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1. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Xinyan Jiang Courage and Self-Control
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An important question about the nature of courage is whether it is a form of self-control. In this paper I argue that there are different kinds of courage and therefore the question whether courage is a form of self-control cannot be given a uniform answer. Courage exhibited in all cases may be classified as either spontaneous or deliberative courage. Spontaneous courage is not a form of self-control and usually is called for in emergency situations. It results from long-term moral cultivation, not a mindless impulse. Deliberative courage is usually shown in nonemergency situations. It may or may not involve self-control. In general, other things being equal, courage without exercising self-control is morally preferable. The absence of self-control is a necessary condition for ideal courage but ordinary courage is always accompanied by the exercise of will power.
2. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Luc Langlois Fondation et application: de quelques apories de la Diskursethik de Karl-Otto Apel
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Dans ses travaux recents, Karl-Otto Apel s'est employe ä redefinir la structure architectonique de la Diskursethik, en distinguant en eile deux moments fondamentaux et interrelies. Un premier volet, fondationnel et deontique, vise ä retracer, ä partir des presupposes contrefactuels et inevitables de la communaute ideale de communication, le principe universaliste du jugement moral, qui comme tel fait abstraction de l'histoire et revendique une validite inconditionnelle. Dans son second volet par contre, la Diskursethik en tend jeter les bases d'une « ethique de la responsabilite sensible ä l'histoire », c'est-ä-dire attentive aux facteurs historico-culturels et aux circonstances de Taction qui empechent l'etablissement d'un dialogue sans contrainte. La Diskursethik se trouve par la enrichie d'une dimension teleologique, vouee ä la realisation progressive, et ä la preservation ä long terme, des conditions de l'entente rationnelle. Seule l'integration de ces deux volets, deontique et teleologique, permet d'acceder selon Apel ä une authentique «ethique planetaire», capable d'affronter les crises du temps present—au premier chef la crise ecologique, la crise du sous-developpement et la crise du sur-armement. Notre expose interrogera cette architectonique complexe de la Diskursethik. II soutiendra, contre Apel, que les questions de fondation des normes ne se laissent pas disjoindre du probleme de leur application. II reviendra aussi sur la these apelienne liant le probleme de l'application concrete des normes ethiques ä la relation dialectique des communautes ideale et reelle de communication. Nous suggererons plutöt qu'une « ethique de la responsabilite sensible ä l'histoire » peut se soutenir elle-meme sans la fiction d'une communaute ideale de communication.
3. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Rodney G. Peffer World Hunger and Moral Theory
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I canvass the major contending normative theories /approaches concerning the world hungerabsolute poverty problem by going through a set of questions— some normative, some empirical, and some a mixture of both—in order to elucidate what the germane issues are in this ongoing debate and in order to provide a decision procedure for progressively weeding out the less plausible theories from the more plausible ones until we arrive at what I believe to be the most plausible and well-supported theory and solution to this momentous problem. Theories are eliminated if they are empirically unsupportable in terms of their analysis of the problem (or their recommendations aimed at solving the problems) and/or they are morally unsupportable in terms of not showing sufficient concern and respect for people in the design of the principles, rights, duties, and/or obligations they propose or, alternatively, not respecting the root values of autonomy and fairness. My main conclusion is that although Amartya Sen's capability ethic has made important contributions to moral theory, a Rawlsian theory (such as mine) that specifically accepts a Basic Rights principle is preferable to it since, for one reason, it is less vague in what policies are to be recommended on such issues as world hunger (given the same set of empirical assumptions). I also conclude that although Sen's empirical (economic and socialtheoretical) work on famines, hunger, and absolute poverty in general is to be much commended, it contains claims that are highly suspect.
4. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Harun Tepe Volume Introduction
5. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Harun Tepe Epistemological Dilemmas of Contemporary Ethics
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Contemporary ethics has often faced questions concerning its epistemological foundations. Thus epistemological problems of ethics have become a main interest in ethics, and ethics has begun to be considered mainly as meta-ethics or analytical ethics, mainly dealing with the foundation of ethical propositions or norms. However questions raised about the foundation of ethics have mostly ended in dilemmas. Today, moral dilemmas or epistemological dilemmas of ethics pose a challenge to contemporary ethics in the form of questions like "Is ethics normative?", "Is there any ethical knowledge?", "Are the statements of ethics bearers of truth-values? (these questions relate to what 1 call the Normativity Dilemma); and questions like "Are ethical judgements objective?", "Are values part of the world, out there, in the way that physical objects are?" (these questions relate to what 1 call the Objectivity Dilemma); and questions like "Is there any criterion to see which principles are correct?", "Do we have good reasons to do what is right?", "Can acting ethical ever be justified?" (these questions relate to what 1 call the Justification Dilemma). Are these dilemmas that are said to be epistemological genuine dilemmas, or are they only supposed to be so? In this paper I will tackle the epistemological foundations of these dilemmas and try to demonstrate that there are fallacies involved in them.
6. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Per Bauhn Two Concepts of Courage
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In this paper I intend to present two concepts of courage, with the purpose of introducing two different ways in which the classical virtue of courage may serve goals of personal achievement and goals of collective flourishing respectively. The two forms of courage that I will distinguish are the courage of creativity and the courage of conviction, respectively. The courage of creativity is the ability to confront the fear of failure, this ability being directed by the agent's will to achieve, while the courage of conviction is the ability to confront the fear of personal transience, this ability being directed by the agent's sense of moral responsibility. While not necessarily being a moral virtue, courage in the first of its two forms constitutes an important component of the agent's capacity for self-fulfilment. In its other form it enables the agent to confront the fears of meaninglessness and of being a social outcast, involving her in a quest for objectivity and in doing the right thing rather than giving in to conventions.
7. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Ulrich F. Wodarzik Zwischen Natur- und Sittengesetzlichkeit Objektivität, Leben und Normativität
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Der lebendige Mensch befindet sich immer zwischen Erfahrung und Metaphysik, er ist Natur und Freiheit zugleich. Anders gesagt erfährt sich der von Welt umgebende Mensch als ein freiheitliches Wesen, das unter einem bedingungslosen moralischen Sollensanspruch steht, der an keine Kontingenz geknüpft ist. Betrachten wir die moralische Dimension genauer, so erkennen wir moralischen Pflichten gegenüber uns selbst und anderen als Gebote Gottes.1 Das bewusste Leben selbst gibt uns Zwecke, die wir weder theoretisch noch praktisch auf den Begriff bringen können.2 Kant spricht vom Leben als ein Vermögen, dass einen inneren selbst-bestimmten Anstoß zum praktischen Handeln im Sinne einer inneren Kausalität darstellt. Wir müssen ein naturgemäßes Leben von einem guten Leben unterscheiden. Idealiter gesehen oder im Zustand der Glückseligkeit ist das natürliche und das moralisch gute Leben ein und das selbe.3 Ein natürliches und ein gutes Leben soll der Mensch führen, denn die Natur ermöglicht sittliches Handeln und sittliches Handeln macht natürliches Leben lebenswerter. Kant hat in seiner epochalen Kritik der Urteilkraft ein für alle mal gezeigt, dass nur der Mensch unbedingter Endzweck der Schöpfung ist, nicht als natürliches sondern als ein moralisches Wesen betrachtet, denn »im Menschen, aber auch in diesem nur als Subjekte der Moralität, ist die unbedingte Gesetzgebung in Ansehung der Zwecke anzutreffen, welche ihn also allein fähig macht, ein Endzweck zu sein, dem die ganze Natur teleologisch untergeordnet ist.4« So gesehen ist der Mensch sich eines physikotheologischen Verhältnisses bewusst und muss es aushalten, und es fragt sich wie der Hiatus zwischen Natur und Freiheit zu denken ist.
8. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Taşkiner Ketenci Der Begriff ,,des Rationalen'' in der Kantischen Ethik
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In der aktuellen Diskussion werden die Begriffe "Vernunft" und "Rationalität" in Frage gestellt. Mit der "Rationalität" einer Handlung, einer Haltung oder einer Organisation bezeichnet man im Allgemeinen den Erfolg bei der Verwirklichung eines bestimmten Zweckes. Die "instrumentale Rationalität" als Grundlage einer Ethik, für die das Nachdenken über den Wert der Zwecke ohne Belang ist, wurde seit jeher heftig kritisiert. Kant verwendet das Wort "rational" in Bezug auf die Bestimmungsgründe des Willens. Nach Kant sind die Bestimmungsgründe des Willens entweder „subjektiv und empirisch" oder „objektiv und rational". Wenn der Wille "rational" bestimmt wird, so hat dies zur Folge, dass die Personen andere Personen nicht nur als Mittel, sondern auch als Zweck behandeln. Also in der Kantische Ethik weist das Wort "rational" auf ein Wesen hin, das selbst ein Zweck ist und deshalb als solcher behandelt werden soll. Schließlich bedeutet in der Kantischen Ethik das Wort "rational" eine "Rationalität" der Zwecke.
9. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Halil Turan Does the Is-Ought Issue Suggest a Transcendental Realm?
