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101. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 4
Connie Kagan Philosophy and Animal Protection Legislation: A Personal Account
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102. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 4
David S. Levin Orcid-ID Informed Consent and Surgical Training
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103. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 4
Clifton Perry Some Ethical Concerns with the Minimum Drinking Age Law
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104. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 4
Elizabeth Grimbergen From Philosophical Systems to Business Systems
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105. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 4
Tibor R. Machan Is There a Right to be Wrong?
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106. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 4
Jeffrey Blustein Adolescence and Criminal Responsibility
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107. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 4
Carl F. Cranor Joint Causation, Torts, and Regulatory Law in Workplace Health Protections
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108. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
David Coady Rumour Has It
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Rumours are widely held to be both epistemically and morally suspect. This article concentrates on the epistemic arguments against rumours, since the moral arguments tend to be dependent on them. I conclude that the usual arguments against believing rumours and engaging in rumour-mongering are extremely weak. I compare the epistemic status of rumours to the epistemic status of some rival methods of acquiring information, and conclude that rumours are an important and irreplaceable source of justified belief and knowledge.
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109. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Sally Scholz Just War Theory, Crimes of War, and War Rape
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Recent decades have witnessed rape and sexual violence used on such a massive scale and often in a widespread and systematic program that the international community has had to recognize that rape and sexual violence are not just war crimes but might be crimes against humanity or even genocide. I suggest that just war theory, while limited in its applicability to mass rape, might nevertheless offer some framework for making the determination of when sexual violence and rape constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide. In addition, just war theory can provide the normative justification individual soldiers need to resist orders and actions that demonstrate egregious moral breakdown as found in instances of mass rape and systematic use of sexual violence, and just war criteria demonstrate that the use of rape and sexual violence in war time can never be legitimated, especially in the case of prisoner interrogation.
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110. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Mike W. Martin Moral Creativity
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Moral creativity consists in identifying, interpreting, and implementing moral values in ways that bring about new and morally valuable results, often in response to an unprecedented situation. It does not mean inventing values subjectively, as Sartre and Nietzsche suggested. Moral creativity plays a significant role in meeting role responsibilities, exercising leadership, developing social policies, and living authentically in light of moral ideals. Kenneth R. Feinberg’s service in compensating the victims of 9/11 provides a paradigm instance.
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111. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
James Griffith The Tensions Between ‘Criminal’ and ‘Enemy’ as Categories for Globalized Terrorism
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This paper examines the tensions at play in three important documents involved in the ‘war on terror’: the “Application of Treaties” White House Legal Counsel Memo of 2001, the “National Security Strategy” document of 2002, and the 2004 Supreme Court decision Hamdi v. Rumsfeld. Reading these documents, it becomes clear that there is an overarching misunderstanding and confusion of the traditionally separate concepts of ‘criminal’ and ‘enemy’ in the struggle against globalized terrorism.
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112. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Joseph Grcic The Rule of Law and Presidential Pardon
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The presidential pardon as it currently exists is a violation of the separation of powers, checks and balances, and rule of law. With the exception of impeachment, the pardon power of the president is not subject to judicial review. The court has no rights to deny a pardon even though it may violate many explicit laws and implicit values of the constitution. It seems clear that the current form of the presidential power is a usurpation of the role of the judiciary making the president judge and jury combining as it does the legislative and judicial function in the presidency. This unilateral and essentially unchecked power of the presidency threatens the consistency and unity of the government for it is independent and beyond the scope of legal restraint of the other branches of government.
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113. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Christine McKinnon Varieties of Insincerity
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Agents can be insincere in many different ways. They can utter claims they take to be false, or they can utter true claims with an intention to deceive their audiences. While both liars and virtual liars are committed truth-seekers, they are poor truth-sharers. Agents can also deceive about their reasons for holding the true beliefs that they hold: cheaters and plagiarists deceive about the justifications of their true beliefs, and they intentionally exploit our normative practices of evaluating cognitive agents. Agents can also be insincere about their commitment to truth-seeking enterprises. They may pose as serious truth-seekers and earnest truth-sharers, but they are what Frankfurt identifies as bullshitters: they do not care whether what they say is true. In this paper, I examine these different ways of deceiving others, and I assess Frankfurt’s charge that bullshit is worse than lies.
