On Tolerating the Intolerant
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Popper (1945, 1987, 1994, 1999) was one of the first to diagnose the danger of tolerating those who might undermine toleration. He suggested that new forms of intolerance and violence have created an “unpleasant condition” that the classical liberal philosophers didn’t witness and therefore toleration should be limited only to those who are tolerant and withdrawn from those who are intolerant in the first place. Following Popper, the question “should the intolerant be tolerated?” is usually asked in order to justify a negative answer. In this paper I propose that intolerance as a sole or primary reason to determine toleration is misleading and will probably result with limited toleration and much intolerance. Rather, what is really at stake, I suggest, is whether and how new forms of violence create a kind of intolerance that shouldn’t be tolerated. First, focusing on the question of tolerating the intolerant I compare Popper with the classical liberal philosophers and discuss his explanation of the shift that he undertakes. Then, I examine Ghandi’s creative counter paradigm to the Nazi-kind of threat to toleration, which Popper was, probably, not aware of. Contrary to Popper’s view (and that of many liberal democrats today) I find that most cases of intolerance are partial and transient and not total. Thus, I conclude that we better start with the attitude of tolerating the intolerant.
115. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Indoo Pandey Khanduri Aristotle’s Rectificatory Justice as Foundation of Social Justice
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The present research paper is a modest attempt to explore the philosophical foundations of contemporary social justice from the underlying spirit of rectificatory justice of Aristotle as elaborated in the book five of Nicomachean Ethics. From Aristotlean Ethics, the foundations of social justice could be explored on four fold dimension of spirit, base, assumptions and mechanism. The spirit of rectificatory justice is rectification or correction. The base is arithmetical distribution of the resources on the basis of positive discrimination. The assumption is that injustice has occurred and mechanism is to reduce the undue gains and undue losses. For clear understanding of the theme, we divide it in three parts. The first part of the paper will examine Aristotle’s definition and types of justice and describe briefly the notion of rectificatory justice. The second part will discuss the complex notion of social justice which incorporating brief description of the unjust discrimination based on false assumptions of caste, creed, and sex etc., for debarring and depriving the suppressed group from the due facility and opportunities.. And in the third concluding part, we shall try to see how four fundamentals of Aristotle’s rectificatory justice: spirit, base, assumption and mechanism have contributed to social justice. We shall also try to understand peculiarity of social justice and Aristotelian foundation of recificatory justice in terms of its relevance as the remedial directions.
116. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Anastasia A. Kokovkina Ecological Crisis and Global Responsibility Ethics
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The paper presents an analysis of man and nature relation dynamic in the European culture, its aftermaths and formation of ecology oriented ethic theory. After man has realized his/her being divorced from nature he/she begins perceiving him/herself in the light of his/her own interests. Nature is deprived of its self virtue, it is only considered as a sphere servicing man’s need, its objects have the right to exist as long as they are useful or pleasurable. Nature is excluded from the sphere of morals which only covers interpersonal relation. This attitude leads to the biosphere system crisis, fraught with destruction of natural and human world. The current unprecedented situation of man’s radically increasing technogenic influence on nature demands that this new theory be built up, the theory ought to cover nature and to take into account aftereffect of man’s activities remote in space and time. Hans Jonas is making an attempt to create the theory in his book Das Prinzip Verantwortung: Versuch einer Ethik für die technologische Zivilisation.
117. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Angela Kallhoff Four Types of Natural Norms: A Reconsideration of Aristotelian Naturalism
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Since the Aristotelian notion of eudaimonia was translated as “human flourishing”, the underlying premises have been under discussion. Aristotle appears to say that eudiamonia consists in an excellent development of persons; a human life-form can be sorted out in comparison with other species. This is the starting-point for discussing the relationship between natural capacities of persons and their good lives. In this contribution, I shall develop a scheme which allows interpreting Aristotelian naturalism in four ways: as a theory about natural functions, about natural thriving, about natural mastership, and about comprehensive self-realization. In particular, I shall argue that at its heart Aristotelian naturalism is not about the good life of persons. Instead, it comprises a set of normative claims inherent in his understanding of nature. Building these claims into a theory of the good life is a second step which needs to be analysed on different grounds. In discussing these possibilities, one central outcome will be that none of these ways of reasoning about the good life needs to be rejected because it reintroduces evaluative statements into a theory of nature. Instead, the central problem in reintroducing them into contemporary theories results from interpreting them as a norm for the good life of persons.
118. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Hua Chu Liu On Hursthouse’s Argument for the Objectivity of Virtues
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Rosalind Husthouse’s argumentation for the objectivity of virtue ethics includes three sub-arguments. But her explanations are problematic, because the “objectivity” argument does not have sufficient perspicuity, nor have abundant explanatory persuasion. In comparison with the perspicuity of structure in her work On Virtue Ethics, the three concerning explanations appear more obscure. And such obscurity results in her distinction of the three propositions being groundless, and the effect of her explanations lower than expected. Therefore, argumentation for the objectivity of virtue ethics should use another approach.
119. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Pokker Perilamkulath Kunhammadhajee Ethics and Deconstruction: A Subaltern Perspective
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Deconstruction has paved way for new understanding in almost all realms of knowledge. As a philosophical tool it has produced unprecedented results by its peculiar analysis of many of the canonical texts. Jacques Derrida has shown the way of revealing the limits of our own understanding and of realizing the role of margins in the life-world. In any society the hegemony of ideas exists as the reigning force and the cerebral activities inevitably involve the play of hegemonic ideas. Margins necessarily remain in the periphery of the center. All social discourses hence harbor both hegemonic and marginal implications. Hegemony stands for the ruling ideas and margin for the oppressed or receding ideas. So, in the social interactions communicative ethics is possible only by revealing the relation between the hegemonic and the marginalized. The deconstructive strategy has produced radical shift in the approaches towards the texts. In India or elsewhere the written words communicate certain ideological positions in all realms of life. One of the most important socio-ethical spheres is the implementation of law and the constitutional procedures. Death penalty, for instance, claims to stand for the fulfillment of justice. It is based on “a tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eye” principle. Actually justice never implies punishment since it does not serve any of the interests of social justice. On the other hand, retribution is based on the principle of violence incurring the annihilation of the other. Any punishment involving violence or harm is unethical on the basis of its own logic. The present paper proceeds to deconstruct the logic of punishment and ethics of the constitutional kind.
120. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Dan Lin The 3H Pattern of Scientific Ethics Norms
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Scientific ethics norms include human nature, history, honesty, etc. Owing to scientific ethics norms have resolved into responsibility of the subjects of all kinds of benefit, it means that the responsibility of organizational system of science is not only expanding the correct knowledge, but also the goal that towards trying to gain greater benefits for human being society and the environment. So, in different situation, it can constitute the different understanding and evaluation of scientific activities. The tetrahedron changes with the specific conditions.