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The principle that values cannot be derived from facts, though first explicitly formulated by David Hume, does not seem to be consistent with Hume's assertions that value becomes intelligible through experience, and that the will is determined by pleasure and pain. Moral reasoning involving pleasures and pains in the context of the peculiarities of human existence in society must be more complicated than reasoning involving ordinary, i.e. natural, pleasures and pains. Nevertheless, all pains and pleasures must be sensations. Hence Hume's moral philosophy becomes an example of an ethics in which facts, namely pleasures and pains, are related to values. However, many philosophers have argued that values must have a transcendental origin. Ludwig Wittgenstein's arguments concerning ethics and aesthetics constitute an interesting contemporary example of such transcendental conceptions of value. For Wittgenstein, the voice of conscience is God; the will can affect the subject at the limits of the world, and not things in the world; therefore, ethics must be transcendental (not expressible in the way facts in the world are). It seems that this attitude in ethics and aesthetics rules out any empirical discourse on values, which can hardly be called totally fruitless. An example of such discourse may even be one describable in Wittgensteinian terms: values can be defined through facts as modifications in the limits of the world, and through facts as things "in the world". If such descriptions are possible and expressible, a reference to a transcendental realm to account for the existence of conscience would become redundant.
10. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Name Index
11. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Donald Ipperciel The Latimer Decision: A Case Study on Euthanasia
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I would like to use the highly publicized Latimer decision in Canada as a case study on euthanasia. In this case, Robert Latimer killed his severely disabled 12-year-old child in order, in his mind, to end her suffering. Consequently, he was convicted of first-degree murder. I will argue that condemning Robert Latimer's act 1) ensues from hermeneutically misconstruing the concrete situation; 2) does not respect the criterion of reasonableness, which is linked to the consideration of an ethos. The elaboration of the arguments will refer to the ruling of the Canadian Supreme Court (R. v. Latimer, 2001), which produced the most comprehensive case against Latimer's actions.
12. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Mary Richardson "Challenged Forth by the Need for Paper": Ethical Aspects of Genetic Modification of Trees
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Genetic modification of trees has the potential to change our forests forever, yet there has been little publicly available information or debate on this important topic. Ethical analysis of genetic modification of plants to date has been focussed mainly on food and feed crops and pharmaceutical production. The purpose of this paper is to examine one major ethical issue arising in connection with the genetic modification of trees, the necessity to examine the practice in its full scientific, social, economic, political and environmental context. It is argued that if this is not done, important factors that play a role in a through ethical critique will be overlooked. The analysis focuses mainly on the Canadian situation, but there are implications for other timber-producing nations as well. The paper concludes that a thorough ethical critique must take into account the ends for which biotechnology is being pursued.
13. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Toralba Cora Solidarity Facing World Problems
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Human beings consider the world's problems as such because they affect humanity. Problems are "created" by human beings directly or indirectly either through intended actions or consequences of unintended ones. Human beings inflict problems on themselves or others. One of the greatest social problems the world is facing is the lack of peace and security. The latest threat is caused by terrorism. The people in the regions known for terrorism are suffering from extreme poverty and use terrorism as a means to make their cause heard. Poverty is unfortunately caused mainly by lack of opportunity for self growth and development. Poverty has reduced the populace to living conditions that undermine human dignity. Lack of self-esteem or self worth creates a mind set that looks at human life as worthless. The only saving factor they see is in the spiritual realm, their religion; hence the tendency present among fundamentalists to become suicide bombers. A solution to these problems might be sought through solidarity, as envisioned by Karol Wojtyla. Solidarity sees others as equals and partners in attaining self-fulfillment. Forgetting this principle of social ethics has led to the rule of might, which has led to the human catastrophes that the world witnesses.
14. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Joanna G. Patsioti The Relevance of an Aretaic Model in Business Ethics
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In this paper, we provide a philosophical perspective on the domain of business ethics in our attempt to examine to what extent an aretaic model can serve as an adequate moral context that can also accommodate the practical requirements of business. Our main objective is to show that despite any conflicts that may occur between an aretaic model and what is required in business, the Aristotelian ethical theory can serve as a morally adequate theoretical framework for business. To that effect, we examine certain aspects of this model, such as the notion of virtue as a settled ethical quality, as well as that of practical wisdom as the capacity of making a choice on the basis of proper ethical reasoning. Certain criticisms of such a model are also discussed. We derive the conclusion that the aretaic model can serve the organization's objectives to a great extent, since it provides a creative fusion of individual morality with the integrity of the corporate environment as reflected in its collective responsibility
15. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Tuija Takala Designer Babies and Treating People as a Means
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Among the many ethical problems brought about by the latest developments in medical sciences is the possibility of creating "designer" babies. In this paper I will look at one such a case from the viewpoint of the Kantian "humanity principle". The various aspects of treating people as a means that can be brought up in discussions about "designer" babies are scrutinised. These will obviously include treating the future child as a mere means, but the proper role of the mother and others involved are also looked at. I will conclude by arguing that, contrary to the usual presuppositions, the humanity principle is of very limited use in discussions about designer babies, in this case and in others too.
16. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Hung-Yul So Beyond Rational Insanity
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Insanity is identified with irrationality, while rationality is considered to be the mark of sanity. Yet we want to say that rationality could be the cause of insanity. We can see a subtle kind of insanity inherent in an institution believed to be highly rational. Rationality in an ideological belief also turns into rational insanity when the ideology itself works for the interest of the advantaged as a tool of deception. We believe in the rationality of open communication. We believe that information technology has given us the most rational means for open communication. The Internet revolution or Internet democracy is expected to become the most rational means for the institutional goal of democracy. However the rationality of Internet communication has demonstrated a serious tendency to cause Internet insanity. We have been proud of being 'rational animals'. But now we are concerned because 'rational animal' could mean 'rational but animal-like' or 'rational but impulsive', which in turn could mean 'rational but violent' or 'rational but mad and insane'. Perhaps it is time for us to think seriously about the possibility of mass insanity through rational insanity, and seek the way beyond such rational insanity.
17. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Gerd Gerhardt Sorge um das Wesentliche: Moralische Verpflichtung - im Blick auf Kant und Habermas
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In der Kantischen Tradition wird moralische Verbindlichkeit formal bestimmt. Kant berücksichtigt jedoch in seiner gesamten Entwicklung aber immer auch eine inhaltliche Komponente, die er glaubt formal uminterpretieren zu können. Ich versuche zu .zeigen, dass Moral in einer gestuften Reflexion zu gewinnen ist: Auf einer fundamentalen Ebene reflektiere ich auf das mir Wesentliche; Verbindlichkeit ist auf dieser Ebene nicht ohne die Motivation der Selbstsorge zu erreichen. Habermas' Trennung von ethischer Verbindlichkeit (Bereich des für mich oder uns Guten) und moralischer Verbindlichkeit (Bereich des Gerechten, des für alle Guten) greift erst auf einer höheren Stufe, wenn die fundamentale Verbindlichkeit bereits gestiftet ist. Die Sorge um das Wesentliche wird als Leben gemäß der Vernunft expliziert, die sich in verschiedenen Lebensbezügen als Autonomie, als Sachlichkeit bzw. als Achtung und Liebe artikuliert.
18. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Jerzy Pelc Human Cloning and Organ Transplants vs. Definition of Human Being: A Philosophical Point of View
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In bioethical discussions of human cloning there are sometimes employed definitions broadening the denotation of the term human being to include also, on an equal footing, human embryos. Also, the fact of being human is being equated with being a person. Consequently, embryos are treated as having dignity and calls are heard in the name of justice to protect the rights and interests of embryos whenever these clash with the interests of mature human beings. The author, being a layman in the area of human cloning, limits himself to indicating views he agrees with and those he finds doubtful. He expects human cloning will be taking place, albeit on a small scale, regardless of any bans which would only force the practice to become clandestine. Arguments in favor of controlled human cloning include not only the need to preserve freedom in scientific research, but also hopes for minimizing the adverse effects of cloning. The author indicates factors of an emotional nature which hamper discussions of cloning. He also argues that objections to experiments with humans and demands to make them conditional on prior consent of the people being experimented on are ineffective and often impossible to satisfy. The author also believes that it is impossible to unconditionally obey the commandment "You shall not kill". He does not see any threats posed by the fact that the clone and the cloned person will be identical. While not overlooking the potential dangers to clones (such as genetic defects), the author also sees potential advantages of cloning and transplantology (therapeutic, psychic, social).
19. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Harry van der Linden Is Global Poverty a Moral Problem for Citizens of Affluent Societies?
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The gap between the affluent and the global poor has increased during the past few decades, whether it is measured in terms of private consumption, income, or wealth. One would expect that severe poverty in a world of abundance would constitute a moral challenge to the affluent, but in fact it hardly seems a serious ethical concern. Affluent citizens seem so little morally concerned with global poverty. However, the most promising approach seems to be to explore and divulge factually and conceptually the numerous ways in which the affluent are implicated in a wholly unjust world of growing inequality. Changing people's moral perception is an arduous task and it is to be expected that affluent people will only gradually come to morally question their comfortable lives, at least in the absence of environmental or political disasters that might occur in the future. The immense human suffering at stake makes it a duty for moral philosophers to continue to work at and even increase their efforts towards this task.
20. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Donald M. Nolen Business Ethics after Enron: How American Ethicist Lost their Innocence
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Applied ethics in the United States has been a story of vacillation between micro-ethical and macro-ethical reforms. The tragedy of Enron has caused another crisis of confidence in how to pursue these reforms. However, the current rush toward macro-ethical critique will succeed only i f it builds on the gains made by the micro-ethical movement. One without the other will be doomed to failure.