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1. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Richard P. Nielsen 'I Am We' Dialog as Organizational Ethics Method
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Herbal medicines used in traditional cultures sometimes are rejected erroneously by modern medical science. Part of the explanation for such rejection is because the herbs are expressed and understood in traditional language and folk culture instead of the modern scientific language of biochemistry For example, it was not until the 20th c that biochemical research was able to transpose, disentangle, rediscover, and reconstruct the heart medicine digitalis from its understanding as the folk herbal medicine foxglove. Analogously, we may be able to do similar research in the humanities, the social sciences, and management. More specifically with respect to this paper, it appears that there is a type of dialogic method, "I Am We " dialog, that can be transposed, disentangled, rediscovered, and reconstructed as organizational ethics method from its historical language ond tradition of 19th contury experience into the modern longuage of organizational ethics action (praxis) method."I Am We" friendly, disentangling, experimental dialog is different from civil, analytic, positional Socratic type dialog as well as win-lose adversarial and win-win integrative conversations It appears that "I Am We" dialog can be understood in modern contexts and reconstructed for present application. "I Am We" dialog as seen in four cases appears to be a concrete method that has some value both as an end in itself and as instrumental means that can: be issue effective, help build ethical organizational/community culture, and help facilitate peaceful, evolutionary change. Limitations of the method are also considered. The method may be a several hundred year anticipation of experiment based pragmatist philosophy that is anthropologically sensitive to cultural entanglements
2. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
William B. Carlln Hierarchical Value Structures: A Convergence Model of Ethical Development
3. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Vincent di Norda International Business As Ethics Writ Large
4. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Barbara Bigelow, Liam Fahey, Jolin F. Mahon Political Strategy and Issues Evolution: Toward a Framework for Analysis and Action
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This paper proposes a new way of looking at the issues life cycle that is based on process rather than events. The analysis addresses the relationships among issue determinants, issue evolution, and political strategy. It is proposed that there are four determinants of issues (facts, values, interests, and policies ), and four stages in the issues life cycle (emeergence. interpretation, positioning, and resolution ). The links between action in early stages of the life cycle and the limitations that places on corporate political strategy is also addressed.
5. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
John Holcomb, Marilyn Gittell Corporate External Relations: The Interest Group Component
6. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Patricia C. Kelley Contextual Influences on Political Strategy: The Case of Trade Associations
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The research objectives were to identify the political behaviors of trade associations and to infer the factors which shaped these behaviors. The findings indicate that trade association's political behavior is shaped by association - specific and environmental factors. A series of hypotheses are presented from the data.
7. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
David C. Wyld, Sam D. Cappel Smoking in the Workplace: The Great Battle in the Air
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Much of the work appearing in the management and legal literature in regards to the issue of smoking in the workplace seeks to frame the issues involved in terms of cost-benefit and cause and effect analyses. This article seeks to present a unique approach to the multifaceted and often complex issues involved in determining the proper policies to balance both the rights of nonsmokers and smokers in the workplace and the interests (legal, ethical, and economic) of management. First, a review of the law in regards to smoking in the workplace is presented, examining the legal issues in terms of constitutional, common law, and statutory perspectives. With this understanding, it is hoped that the discussion framing the delicate legal and ethical tightrope which management must take in setting smoking policies will present new insights for management practitioners and legal and business academicians.
8. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Wiliiam E. Manello People within Technique: The Human Face of Technology
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While numerous studies on technology and its implementation have examined research and development organizations, strategic planning groups, and the managements delegated with overseeing technological change, they have not considcted in any detail the internal social processes and consequences of the implemetation of technology within the firm. This study examines the intraorganizational application of technique, a construct which encompasses both people and process, to technological change.Technique consists of the process of implementing technologies which are innovative, either to the firm or the environment itself; the boundary spanning people and activities directing this change; and the social impacts on the internal stakeholders who ultimately make technology work within the organization. Ellul's realization of technique as a means to achieve values through the intervention of consciousness and judgment provides the conceptual basis for this focus on the people as well as the mechanisms of technology. Since technique involves innovative change, not merely procedural modifications, it offers the potential for extensive social impacts and dislocations. Boundary spanners then play a critical role as the intrapreneurs who directly influence both the procedures of technology implementation and the acceptance of technology within the organization. Finally, when innovative technology has been introduced into the firm, success or failure hinges on its acceptance and utilization by the people who are directly affected by the changes engendered by its introduction.Understanding technique involves defining the meanings of technology and innovation within this construct, analyzing the boundary spanners and boundary spanning activities which mediate the transition of technology from potential to practical, and examining the impacts on the actual users of technology. The dynamic interaction of these elements establishes a framework for realizing both the social and scientific potential of technological change within an organization.
9. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
James W. Evans, Marc Lampe Profiling Socially Courageous Executive Decisions
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In the United States, most corporate executives make self-interested decisions meaning they focus on shareholder welfare as well as their own. These decisions are primarily concerned with bottom line profitably and tend to be short-term in focus. Occasionally, executives make decisions in behalf of a wider constituency, i.e., the public interest. the latter may or may not be in the company's, or the decisions maker's, best short-term interest, but they are often in its long-term interest. Considerable pressure within and without companies militate against long-term public-interest decisions ever being made. These decisions usually defy trends within the industry, making the decision maker a lone individual without many friends or allies. In addition, they are fraught with considerable personal risk. As such, long-term public interest decisions are better known as socially courageous decisions.Several questions related to the issue of socially courageous decisions are considered. Why are socially courageous decisions courageous? Are such decisions desirable?, for the company?, the shareholders?, society?, a common future? If these decisions are desirable, why are some people against them? Who are they? What motivates them? What motivates the socially courageous decision maker? Beyond our consideration of these questions, there is a need for further research.
10. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Karen McLandress, Pam Pohl, John Kohls, Willbann Terpening Changing Attitudes of Women In Business: Challenges and Opportunities
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Sex discrimination in the workplace has been and continues to be widespread. In the past two decades the number of women in the workforce has increased dramatically and more and more workplaces and the women they employ must face the problems associated with sex discrimination. These include discrimination in hiring and promotion practices, inequitable pay, and male-oriented work expectations and career paths. There has been little research on the perceptions of women on discrimination issues. Notable studies include Harvard Business Review reported surveys in 1965 and 1985 (Sutton and Moore, 1985), and research by Carol Tavris published in 1972. This paper reports on a modest study of working women which contributes some new perspectives in the effort to understand women's attitudes.
11. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Kelly C. Strong, G. Dale Meyer An Expioratory Analysis of Differences in Perception of Philanthropic Responsibility Between CEOs and Other Managers
12. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jean Pasquero Trends in international corporate philanthropy
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The interes for Corporate Philanthropy as a form of social involvement is growing around the world. An analysis of available data for a number of countries shows definite common trends despite the widely different social political national contexts. It also shows major differences in the types of corporate philanthropy being practiced. Trends indicate that corporate plilanthropy may be heading for a substantial change in essence, which may raise various difficulties wiih the concept and its operation in Ihe future.
13. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Judith K. Thompson, Howard L. Smith Charitable Contributions By Small Businesses: An Exploratory Study
14. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Wallace W. Davidson III, Dan L. Worrell Product and Recall Announcements, Shareholder Wealth, and the Agency Theory of the Firm
15. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Karen Paul, Steven D. Lydenberg Corporate Social Monitoring: Types, Methods, and Goals
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Corporate social monitoring has evolved in the past twenty years. This paper discusses several types of monitoring currently practiced, the methods used in various approaches, and the goals of social monitoring.Public auditing is done for the benefit of external constituencies, with the results often being used to guide action aimed at influencing the corporation from the outside, through consumer, investor, or possibly government action. Private auditing is done by corporations themselves to enable them to make internal adjustments in areas perceived as being of high potential significance.Corporate social monitoring may be relative or absolute. Relative scales evaluate corporations on the basis of their performance with respect to other corporations, as with the Sullivan Principles, and may differentiate by various-gradations, again exemplified by the Sullivan scale. Absolute measures include awards naming companies as outstanding in some area of social performance, or as a member of a group having some desired characteristic, as with the listing that comprises "America's 100 Best Companies to Work For."Methodological issues include the following: focus on a single dimension or focus on multiple dimensions; the extent of independence or dependence of auditors on company or industry sources; and the degree of advocacy or neutrality presented by auditing personnel.Goals of corporate social monitoring aim at influencing action, sometimes promoted from within the corporation itself but often in response to external constituencies, especially investors and consumers. The general impact of corporate social monitoring is that moral sanctions may be applied in a systematic and publicly visible way to companies on the basis of ethical considerations that have not yet become formalized in law.Corporate social monitoring acts to supplement legal and regulatory systems. Social monitoring has the potential of being applied when political circumstances make legal standards difficult to enact, as in issues of international significance. This type of monitoring can give voice to organized groups which may be relatively small in numbers but have specifically defined pragmatic or ideological concerns, and may serve to institutionalize and legitimate emerging social issues.
16. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Sara A. Morris, Kathleen A. Rehbein, Jamshid C. Hosseini, Robert L. Armacost Building a Current Profile of Socially Responsive Firms
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CEOs of U.S. manufacturing firms were surveyed with regard to various social response mechanisms. The sample was designed to include privately-held as well as publicly-held firms. Discriminant analysis was used to profile socially responsive firms based on their size, social exposure, long-term profitability, form of ownership, and the career path of the CEO. Long-term profitability and size were important discriminators across models, and high social exposure was a predictor of the existence of a public affairs office.
17. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Carol K. Jacobson The Impact of Changes in Health Policy on the Market Performance of Firms in the Health Care Industry
18. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Dean Ludwig, Clinton Longenecker The Bathsheba Syndrome: The Ethical Failure of Successful Leaders
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Reports of ethical violations by upper level managers continue to multiply despite increasing attention being given to ethics by firms and business schools. Much of the discussion of these violations focuses on the competitive pressures which these leaders/managers face. Much of the aliention by firms and business schools focuses on the training of managers to make ethical choices in the face of these competitive pressures. While valuable, this "competitive pressure" analysts is incomplete.This paper suggests that many ethical violations by upper managers are the by-product of success—not of competitive pressures. Our research suggests that many managers are poorly prepared to deal with success. First, success often allows managers to become complacent and to lose focus, diverting attention to things other than the management of their business. Second, success, whether personal or organizational, often leads to privileged access to information, people or objects. Third, with success usually comes increasingly unrestrained control of organizational resources. And fourth, success can inflate a manager's belief in his or her personal ability to manipulate outcomes. Even individuals with a highly developed moral sense can be challenged (tempted?) by the "opportunities" resulting from the convergence of these dynamics. We label the inability to cope with and respond to the by-products of success "the Bathsheba Syndrome," based on the account of the good King David (a story familiar in a variety of traditions). Recognition of this phenomenon implies that we change or broaden our approach io the teaching of business ethics. It also implies that organizations must reevaluate and change structures, procedures, and practices which enhance the likelihood of managers falling victim to the Bathsheba Syndrome.In our research of the Bathsheba Syndrome we have identified critical ethical situations and patterns that leaders/managers must be well equipped lo deal with on the path to success. Our discussion will focus on helping both researcher and practitioner to better deal with the ethical perils of success.
19. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
John E. Fleming Managing Business Ethics
20. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
James W. Evans Defining Business Ethics: Gender Differences of Fortune 500 Executives
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This paper presents the responses of a random sample of Fortune 500 executives to an open-ended survey examining gender differences of business ethics and basic beliefs. 854 questionnaires were returned out of 866 distributed for a 68% return rate. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Results show gender differences with sales egoistic, and females altruistic. It is postulated that these differences are linked to underlying ideologies with males believing in a Lockean. individualistic model and females a Rousseauian, communitarian model. These two ideologies would approximate Martin and Lodge's (1975) ideological constructs.