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101. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Aleksandra Derra Explicit and Implicit Assumptions in Noam Chomsky's Theory of Language
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The author identifies selected implicit or not fully explicit assumptions made by Noam Chomsky in his theory of language. Through a careful examinationof Chomsky's work, she aims to present the solutions this linguist proposes with respect to two fundamental questions: the question of methodology and thequestion of the ontological status of language. After reviewing the central theses of Chomsky's theory in the first part of the paper, she tums to the question that ismentioned in the title of this paper, that is, the reservations regarding the assumptions underlying Chomsky's work.
102. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Stanisław Ziemiański Time and Its Philosophical Implications
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The conception of time, presented by St. Augustine, unites within itself the physical-philosophical views of Aristotle, and its own psychological view concerning the lived experience of the flow of sensory impressions from the past towards the future. H. Majkrzak (1999) underlines, in Augustine, the existential moment of time. The time of a human life is limited: it is situated within borders stretching from the day of birth to the day of death. This faithful and precise representationof the Augustinian conception of time, nevertheless brings the reader up against a problem: What value does it have today?
103. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Mostafa Taqavi, Mohammad Saleh Zarepour The Strong Version of Underdetermination of Theories by Empirical Data: Comments on Wolenski's Analysis
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The Polish researcher in the field of logic and philosophy, Jan Woleński, in one of his recent articles, „Metalogical Observations About the Underdeterminationof Theories by Empirical Data," logically formalized two weak and strong versions of the underdetermination of theories by empirical data (or UT by abbreviation)and with these formalization has metalogically analyzed these two versions. Finally he has deducted that the weak version is defensible while the strong version is not. In this paper we will critically study Woleński's analysis of the strong version of UT.
104. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
John McDade Simone Weil and Gerard Manley Hopkins on God, Affliction, Necessity and Sacrifice
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Simone Weil's ideas on affliction and sacrifice have been interpreted by some as though they are the product of psychological problems. I will approachher writings on necessity and affliction through G. M. Hopkins' little prose masterpiece. Later I will suggest that she may be profitably related to some French spiritual writers in the 17th Century, who develop a link between the necessity of offering sacrifice to God and the radical contingency of created existence.
105. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Jarosław Paszyński Weisheit Gottes nach Thomas von Aquin
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Thomas von Aquin geht davon aus, dass Gott die erste und einzige Ursache der Wirklichkeit ist, und somit alle Vollkommenheiten der geschaffenen Seienden in Gott auf eminente und vollkommene Weise zu finden sind. Deswegen ist die Weisheit aufgmnd der Analogie als Eigenschaft Gottes zu verstehen, und zwar als Wesenseigenschaft. Diese Weisheit besteht in der Erkenntnis, mit der Gott sich selbst erkennt. Die Weisheit bezieht sich auch auf die zweite Person der Trinität, die als das gezeugte Wort die Weisheit des Vaters ist. Betreffs des Schöpftingswerkes ist Gott als Schöpfer nicht nur causa efficiens der Seienden, sondern auch causa exemplaris und causa finalis. Mit der causa exemplaris ist die Weisheit Gottes gemeint.
106. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Henryk Machoń Tertium non datur? Der Streit zwischen Idealismus und Dogmatismus in Fichtes Versuch einer Neuen Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre
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Der Beitrag präsentiert wesentliche Bestandteile von Fichtes Wissenschaftslehre mit einigen kritischen Bemerkungen. Als repräsentatives Beispiel seiner philosophischen Position, die zugleich die Gmndlage seines wissenschaftlichen Systems bildet, steht Fichte den Streit zwischen zwei möglichen philosophischen Systeme dar: dem Idealismus und dem Dogmatismus. In Auseinandersetzung mit dem Dogmatismus findet er die Begründung für die idealistische Position durch die Analyse von Begriffen und Phänomenen wie Erfahmng, Bewusstsein, Erkenntnis und schließlich Freiheit. Die Freiheit, verstanden als eine bewusste Entscheidung, nötigt den Philosophen zur Wahl einer konkreten Form von Philosophie, weil sie davon abhängt, was für ein Mensch man ist.
107. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Danuta Ługowska Evolutionary Psychology as the Contemporary Myth
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Science or myth? This question contains the basic problem, arising from the analysis of evolutionary psychology. The problem in question refers to the status of the interpretations of reality promoted by the evolutionists, in particular in reference to the human being. This article is an attempt to present an argument for the following thesis: firstly, that there are no scientific criteria for evaluating hypotheses in evolutionary psychology; and secondly that the theses of the discipline contain certain cultural contents - which until present times were carried by myth.
108. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Fedor Stanzhevskiy Towards a Hermeneutics of Religion(s). A Reading of Ricoeur's Readings
109. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Saladdin Ahmed What is Sufism?
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Most Westem scholars define Sufism as the spirituality of Islam or the mystical version of Islam. It is thought to be the inward approach to Islam that emerged and flourished in the non-Arab parts of the Islamic world. Most scholars like William Stoddart think that Sufism is to Islam what Yoga is to Hinduism, Zen to Buddhism, and mysticism to Christianity (Stoddart 1976, p. 19). In this essay, I will shed light on the major lines and elements in the philosophy of Sufism. I willtry to give a concrete account of Sufism by introducing its major features within the relevant Islamic tradition and history.
110. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Kazimierz Rynkiewicz Eine Skizze der Ontologie der Welt und des Menschen bei Wittgenstein und Ingarden
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Ziel des vorliegenden Aufsatzes ist es, die Existenz von eventuellen Berührungspunkten zwischen Wittgenstein und Ingarden nachzuweisen. Nach einer kurzen Einfuhmng wird anfangs der Hintergrund der Analyse des Problems formuliert. Darauf hin werden die Positionen Wittgensteins Ontologie mit wenigen Begriffen und Ingardens dreistufige Ontologie jeweils skizzenhaft dargestellt und kritisch auf das Vorhandensein von gemeinsamen Gmndlinien geprüft. Als Gesichtspunkte gelten dabei folgende Begriffe: Ontologie, Weh und Mensch, Sprache und Ästhetik. Abschließend werden die charakteristischen Merkmale vonBerührungspunkten genannt.
111. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Jan-Kyrre Berg Olsen Metaphysics and Time
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The leap from primitive to scientific time represented as the „time" in „relativity physics", or in „thermodynamics" or perhaps in „quantum physics" or even within „Statistical mechanics" is large. Large also is the conceptual difference between these various understandings of the nature of time. How are we really to understand these physical perspectives on time: As knowledge about the real nature of time represented by the objective concepts: Or as epistemologicaloperational abstractions that cannot avoid elevating their results to the level of full-fledged reality, to ontology?
112. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Piotr Moskal Is There a Metaphysical Proof of God's Existence?
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What determines whether the procedures for proving the affirmative statement of God's existence may be called a proof? Certainly, it is necessary that all premises be true and that a reliable inference schemata be applied. One premise appears to be the most critical in the theistic argument. This premise is theprinciple of sufficient reason. I hold the view that the principle of sufficient reason cannot be found among the premises of any metaphysical explanation of reality,so I suggest that the terms 'proof and 'argument' not be used. Instead, we could speak of ways of acquiring discursive knowledge of God and ways of indirectsubstantiation of God's existence.
113. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Grzegorz Hołub Being a Person and Acting as a Person
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The article is primarily concemed with the ambiguities which surround the concept of the person. According to the philosophical tradition taking its roots from Locke's definition, personhood depends on consciousness. Therefore, 'personhood' can be ascribed to different entities, and only these entities acquire a moral standing. This can entail that a human being may or may not be considered as a person, as well as higher animals and even artificial machines. Everything depends on manifest personal characteristics. In order to sort out different meanings ascribed to 'person,' I distinguish between being a person and acting as a person. Then, I show that a human being is a paradigm of the person and his being always precedes his acting.
114. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Robert Grzywacz En quel sens la fiction possède-t-elle une fonction cognitive? Le texte à la jonction entre le langage poétique vif et I'action sensée selon P. Ricoeur
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L'article aborde la question de la fonction cognitive de la fiction. Le dernier terme englobe le langage métaphorique vif aussi bien que ce que l'on appelle «textes». La question considérée implique une théorie générale du discours, présentant celui-ci comme dialectique de I'événement et du sens. La métaphore,en tant qu'innovation sémantique, renvoie à la médiation d'un travail inventif de rimagination. Le problème qui s'ensuit conceme la référence des énoncés métaphoriques. Le récit, avec sa composition interne, introduit le thème du temps. C'est en lien avec l'expérience temporelle de l'action humaine que le récit de fiction s'entrecroise avec I'historiographie. La notion même de fiction en sort transformée par l'intermédiaire de l'activité heuristique de l'imagination.
115. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Michael-John Turp Naturalized Epistemology and the Normative
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Gradually emerging from the so-called 'linguistic turn', philosophy in the second half of the twentieth century witnessed what we might follow P. M. S. Hacker in describing as a 'naturalistic turn'. This change of direction, an abandonment of traditional philosophical methods in favour of a scientific approach, or critics would say a scientistic approach, has met with widespread approval. In the first part of the paper I look to establish the centrality of the normative to the discipline of epistemology. I then turn to examine Quine's attempt to reduce normative discourse to instrumental rationality, and the more fully developed accounts provided by Stich, Kombiith and Papineau. I argue that these accounts fail because they insist on a constitutive connection between desires and the ends of epistemic activity. I conclude with the suggestion that a more plausible position severs this connection, in favour of an objective, externalist account of ends and reasons.
116. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Martin Poulsom The Pros and Cons of 'Intelligent Design'
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The theories of Darwinian evolution and Intelligent Design appear to be locked in an intractable debate, partly because they offer rival scientific explanationsfor the phenomenon of descent with modification in biology. This paper analyses the dispute in two ways: firstly, it seeks to clarify the exact nature of thelogical flaw that has been alleged to lie at the heart of Intelligent Design theory. Secondly, it proposes that, in spite of this error, the Intelligent Design theory advocated by Michael Behe takes at least one significant step in the right direction. Although Behe's suggestion is promising, it is shown to be not nearly radicalenough.
117. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Robert Simpson Avoiding the Afterlife in Theodicy: Victims of Suffering and the Argument from Usefulness
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Contemporary proponents of theodicy generally believe that a theodical reply to the evidential argument from evil must involve some appeal to the afterlife. In Richard Swinburne's writings on theodicy, however, we find two arguments that may be offered in opposition to this prevailing view. In this paper, these two arguments - the argument from usefulness and the argument from assumed consent - are explained and evaluated. It is suggested that both of these argumentsare rendered ineffective by their failure to distinguish between the different ways in which persons may be of-use in the attainment of some good state of affairs.
118. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Paul Douglas Kabay Did God Begin to Exist ex nihilo?
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I argue that the following two claims provide us with sufficiently strong reason to conclude that God came into existence from nothing a finite time in the past: (1) that God is omnitemporal; and (2) that there is a first moment of time. After defending the possibility of God beginning to exist ex nihilo from various objections, I critique two alternative attempts at providing an account of the relationship between an omnitemporal God and the beginning of time (that of Alan Padgett and William Lane Craig). I show that these either fail to be an alternative to my own model or are less supported by the relevant evidence.
119. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Jacek Bielas, Rafał Abramciów Dimensions of corporeality. A metatheoretical analysis of anthropologists’ concern with the human body
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Since the very dawn of its history, modern philosophical anthropology has been addressing the issue of the human body. As a result of those efforts, Descartes,de Biran, Husserl, Sartre, Marcel, Merleau-Ponty and others have brought forward a variety of conceptions concerning various aspects of human corporeality.Anthropological explorations concerning the question of the human body, appear in a particularly interesting way, when they are considered in the context ofthose points of view which, in an essential way, refer to the subjective character of the human being. It is a matter of reconstructing and analyzing how the subject’s corporeality is given to the subject, originarily, according to the phenomenological rule zu den Sachen selbst. The aim of this paper is thus to put into some order the concerns of a variety of anthropologists with regard to the question of the human body, as it is given to, or experienced by, the subject. A metatheoretical analysis of this field proves it is possible to do so with the use of a tool, which is called here, a dimension of corporeality.
120. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Piotr Stanisław Mazur The Dignity of the Person in the Context of Human Providence
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Thomas Aquinas understands providence as the reason of directing things to ends (ratio ordinis rerum in finem), and as the execution of that directing, i.e. governance (gubernatio). Thus, providence is one of the fundamental attributes of the person that reveals the person’s perfection and dignity. Providence consists in a free and reasonable directing of oneself and the reality subject to oneself in order to actualize potentialities of oneself and of other beings in the context of the ultimate goal of existence. Human providence joins the providence of the Absolute with regard to the world. In spite of its deficiencies human providence reveals the essential dignity of the human person.