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101. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Robert R. Rehder, Helen J. Muller, Gerhard Apfelthaler A German-Japanese-U.S. Manufacturing System for the 21st Century
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Cross-national mergers are flourishing as companies find opportunities to utilize the strengths of the best that each nation has to offer. The recent DaimlerChrysler merger foreshadows how transatlantic mergers may change 21st century relationships between nations and corporations We analyze the cross-national collaborative effort to assemble the prize winning M-Class SUV in Alabama with a Japanese lean production system, U.S. workers, and an American - German management team that foreshadowed the DC alliance. Furthermore, we delineate some of the issues that confront DaimlerChrysler as it adapts the new Mercedes Benz United States International (MBUSI) production system to an Austrian Chrysler plant to respond to European demand for the M-Class Implications far global culture are raised.The authors acknowledge the Anderson Schools of Management (ASM) Foundation Board and the Department of Organizational Studies at ASM that provided partial financial support of this study. We express our appreciation to managers at MBUSI in Alabama for their invaluable comments and hospitality. We thank our colleague Geoff Bannister for his work in an earlier phase of this research project.
102. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Colleen P. Vanderstaay International Trade and Environmental Law After the Uruguay Round: Can it Protect the Environment in the Asia Pacific?
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This paper considers the linkage between trade and environmental law at a multilateral level and in the Asia Pacific region. The issue of trade and the environment forms part of a new trade agenda confronting the World Trade Organization (WTO).
103. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Duane Windsor, Kathleen A. Getz The Consequences of Moral Leadership
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The global economic integration which has evolved over the past two to three decades brings to business and policy-makers a host of opportunities and challenges. One challenge faced by both groups is understanding and managing cross-national differences in ethical standards and behavior. In at least one issue area, significant change in ethical standards has recently occurred. That issue is bribery and corruption.
104. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jacques Delacroix, Emile McAnany Encephalokleptophobia or old-fashioned protectionism?: International trade in screen products, with facts and speculations
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Several countries practice exclusionary policies vis-a-vis films, television programs and other screen products originating elsewhere in the name of the defense of collective cultural identities. Neither common sense nor available tacts are compatible with this justification for this kind of cultural protectionism.
105. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Christopher J. Allen Privacy and the Internet: A New Political Frontier for American Business
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The vast potential of e-commerce and the digital age are prompting American businesses to test the power of new computer technologies in a number of ways, all of which depend on the free flow of information. While American business is leading the world in pioneering new Web-based products and services, some of its more aggressive approaches to collecting sensitive information are running into legal and political objections, and threatening long-held privacy values. While policy makers in the U.S. have generally not intervened on this issue, the European Union last year issued a sweeping data directive which governs the collection and dissemination of a wide range of information. This paper explores the implications of the EU’s Data Directive and other recent events as they relate to corporate political strategy and the evolving privacy debate in the United States.
106. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Nicola Berg Public Affairs Management in Multinational Corporations: Findings of an Empirical Study among German Corporations in India
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In this paper the importance of public affairs management in multinational corporations in India will be examined. After briefly discussing the general relevance of public affairs management in multinational corporations a conceptual framework for public affairs management in multinational corporations will be developed. This framework serves as the theoretical basis for an empirical study among German multinational corporations in India. In the main part of this paper the results of this study will be presented and discussed. The paper ends with a critical assessment and some major implications for further studies.
107. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jeffrey Gale Technology Standards and Integrated Strategy: The Case of the 56K Modem Protocols
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This analysis applies the integrated strategy concept to the development of technology standards, it both expands upon the basic model and uses it to review the case of the standards war in 56K modems.
108. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Virginia W. Gerde, Craig G. White Public Policy and Underlying Values: Impacts on Business
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We examine the income tax treatment of married couples across several industrialized countries to observe the different underlying values and socially acceptable trade-offs between equity and efficiency. Of the three models that emerged, we discuss the unit of taxation, the equal treatment of equal-earning couples, and marriage neutrality.
109. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Lawrence J. Lad, Jill Rothenbueler, Sakthi Mahenthiran Rethinking Regulatory Responsibilities in a Global Economy: Integrating Lessons from Internet Self-Regulation and Professional Attestation
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This paper focuses on the emerging role of industry and professional self-regulation as a vital mechanism in the regulatory mosaic needed for the global economy. It extends previous discussions of industry and professional self-regulation by Gupta and Lad (1983), Lad (1992), and Garvin (1983), to include concepts from systems and organization design (Kridel, 1995), and governance (Williamson, 1997) and applies them to regulatory issues emerging in Internet commerce and accounting standards.
110. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Ann B. Matasar, Joseph N. Heiney Big Banks/Small Customers: The Impact of Riegle-Neal on the Banking Relationship
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Riegle-Neal altered the landscape of American banking by eliminating the prohibitions against interstate banking and branching and paving the way for the consolidation of the American banking system, it has created fewer, stronger banks which service their customers with no significant change in costs through an expanded branching network. Additionally the number of employees, salaries, and net income increased. The pessimism of those who opposed banking reform and the elimination of geographic restrictions on American banks appears unfounded.
111. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Bernhard Mark-Ungericht Newly emerging action groups and TNCs: Strategies, conflicts, interactions and potentials for organizational learning
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In this article I am concerned with new forms of civil society movements and how they interact with companies working internationally. In particular I analyze strategies of the participating players and try to develop some suggestions how organizational learning within complex and conflict-ridden environments could be made possible.
112. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
M. J. H. Oomens, F. A. J. van den Bosch Managing and Organizing for Strategic Issues: an Analysis of European Multinationals' Practice
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This paper focuses on the way in which organizational and managerial processes influence the management of strategic issues within European-based multinational companies. Based on a literature review and case studies, an integrated managerial framework is developed showing the explanatory factors of proactive and reactive strategies in issue management.
113. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Graeme Starr, Bill Kerley New Approaches to Public Consultation on Policy and Regulation in Australia
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This paper represents a preliminary report on ongoing case studies of public consultation in Australia, where significant changes in the political environment have impacted on the regulatory process. The cases reported here suggest that the common arguments for increased public consultation should not be accepted uncritically. In technical areas of policy, however, there are experiments with new approaches to effective regulation involving dimensions of consultation that merit further study and suggest a need for training of players in the consultative processes.
114. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Douglas A. Schuler, Karen E. Schnietz Hustled? U.S. Foreign Trade Missions, Corporate Political Contributions and Changes in Firm Value
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The Clinton Administration's activist foreign trade mission program has received much attention. Commerce Secretary Ron Brown was applauded for helping American firms break into often difficult-to-enter emerging markets. Since the number of firms seeking to participate regularly outstrips the supply of seats on missions, firms appear to agree that they provide economic benefit. However, there have also been widespread allegations that firms are chosen for participation based on political contributions. This paper finds that, although the firms chosen to participate on trade missions made significantly larger political contributions than firms not chosen for participation, they experienced no increase in shareholder value.
115. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Teresa J. Rothausen, Charles M. Gray Psychological and Economic Perspectives on Work-Family and Potential Implications for Public and Organizational Policy
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The increased labor force participation rate of women has caused a shift in the social fabric of the United States and other industrialized countries. In response, there has been an explosion of work-family related research in psychology in the past several years. At the same time, economists have developed models for understanding the family and the work-family interface. Social costs of the way the work-family interface is managed in the United States have been identified in the psychological literature, but not incorporated into the economics models. This paper seeks to bridge that gap and discusses locus of responsibility for the work-family interface and policy implications thereof.
116. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Stelios Zyglidopoulos From Buffering to Bridging: An Investigation into the Brent Spar Controversy
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Managers fxing reputational crises can follow a buffering or a bridging approach. However, despite the importance of this decision, the reasons behind such a choice have not been adequately studied. This paper draws on die Brent Spar controversy to investigate the reasons behind Shell’s initial decision to buffer, and the reasons behind its subsequent change of mind into a bridging position.
117. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Shawn Berman, Heather Elms Visionary Companies and Their Stakeholders: Do Shareholders Share the Vision?
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This paper reviews and evaluates the current literature on visionary companies by empirically examining the behavior of shareholders in these companies. Given the articulated interest of these companies in long-term performance, shareholders in visionary companies should demonstrate lower rates of share turnover than shareholders in non-visionary companies. Results indicate instead that shareholders in visionary and non-visionary companies do not demonstrate significantly different rates of share turnover. These results suggest that shareholders in visionary companies do not share the vision, and thus question the ultimate effectiveness of these visions.
118. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Steven N. Brenner Integrating Mitchell, Agle and Wood’s Stakeholder Identification Approach With Brenner and Cochran’s Stakeholder Theory of the Firm: New Insights and Understanding
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Mitchell, Agle and Wood’s (MAW) recent AMR paper, “Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts,” provides a valuable lens through which to consider many stakeholder theory contributions. The criteria MAW use to sort potential stakeholders into more or less salient categories and the logical rationale behind those criteria illuminate the meaning of the four Stakeholder Theory of the Firm propositions in Brenner and Cochran (1991) and the extended set of six such propositions in Brenner (1995).
119. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Margaret Cording Compensation in the Financial Services Industry: A Modest Narrative on Conflicting Stakeholder Interests
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This paper uses a true example to explore how one firm adjudicated between conflicting stakeholder demands. Four normative theories of stakeholder management are examined to determine if the firm acted morally. In prescribing approaches for stakeholder adjudication, three of the four theories suggest the use of shared norms and values. Unpacking the example in these terms leads us to the counter-intuitive conclusion that breaking an implicit contract with employees in order to meet shareholder expectations is in fact morally acceptable within the culture of the financial services industry.
120. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jennifer J. Griffin Tracing Stakeholder Terminology: Convergence or Divergence?
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The increased focus on stakeholders and stakeholder research has ostensibly resulted in a ‘Tower of Babel” effect, where “there are many different disciplinary voices, talking in different languages to different issues and audiences” (Shrivastava, 1993: 33) about a seemingly similar topic: stakeholders. This study content analyzes recent stakeholder research to identify areas of convergence and divergence. We develop an organizing framework of stakeholder research focused on: structural, relational, and outcome components. Implications for future research are discussed.