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114. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Emrys Westacott The Rights and Wrongs of Rudeness
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Rudeness is normally viewed as a moral failing, but there are times when it is excusable or even justified. In this article I propose a definition of the concept that helps us ascertain whether, why, and to what extent a rude action is blameworthy or excusable. I consider the most common sorts of circumstance in which rudeness is morally acceptable, and I argue that the perceived increase in rudeness is, in large part, a consequence of our living in a dynamic society where egalitarian attitudes challenge established hierarchies.
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115. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Peter Olsthoorn Honor and the Military
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This article deals with the notion of honor and its role in today’s military as an incentive in combat, but also as a check on the behavior on both the battlefield and in modern “operations other than war.” First, an outline will be given of what honor is and how it relates to traditional views on military courage. After that, the Roman honor-ethic, stating that honor is a necessary incentive for courageous behavior and that it is something worth dying for, is contrasted with today’s prevailing view which sees honor as something obsolete and archaic and not as a legitimate motive. The article then addresses the way honor continues to have a role in today’s military, despite its diminishing role in society at large. Subsequently, the drawbacks of the military’s use of the honor ethic are addressed, focusing also on the current operation in Iraq. The final section tries to find a solution to these problems.
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116. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Yvonne Raley Food Advertising, Education, and the Erosion of Autonomy
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To augment the consumption of the ever growing production of processed foods, food companies are specifically targeting children with their advertisements. Advertising has even infiltrated the educational system in the form of corporate sponsored “educational materials.” This paper discusses the effects such aggressive forms of advertising have on the development of personal autonomy, or self-governance. I argue that the bad reasoning skills such advertisements promote undermine the development of the very abilities children need to become adults capable of making rational choices. A detailed look at several types of food advertisements aimed at children supports this claim.
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117. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Yvonne Denier Need or Desire?: A Conceptual and Moral Phenomenology of the Child Wish
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This paper explores the significative structure and normative quality of the child wish by focusing on the concepts that are used when people speak about it. Does having children belong to the category of human needs, or is it rather something that people desire? The Principle of Precedence holds that needs tend to have a substantially greater moral impact than desires. In order to do justice both to people’s profound happiness that goes with fulfilment of the child wish and to the great distress that goes with involuntary childlessness it seems to be right then to argue that having children belongs to the category of human needs; and to use the term from Harry Frankfurt, to the category of constrained volitional needs. Accordingly, it might be argued that society has a rights-based duty to prevent involuntary childlessness. Contrary to this, I defend the thesis that an ethics of desire, which conceives the child wish as rooted in a symbolic desire, leads to a more adequate understanding of the child wish in all its various phenomenological aspects.
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118. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Seumas Miller On Terrorism and Lost Rationality: Reply to Rosenbaum
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This article is a reply to Alan Rosenbaum’s reply to my reply to his orginal article on terrorism and collective responsibility. As before, and contra Rosenbaum, I argue that some forms of terrorism in some circumstances might be morally justified. This position is consistent with holding the terrorist acts of groups such as Hamas and al-Qaeda to be morally unjustifiable. An example of a possibly morally justifiable form of terrorism was that practised by the African National Congress in its armed struggle against the apartheid regime in South Africa.
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119. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Andrew Fiala A Critique of Exceptions: Torture, Terrorism, and the Lesser Evil Argument
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There are good reasons to beware of arguments that allow for exceptions to principles about the proper limit of violence. Justifications of such exceptions occur in recent discussions of torture and terrorism. One of the reasons to be skeptical of these arguments is that when political agents make exceptions to moral principles, these exceptions can become precedents that serve to normalize immoral behavior. This aspect of political reality is ignored in contemporary attempts to justify torture and terrorism. The present paper explains why torture and terrorism are wrong despite recent attempts to justify them. It draws distinctions between torture and terrorism, while examining these practices in the context of the war on terrorism.
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120. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 2
John Weckert, James Moor The Precautionary Principle in Nanotechnology
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The precautionary principle (PP) is thought by many to be a useful strategy for action and by many others useless at best and dangerous at worst. We argue that it is a coherent and useful principle. We first clarify the principle and then defend it against a number of common criticisms. Three examples from nanotechnology are used; nanoparticles and possible health and environmental problems, grey goo and the potential for catastrophe, and privacy risks generated by nanoelectronics.
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