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1. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Nihal Petek Boyacı Platon’un İdeal Toplum Modelinde Köleler/Kölelik
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Bu çalışmada Platon’un Politeia ve Nomoi diyalogları göz önünde bulundurularak, düşünürün ideal toplum yapısı içinde kölelere/köleliğe vermiş olduğu yer açıklığa kavuşturulmaya çalışılacaktır. Düşünür Politeia diyaloğunda kölelerden neredeyse hiç bahsetmezken, Nomoi’da onlarla ilgili önemli düzenlemeler yapmaktadır. Bu açıklama, (Politeia’da en iyi polis olarak anlatılan) kallipolis’te kölelerin/köleliğin var olmadığını gösterirken, ikinci en iyi polisi anlatan Nomoi’da kölelere/köleliğetoplumda yer verdiğini ve böylece geleneksel anlayışı sürdürdüğüne işaret eder. Bu makalede de Platon’un bu iki diyaloğu da göz önünde bulundurularak, onun toplum anlayışı içinde kölelere/köleliğe yer verip vermediği, yer veriyorsa kölelerin kallipolis içinde hangi sınıfta konumlandırdığı sorgulanacaktır. Bir başka deyişle, Nomoi diyaloğunda kölelere ilişkin dile getirilen açıklamalardan ve Politeia’da satır aralarındaki kölelere ilişkin bazı söylemlerden yola çıkılarak kallipoliste kölelerin var olup, varsa da ideal poliste ne şekilde yer alabilecekleri, ontolojik olarak hangi sınıfa dahil edilebilecekleri incelenecektir.In this article, considering the dialogues called Politeia and Nomoi, Plato’s idea on the position of slaves/slavery in the ideal society will be clarified. While the thinker mentions hardly any argument on slaves in the Politeia; he makes significant arrangements about them in the Nomoi. This explanation indicates that he gives the slaves a position in the society in Nomoi which dialogue is about the second best polis and in this way he maintains the traditional idea of slavery, while in the kallipolis (which is mentioned as the best polis in the Politeia) there is no slaves/slavery. In this research, considering the Plato’s these two dialogues, it will be argued that whether he gives a room the slaves/slavery in his concept of society or not; if so, which class in the kallipolis slaves are positioned. In other words, on the basis of the explanation about the slaves in Nomoi and of the some statements about the slaves between the lines in the Politeia, it will be examined that if the slaves have some positions in the kallipolis or not; if so, how they can appear in the ideal polis and which class they are included ontologically.
2. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Ahmet İnam Ahlâk ve İçtenlik
3. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Senem Önal Kartezyen Özne ve Kantçı Öznenin Heidegger’de Anlamı: Dünyasallık
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Heidegger’e göre varlık, var-olmakla anlaşılabilendir. Var-olma davranışı ya da var-oluş, insanın bütünsel yapısını ifade eder. O, var olanları kuramsal olarak anlamaktan çok, dünya-ile-birlikte-var oluşunda anlar. Bu yüzden Heidegger insanı, Descartes ve Kant’ın cogito’yla var oluşa getirdiği ayrıma karşı, dünyasallık bağlamında anlar.To Heidegger, being is understandable with be-ing. The comportment of be-ing or existing means a whole structure of human being. He understands beings as in his being with-in-the-world rather than theoretical understanding. Thus, Heidegger understands human being in the context of worldliness contrary to the difference between cogito and being by Descartes and Kant.
4. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Kurtul Gülenç Edmund Husserl’de ‘Başkasının Beni’ Sorunu ve İntersubjektivite Kavramı
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İnsan, kendi özvarlığını ancak toplumda gerçekleştirebilmektedir, bundan dolayı bütün gerçekliğini ancak başkalarıyla birlikte kazanan bir canlı varlıktır. Bu öz-nitelik birçok tartışmayı beraberinde getirmektedir. Tartışma konuları arasında en önemli problemlerden biri bir arada yaşama problemidir. Bu problemin felsefi açıdan soruşturulabilmesinin yollarından başlıca olanı başkasının ben’i meselesini ele almaktır. ‘Başkası’ sorunu temelde modern felsefe ile yükselen bir bilgi sorunudur. Bu sorun özellikle ‘başka zihinler’ ya da ‘başkasının beni’ sorunu olarak belirir: ‘Başkasının beni’ni nasıl bilebiliriz? Bu çerçevede yazının amacı, felsefi açıdan insanlar arası ilişkilerin temelini, başka bir ifadeyle başkasının beni’nin bilgisinin nasıl mümkün olabileceğini incelemek ve söz konusu inceleme ekseninde bir arada yaşama problemi açısından önemli bir kavram olan ‘intersubjektivite’ kavramını açıklamaktır. Yapılacak olan bu araştırma, 20. yüzyılın en önemli filozoflarından Edmund Husserl’in fenomenolojik yaklaşımı çerçevesinde gerçekleştirilecektir.Human being can realize his/her self-existence only within society; hence it is a living entity which acquires all its reality together with others. This attribution brings along numerous discussions. Amongst these discussions one of the most important problems is the problem of co-existence. The main way, among others, of inquiring this problem in terms of philosophy is to examine the issue of the self of other. The problem of ‘other’ is fundamentally a problem of knowledge which rose with modern philosophy. This problem particularly appears as the problem of ‘other minds’ or ‘the self of other’: How can we know ‘the self of other’? Within this framework, the purpose of the article is to examine the basis of relations between humans, in other words how the knowledge of the self of other could be possible and to explain the concept of ‘intersubjectivity’ which is an important notion with regard to the problem of co-existence in the axis of this examination. The study will be carried out within the scope of phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl, one of the most significant philosophers of 20th century.
5. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Uluğ Nutku Leibniz’in Monadlar Teorisinin Tarihsel Önemi
6. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Gülten Karahan Okuroğlu, Nefise Bahçecik, Şule Ecevit Alpar Felsefe ve Hemşirelik Etiği
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Felsefe, gerçekliğin doğasını sistematik düşünme yolu ile anlamak isteyen insanın bir etkinliği olarak tanımlanabilir. Ahlak felsefesi ya da etik insan eylemlerini ve bu eylemlerin dayandığı ilkeleri konu edinen felsefe dalıdır. Etik “yanlış”ı“doğru”dan ayırabilmek amacıyla “ahlak” kavramının doğasını anlamaya çalışır. Hemşirelik kuram, uygulama ve araştırmayı felsefe ile ilişkili olarak ele alan bilimsel bir sağlık disiplinidir. Hemşire, bakıma ihtiyacı olan bireye hizmet sunarken, bireyi değerleri, inanç ve tutumları, eylem ve davranışları ile bir bütün olarak görmeli ve onun üst düzey hizmet alma hakkına sahip olduğuna inanmalıdır. Bu inanç hemşirelik bakımının etik zorunluluğudur. Bu makalede “etik” ve “felsefe” kavramları hemşirelik etiği ve hemşirelik felsefesi çerçevesinde incelenmiştir.Philosophy could be defined as a way of systematic thinking of human beings who try to understand nature of reality. The philosophy of morality or ethics is a branch of philosophy that examines human actions and the principles behind these actions. Ethics tries to understand the nature of the “morality” in order to distinguish “right” from “wrong”. Nursing is a scientific health discipline which considers theory, practice, and research in relation to philosophy. Nurse should evaluate the individual as a whole consisting of values, beliefs, attitudes, acts, and behaviors and should believe in his/her right to receive high level care while providing services for an individual who needs care. This belief is the ethical obligation of nursing care. In this article, the concepts of “ethics” and “philosophy” are examined in the context of nursing ethics and philosophy of nursing.
7. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Cem Kamözüt On Yedinci Yüzyıl Bilim Devriminin Hazırlayıcısı Olarak Mediciler ve Michelangelo
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Galileo'nun öncülük ettiği bilimsel devrimde kilit rol oynayan bazı düşünceler Rönesans ile ortaya çıkmıştır. Medici ailesinin bilinçli çabaları sonucu yaşanan Antik Yunan'ın yeniden keşfi süreci, Michelangelo'nun çabalarıyla başlamış ve Galileo ile sürmüştür. Bu çalışmada hem Michelangelo'nun hem de Galileo'nun konularına Platonist bir tavırla yaklaştıklarını ve Medicilerin desteğinin tüm bu devrim boyunca yaşamsal olduğunu göstermeye çalıştım.Some of the ideas that played a crucial role during The Scientific Revolution which Galileo led emerged during Renaissance. The process of rediscovery of Ancient Greek started with Michelangelo and proceeds with Galileo, with the conscious efforts of Medici family. In this paper I tried to show that both Michelangelo and Galileo had a Platonist attitude towards their subject matter and that the support of Medici family was vital throughout this revolution.
8. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Türkan Fırıncı Orman Jacques Derrida Düşüncesinde “Dil”
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20. Yüzyıl dil felsefesinin önemli filozoflarından olan Jacques Derrida, varlık ile dil felsefesi bağlamında önerdiği yeni kavramlarla fenomenoloji, dilbilim, psikanaliz ve yapısalcılığa yönelik ve temelde ise Batı Metafiziği'ni hedef alan eleştirel bir düşünce izlemiştir. Bu çalışmada, post-yapısalcı ya da postmodern dil anlayışı çerçevesinde Derrida'nın dil felsefesi ile ilgili öne sürdüğü düşünceleri, kullandığı bazı temel kavramlar tanıtılarak konu edilmektedir. Ancak Derrida'nın kullandığı kavramların, hemen her yazısında değiştiği ve bu kavramları sistemli bir biçimde çözümleme girişiminin başarısızlığa uğrayabileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu nedenle Derrida'nın dil anlayışı, genel hatlarıyla bazı erken, geç ve son dönem yazıları temelinde belirlenmeye çalışılmaktadır.Jacques Derrida, one of the most important philosophers of 20th century, had a critical approach on Phenomenology, Linguistics, Psychoanalysis, Structuralism and Western Philosophy by introducing new concepts within ontology and philosophy of language. In this paper, Derrida's language understanding is discussed in the scope of Post-structural or Postmodern language by focusing on some of his basic concepts. Since these concepts are not univocal in his Works, an effort of a systemathic analysis of such ambiguous terms could be a failure. Thus, preferably Derrida's language view is debated generally on the basis of his first, following and the latest period Works.
9. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Şafak Ural Newtoncu Bilim Anlayışı
10. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Argun Abrek Canbolat A Brief Study on Qualia Epiphenomenalism
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This work constitutes a discussion related to qualia epiphenomenalism, which is the view that qualia do not affect anything, but that they can be affected. After presenting contemporary debates on the issue, it is argued that qualia epiphenomenalism is untenable as a result of some epistemic problems, and a version of an epistemic argument that can be referred to as the intentionality-based epistemic argument is represented and defended.Bu çalışma, qualianın hiçbir şeyi etkileyemeyeceğini fakat kendisinin etkilenebilir olduğunu savunan qualia epifenomenalizmi üzerine tartışmaları içermektedir. Bu konudaki güncel tartışmalar sunulduktan sonra, birtakım epistemik sorunlar nedeniyle qualia epifenomenalizminin savunulabilir olmadığı belirtilmektedir. Bu yapılırken hakkındalığa dayanan epistemik argüman olarak adlandırılabilecek bir çeşit epistemik argüman aktarılmakta ve savunulmaktadır.
11. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Thom Brooks Hegel and The Problem of Poverty
12. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Funda Neslioğlu-Serin Tamamlanmamış Bir Proje Olarak Viyana Çevresi Felsefesi: Düşünsel - Tarihsel Bir Arkaplan Soruşturması
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Viyana Çevresi, sunduğu program ve felsefe-bilim ilişkisine dair görüşleriyle 20. yüzyıl felsefesinin kurucu unsurlarından biridir. Viyana Çevresi felsefesini tarihsel bağlamından bağımsız olarak, mantıkçı olguculuk ve benzeri birtakım kavramlarla sınırlı anlama girişimleri, çevrenin gerçekte nasıl bir program önerdiğinin kavranmasını güçleştirmiştir. Hatta bu tür girişimler, Viyana Çevresinin metafiziğe ilişkin savlarından da yola çıkarak, çevrenin programının, toplumsal ve insani olanı dışlayıcı bir öze sahip olduğu biçiminde yorumlanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu yazıda, Viyana Çevresinin bilim ve felsefeye dair sunduğu programın, günümüz felsefesinin biçimlenmesinde etkin bir rol oynadığı, bu rolün de sanılanın aksine Viyana Çevresinin toplumsal konulara ilişkin ortaya koyduğu tezlerden de kaynaklandığı, tarihsel ve düşünsel bir arkaplan soruşturmasıyla gösterilmeye çalışılacaktır.With its considerations on the relations between science and philosophy and its declared program, Vienna Circle is one of the constitutive elements of the twentieth century philosophy. Attempts to understand the Circle limited with some expressions like logical positivism, regardless of its historical context, have led to some difficulties about the real nature of its program. Such attempts, moreover, have adduced from the thoughts of the Vienna Circle on metaphysics that the program of the Circle, in essence, was hostile to anything that is social and human. In this paper, through a historical and intellectual background inquiry it is tried to put that the declared program of Vienna Circle about science and philosophy has played a crucial role for the formation of the philosophy today, and unlike as one may think, this role can only be conceived fully if one respects the theses of the Circle about the social problems properly.
13. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Erhan Demircioğlu The Puzzle of Consciousness
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In this article, I aim to present some of the reasons why consciousness is viewed as an intractable problem by many philosophers. Furthermore, I will argue that if these reasons are properly appreciated, then McGinn’s so-called mysterianism may not sound as far-fetched as it would otherwise sound.
14. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Philip Pettit Three Mistakes about Democracy
15. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Bosuk Yoon A Critique of Epistemological Disjunctivism
16. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
William Simkulet On Derivative Moral Responsibility and the Epistemic Connection Required for Moral Responsibility
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Derivative moral responsibility is not moral responsibility at all. Much of the confusion found in the literature concerning moral responsibility and the free will problem can be traced back to a penchant to reconcile our philosophical theories of moral responsibility with our folk commonsense linguistic accounts of moral responsibility, a tradition that is notable for its utter lack of making two important distinctions - (1) the distinction between derivative moral responsibility and non-derivative moral responsibility (what Galen Strawson calls “true moral responsibility”) and (2) the distinction between the scope and degree of one’s moral responsibility.1 The failure to make such distinctions, ultimately, leads to confusion in interpreting the content of folk intuitions about moral responsibility, and as a result leads many philosophers to adopt watered down, or overly complex theories of moral responsibility. In “The Epistemic Requirements for Moral Responsibility,” Carl Ginet fails to make such distinctions, and as a result the requirement he arrives at is unwieldy at best. By making such distinctions, I will provide a much more straightforward account of what moral responsibility requires.
17. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Aret Karademir Foucault ve Cinsellik Deney(im)i Kurgusu
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Foucault's philosophy is often divided into three periods: the archeological period of the 1960's, the geneological period of the 1970's, and the ethical period of the 1980's. Considering the subjects Foucault worked on, the methods he employed, and the nature of his analyses in the 1960's, 1970's, and 1980's, it seems prima facie that there is a considerable difference between the different periods of Foucault's career. Nevertheless, Fooucault claims that he has been working on the same subject, that is, the construction of subjective experience, throughout most of his career. The aim of this paper is to question, via the presentation of two sexual case studies taken from the history of psychiatry, what kind of portrait of Foucault has painted if we take him by his word. These studies will also help us ask how we can give an account of the construction of sexual experience from the perspective of Foucault the archaeologist, the genealogist, and at the same time, the ethicist.
18. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Soraj Hongladarom Metaphysics of Change and Continuity: Exactly What is Changing and What Gets Continued?
