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101. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Irina Frasin The Myth of Alexander the Great. A Model for Understanding "the Other"
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Under Alexander the Great the Greeks conquered Asia. This extraordinary undertaking was made possible, beside the military achievement, by the Greek thought and philosophy. The belief in the superiority of the Greek over the barbarian and freedom of the first and slavery of the second rendered the conquest and domination of Asia into a noble "mission of civilization". What is more, Western historians of philosophy and culture have used this Greek self-understanding to legitimate the view of Western cultural superiority based on universalism.But the expedition and conquest was also an amazing opportunity of meeting and knowing directly "the Other". What Alexander discovered was that the world was much larger than it was thought in Athens and the barbarians were not so unreasonable as Aristotle believed. All these things, that raged the king's contemporaries, are very well kept by his legend. The deep sense of his adventures is revealed by the legend. Alexander, passionate for adventure, discovery, curious to know "the Other" is the hero that fights the absolute "other": the foreigner, the barbarian, the monster. But with all his actions he demonstrates that "the Other" can be recognized, understood and even loved.And maybe his extraordinary discovery should guide us as a model in the turbulent times we live in which cultural differences become more and more important.
102. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Teodor Negru The Modernist Project of Post-Humanism
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The idea this article relies on is that we should rethink cultural distance between modernism and post-modernism. We can no longer support the thesis of a radical break between the two cultural periods since many of the changes that have marked our contemporary world were initiated or at least announced in the modern period. Besides the cultural and epistemic factors, the socioeconomic conditions have also contributed to shape a new sensitivity and a new outlook. One of the major contributions to this change was the replacement of the epistemic pedestal - oriented toward the metaphysical knowledge of the world - with a kind of knowledge inspired by the model of sciences which determined the understanding of the world as a „standing-reserve" (Heidegger). Thus, we speak about a techno-world, which is not merely a consequence of our way of interacting with our fellow beings or the environment. It is also a consequence of our wayof creating reality. The post-humanist approach of the man - similarly to modern utopias - considers technology the main means of improving human condition. Furthermore, we need to see in post-humanism the hope of rethinking humanity in a world growingly devoid of spiritual values.
103. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Dan Chiţoiu The Founding Ideas of the Modern Cultural Horizon and the Meanings of Reason
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The present text investigates the key ideas of the modern cultural horizon, and especially the meanings of what we call Reason. Modernity brings a certain understanding of Reason sought as the main human capacity. But this understanding took the shape of a belief, fact visible everywhere not only in the scientific investigation but also in other cultural forms, among which were philosophy and theology. And also became an ideology. Yet, the last century, especially in its second half, provided interpretative instruments and paradigms which made possible the recovery of the cultural perspectives and especially of the spirituality from the Eastern European area, which had other ground than the paradigm of the modern rationalism.
104. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Radu Vasile Chialda From "The Worlds" of Hegel to "The Civilizations" of Huntington and "The Waves" of Toynbee
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Starting from the cyclic principle in the process of a society's development, invoking „the end of history" that Hegel mentions, adding the paradoxical principle of Huntington's civilizations, of a unity in diversity, through which we can have a clear and universal image of the conflicts, as actions generated by a cultural-religious interaction, and passing these through the filter of the noble origin of the Occidental civilization, we renew a typology of the inter-societies conflict and we keep the possibility of finding some methods for settling them.
105. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Laura Arcila Villa On Teaching Philosophy
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Wittgenstein's conception of philosophy raises two questions about the teaching of philosophy and its place in a liberal arts curriculum. First, Wittgenstein denies that philosophy is a body of doctrine, affirms that it is an activity, and assumes that the two alternatives are incompatible. This implies that teaching a body of content is not teaching philosophy and leaves open the question whether there is any relevant sense of "teaching" appropriate to the activity. On the other hand, Wittgenstein understands ethics to be an autonomous inquiry, separate from philosophy, into what is most valuable and important. This view suggests that concerns about our human condition and future are beyond the reach of philosophy, and leaves open the question whether insight into them through philosophy is possible at all.I discuss central features of Wittgenstein's conception of philosophy to explore answers to these questions and to reject the suggestion that philosophy could turn out to be utterly irrelevant in the education and life of students. I propose that the value of philosophy resides in what we do and take Wittgenstein's eloquent metaphor from Philosophical Investigations as a point of reference: "what we do is to bring words back from their metaphysical to their everyday uses". Philosophy, therefore, is not something we can teach, even though it is an activity we should encourage.
106. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Frederic Will Language, Time, and Die Tat: What do I remember when I remember that my wife said to get milk on the way home?
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"Die Tat" concerns the effort to recapture a particular memory. In searching to recover that memory trace the writer discovers that the memory datum itself diffuses and breaks up into the present remembering action of the one who remembers. The essay anatomizes that process of diffusion, and tries to come up with a definition of memory.
107. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Marius Sidoriuc The Concept of Ruin and the Ruin of Concepts
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In the following pages I attempted to elaborate, in situ, on the conceptual reshapings realized by the concept of ruin and the ruin of concept starting from thequestion of the legitimacy of their construction. Ruins have an aesthetic, moral, political and religious power supervened on account of what historical, archaeological, epistemological, philosophical and other types of interpretation reorientate which is not conferred by their simple “objectality” but by the concept that includes them which shows a mutual inversion of the conceptual and causative connection of the forming process of ruins. I limited myself to searching how the concept of ruin is formed and the ruin of concepts shows structures which fall into topos (textual sources) and objects from which ruins are taken, without analyzing the multitude of concepts about ruins which require, methodically, separate analyses.
108. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
A.L. Samian Newton's Perspective on Mathematical Problems
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Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) contribution to the quantitative aspects of mathematics are well known compared to his views on it's qualitative aspect. In this paper, the author attempts to examine Newton.s position with regard to the orientation of mathematical problems based on some of his own writings on the subject.
109. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Tomiţă Ciulei Nihil est in intellectu quod non primus fuerit in sensu. The limits of Gnoseologic Paradigm, from Aristotle to Locke
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The limits of gnoseologic paradigm, from Aristotle to Locke. The effort here has its basis in the need to overcome limits of interpretation, tabulations and classifications that often accompany analyses on classic empirism, in general and his Locke, in particular. We try to find aut in Greek philosophy the germs of moderat empirism. And if Aristotel is undeniable, such a possible start, will wonder, perhaps, Plato's thought.
110. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Maximiliano E. Korstanje Delinquency, Crime and Order under Debate
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Western societies characterize by promoting material well-being enrooted in legal-rational administration as a form of development. Although, the study of crime has been broadly studied in recent years, many scholars devoted attention in analysing the bridge between authority and penitentiaries. This paper obliges us to rethink the relationship between mythopoeia, punishment and crime. Social deviation is often represented as a taboo wherein offender is loathed. Each group in different ways legitimates their own ways of economical production. Our modern capitalist world is provided with an impersonal logic based on imbalances of class and the exploitation of weaker workers. Inversely, the life in prison draws on solidarity considering violence and strength as a mechanism for social upward. From this point of view, everyone who abused of weakest in their crimes are subdued to the authority of all who are jailed due to crimes committed against strongest, the State or the Police. Not only the logic of civility is upheld, but also the prisoners trivialize the power of State in spite of rehearsed hardermethod of repression. Certainly, by understanding the nuances of this discourse in sites of imprisonment are a pathway to realize about the limitations of our own society and style of life. The otherness calls our difference questioning our proper way of constructing the reality.
111. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Maximiliano E. Korstanje Understanding the Disaster: The Case of Cromagnon Sanctuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina, a Place where Conflict, Religion and Power Converge
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The present piece is aimed at discussing the relationship between religion and political power. Basically, social psychology like other humanistic sciences had been fully impacted by the effects of first and Second World War. Under such a context, many scholars devoted particular attention to the study of prejudice and discrimination. In the following pages we will try to synthesize how religion contributes for the conformation of ideology and social depictions. In part, this does not suffice to affirm religion is responsible for nationalism but both share analogical element in their respective formations. This paper is accompanied with the analysis of an empirical research carried out from 2006-2007 in Cromagnon Sanctuary, Buenos Aires Argentina. In brief, let us readers to remind that on 30 December of 2004, more than 400 hundred youths congregated to celebrate a new year and hear Callejeros recital, their favorite Rock and Roll band. But came out wrong whenever a flare impacted in the ceiling firing suddenly all stadiums wherein this event was being carried out. As a result of this tragic accident, 194people died and more than 400 manifested diverse respiratory chronic pathologies. This event was well known as the Republic of Cromagnon tragedy.
112. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Elif Çirakman “The Inwardness of the Modern Mind”: Reading Henry James through a Hegelian Spirit
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The aim of this article is to investigate the ways in which memory and imagination operate in and through the development of consciousness in literary texts. Itsguiding theme shall be the double consciousness in modern life which sets the plot for one of the masterpieces of Henry James, The Ambassadors (1903). Thus The Ambassadors artfully crafts the “inwardness of the modern mind” by plotting it as a process of maturity and of becoming mindful through the powers of imagination, recollection and memory. The prospect of the novel consists in the possibility of envisioning a sense of freedom or of life that is one’s own making. The interpretation that I endorse here is guided by the question of intimacy and its relation to freedom, and is made in the light of what Hegel says in his Philosophy of Mind with regard to the development of mind’s powers. This assessment may disclose a way of learning and growing through becoming mindful of the oppositions that pervade the modern mind. Henry James and Hegel, each in their unique way, recollect this lesson that modern life teaches by raising it to a higher consciousness as we find in the form of their art and philosophy.
113. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Kiymet Selvi Teachers’ Competencies
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The aim of this article is to discuss and clarify the general framework of teachers’ competencies. The general framework regarding teacher competencies wereexplained in nine different dimensions as field competencies, research competencies, curriculum competencies, lifelong learning competencies, social-cultural competen cies, emotional competencies, communication competencies, information and communication technologies competencies (ICT) and environmental competencies. Teachers’ competencies affect their values, behaviors, communication, aims and practices in school and also they support professional development and curricular studies. Thus, the discussion on teachers’ competencies to improve the teaching-learning process in school is of great importance.
114. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Carmen Cozma Reviving a Cardinal Value: Sophrosýne
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In the context of today.s moral and ecological crisis, and the accelerated advance of information and communication technologies, when human beings intensively experience their own fragility, a major question is that of well-being. That raises the issue of moral health, which represents, in an axiological and normative sense, a basis for the human being to find proper opportunities for remaking and protecting the beingness' equilibrium in face of a variety of risks in a society of excesses. We consider that a significant element of moral health lies in the old Greek value of sophrosýne. In this essay, we highlight its meaning and role. We do this by reviving the core of a wise learning coming from Ancient philosophy about one of the moral excellences. Sophrosýne is approached as a necessary factor in human well-being; it is pursued in the prophylactic and therapeutic potential for the maintenance of human health; finally, it is developed inits fundamental action of allowing happiness in a well-functioning and self-fulfilling life of the human being.
115. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Frederic Will Directionalities
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The essay hypothesizes a norm condition of stasis—the mood of sentient peace occupied on a quiet porch. From there the psyche is drawn upward by concept, into the benign/abstract world or downward into the pre-verbal which links us with prespeech man/woman. Is there any default position in this map of the positions of consciousness?
116. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Thomas Kochalumchuvattil The Importance of Subjectivity in Overcoming Ethnical Conflicts in Africa: a Philosophical Reflection
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Africa’s widespread problems are well publicized and none receives more attention than that of periodic outbreaks of ethnic violence. Past events in Rwanda, and in the ongoing conflict in Darfur-Sudan, linger in the memory while the outbreak of postelection violence in Kenya is a more recent example of the seemingly endless capacity of Africa to generate ethnic unrest. The problems of Africa have become the subject of intense philosophical debate and reflection in an effort to find a just and sustainable future for the continent. This contribution to the ongoing debate will argue that the root cause of ethnic violence (and indeed many of Africa’s other problems) is a lack of subjectivity and that the insights of Søren Kierkegaard, with regard to the role of subjectivity in intersubjective relations, will not only give us a perspective on the origins of these problems, but through education, offer a way forward to a more optimistic future.
117. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Xiaoxiao Wang Comparison Analysis on Architectural Culture in China and Western Countries
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Architecture culture is the synthesis of material possession and spiritual wealth, created by human society history development and reflects historic continuity and nationality character. This paper has a comprehensive comparison analysis on distinctions of originality, architecture characteristic, developing logic, art forms, and intention between China and Western Countries exhibited on architectural culture, including three parts: ancient period, current period, and future development. Through comparison studies, it presents a comprehensive cognition on different cultural backgrounds and unique exhibition forms for different architectural styles on China and Western Countries; have a deeper understanding on architectural culture communion in two different civilization zones; and find a future developing way with ethical features and spirit for Chinese and Western architecture.
118. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Sanja Ivic European Human Rights Binaries
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In the following lines the symbolic oppression founded on binary hierarchies that exist inside the framework of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Basic Freedoms will be presented. In those binary oppositions opposed terms are not equally valued. One of these terms is dominant, while the other is subordinated and mostly defined only as the first term’s other. This symbolic oppression creates various forms of discrimination. This paper argues that this problem can be resolved by deliberative democracy. Effective deliberation leads to more informed public sphere which is capable to embrace otherness and diversity.
119. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Raffaella Santi From the History of Philosophy to the History of Science: Hegel’s influence on Whewell
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William Whewell is usually portraied as an anti-Hegelian. This article shows that, despite his criticism for Hegel’s philosophical system, Whewell was influenced by the Hegelian “historical” approach in the Lectures on the History of Philosophy, and by the conception of the progressive development of though (philosophy for Hegel, science for Whewell) as a dialectical unity.
120. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Till Kinzel Segun Afolabi, Transnational Identity, and the Politics of Belonging
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This paper explores the implications of mass migration and the conditions of hybridization for early 21st century Western societies in texts dealing with migrantexperiences. The novel Goodbye Lucille (2007) by the Afro-cosmopolitan writer Segun Afolabi will be explored with respect to the crucial problem of an ethics and politics of belonging, related to the recent controversies surrounding multiculturalism and issues of migration. This text deals with the “in-between world” of migrants and negotiates questions of identity, alienation and belonging in a so-called transcultural/transnational context. The issues raised in Segun Afolabi's fiction are addressed by employing the ways of thinking developed in political philosophy, including recent phenomenological attempts to theorize the notion of “home” and “belonging” (e.g., by Karen Joisten, but also Martin Heidegger) in order to deal with the complexities of the issue. The question, “What constitutes the good life for the individual and the political community?”, needs to be considered by taking into account the current plurality of approaches to forging identitiesin the political sphere as well. The subtlety of literary accounts of this phenomenon – literature may indeed be one of the best diagnostic instrument for studying a society – sheds light, I suggest, on the conditions of politically relevant identity formations. A close reading of literary texts such as those by Afolabi offers an important contribution to a realistic, and therefore complex and complicating, account of our overall situation in the Western world with respect to the politics of belonging.