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This is a metaphysical and conceptual analysis of the concepts ‘change’ and ‘continuity’. The Buddhists are in agreement with Heraclitus that all are flowing and nothing remains. However, the Buddhists have a much more elaborate theory about change and continuity, and this theory is a key element in the entire Buddhist system of related doctrines, viz., that of karma and rebirth, the possibility of Liberation (nirv na) and others. Simply put, the Buddhist emphasizes that change is there in every aspect of reality.According to a later developed form of the Buddhist teaching, change is absolutely pervasive, and even these particles are subject to change as they are nothing more than putative objects which are conceptualized to be such and such, and without the conceptualization they are ‘nothing’ at all. (This is known as the Doctrine of Emptiness). Hence it seems that continuity is not possible. But in fact according to the later theory, change is not only possible, it is accepted as part and parcel of everyday life. The fact that nothing at all remains the same does not imply that continuity is not possible, since continuity does not always have to be that of an inherently existing object. A changing object can be continued also, in roughly the same sense as we say that an event, like a drama, continues even though everything in it is changing. The thread that ties the disparate elements of the event together in this case lies within our own conceptual imputation. This does not imply that everything is subjective, since the distinction between subject and object presupposes the idea of an absolutely existing individual self, which all Buddhist schools rejects. So in this later theory, absolute change is not possible because there is, ultimately speaking nothing to change, and when there is no change there is no continuation either. This is not to deny the empirical fact of changes and continuities that are present to us; things are there and they are indeed changing. What is being denied here is the belief that that there are essences to things which endure through all the changes. Since things are empty (of inherently existing nature) they can change, and continuity is only possible, not because there is something that exists and endures, but because there is change. A drama that does not move cannot be continued.The foregoing discussions of the Buddhist theories have many implications for the dialog between science and religion. One point is that science still seems to subscribe to the object/subject distinction. But if change and continuity are not real in the ultimate sense, then perhaps the distinction should be reconsidered. Another point concerns how to find continuity amidst all the change. But perhaps in some important sense continuity depends on us.
19. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 3
Barry Stocker Ethical Life in Kierkegaard and Williams
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A discussion of how the criticisms of ethical theory in Søren Kierkegaard and Bernard Williams both reinforce each other and also provide some challenges to each other. Despite Williams’ brief and dismissive encounter with Kierkegaard around the reading of a ancient tragedy, both oppose any tendency to see the characters in those tragedies as lacking in agency. Both are consistently concerned with how the individual struggles for some ethical agency and how no individual can be free of the influence of chance or error. Kierkegaard and Willliams are shown to both oppose relativism and communitarianism in ethics, along with utilitarianism and to both have an interest in plurality of ethical ideas of how to live.
20. Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 3
Raşit Çelik Adalet Ölçütü Olarak İki Önemli Yaklaşım: Birincil Değerler ve Kabiliyetler
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Adaletin ölçütü konusu çağdaş siyaset felsefesi içerisinde önemli bir yer tutar. John Rawls’un birincil değerler anlayışı ve Amartya Sen’in kabiliyetler yaklaşımı adaletin ölçütüne dair önemli bakış açıları sunmuştur. Sen’in oluşturduğu ve Martha Nussbaum’un geliştirdiği kabiliyetler yaklaşımı, Rawls’un tanımladığı birincil değerlere karşı önemli eleştiriler ortaya koyar. Bu çalışmada, bu iki önemli yaklaşımın karşıt görüşleri ve karşılıklı eleştirilerinin ötesinde, birbirlerini tamamlayıcı yanları vurgulanmaktadır. Kabiliyetler yaklaşımının, Rawls’un siyasi liberal teorisinde belirttiği örtüşen konsensüse ulaşmada önemli etkiler oluşturabileceği savunulmaktadır. Metric of justice is an important issue in contemporary political philosophy. John Rawls’s notion of primary goods and Amartya Sen’s capabilities approach have provided some important perspectives on the metric of justice. As developed by Sen and advanced by Martha Nussbaum, capabilities approach has offered a serious criticism about Rawls’s primary goods. This study, however, places an emphasis upon the complementary aspects of these two perspectives on the metric of justice, rather than their opposing ideas and criticisms against one another. It is also argued that capabilities approach may have significant effects on the way of arriving to an overlapping consensus as described in Rawls’s politically liberal theory.