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1. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Einleitung
2. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Mao Chen Hermeneutics and Life Writing: Ha Jin as a “Migrant” Translator
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The hermeneutics of translation is particularly important to Ha Jin’s work, which includes the novel instead A Free Life, a collection of essays instead The Writer as Migrant, and the book of short stories instead A Good Fall. The concept of translation adopted throughout is based on how “life writing”enables the author to employ his or her own experiences in composing a literary text, which is constituted in a manner that cannot be reduced to subjective concerns. Ha Jin is shown to present various personal experiences in a mediated form in his novels and prose essays. In contrast to a conception of “life writing” that draws strongly on the genre of memoir, this paper maintains that Ha Jin transforms or “translates” personal experience into a fictional content that goes beyond the writer’s life-history. The hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer and the phenomenological criticism of Wolfgang Iser are employed in this paper to demonstrate how Ha Jin’s contribution to literature cannot be assimilated to a subjective account of writing.In the conclusion of the paper, I emphasize how Ha Jin’s commitment to literary form is inseparable from his attempt to translate lived experience into fiction and criticism.
3. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Marcel Inhoff Th e Hermeneutics of Culture in D. Walcott’s “The Prodigal”
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In postmodern poetry, religious motifs have always played an intriguing role. The practice of religious hermeneutics, of translation, and of the development of new literary and cultural forms of expression have proved to be so interdependent as to be inseparable. Writers from former colonies have a radically unique relationship to this knotted complex of religion, nation and culture. In this paper I will examine this phenomenon by analyzing a text by Caribbean Nobel laureate Derek Walcott that grapples with the issues of hermeneutics, translation and hybrid identity. Th e Prodigal: A Poem is constructed around the tension between being a part of the ‘Western world’, with its canonical cultural and political history, and being a native of Saint Lucia. It takes up James Cliff ord’s notion of cultural travel by showing how European identity is predicated on the travel of ideas within the small geographic space that is Western Europe. Drawing on centuries of European literature, Walcott reverses the canonized metaphors of travel that characterize literature about his own home: in his text, Saint Lucia is the unmarked, fixed place, and Europe becomes the exotic village of anthropological studies. In doing so, Walcott makes deft use of the biblical figure of the Prodigal Son, well aware of how dependent European literatureis on biblical traditions. In fact, as I will suggest in my paper, it is not the bible as a fixed, canonical text that we find underlying European myths. It is rather a long process of translation and interpretation and re-translation in which Christian images, metaphors and stories are passed on. This constant act of hermeneutic attention to that specific text and its critics has become such an integral part of European literature and culture that it allows Walcott to easily use it to discuss the contradictory identity of a black writer, writing in English, “a hieratic language he will never inherit”. In his travels through Europe, Walcott interweaves language and world, working out a sense of self, an identity paradoxically both predicated on European culture and independent of it.
4. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
William D. Melaney Shelley, Hermeneutics and Poetics: Metaphor as Translation
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Percy Bysshe Shelley’s work in the f eld of poetics is a memorable rejoinder to Enlightenment historicism, just as it provides a theoretical basis for reading his own poetry in terms of a hermeneutical approach to knowledge. However, while rich in suggestions concerning how Shelley’s work might be read, the critical tradition in general has tended to neglect hermeneutics in favor of either formal or text-specific approaches. What this paper seeks to explore instead is the hermeneutical signifi cance of Shelley’s conception of poetics. The hermeneutical approach will be used to explain how Shelley conceives of language as a process whereby meaning itself is derived from the metaphorical nature of verbal experience. Accordingly, this paper makes three related claims: first, Shelley’s reflections on the origins of language, as most strongly presented in Defense of Poetry, assigns metaphor a role that is inseparable from the problem of translation, broadly conceived; second, Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound demonstrates on a figurative level how thehuman imagination forms the bridge (or translates) between diverse mental faculties; finally, the ‘theory of metaphor’ that Shelley elaborates evokes a view of language that can be examined through a reader-response approach to the hermeneutical tradition. Th is final claim will allow us to demonstrate how a phenomenology of reading employs an intertextual approach to literature that is responsive to temporal claims.
5. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Vera Elisabeth Gerling Übersetzung und moderne Hermeneutik bei Valery Larbaud
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Long before the instauration of hermeneutical translation studies in the 1970s, understanding was considered a prerequisite for translation. Valery Larbaud’s (1881-1957) opus represents an outstanding example for this. It is mainly in his book Sous l’invocation de Saint Jérôme (1946), a collection of short multifaceted works, where the author argues for employing a modern approach to hermeneutical translation theory avant la lettre. For Larbaud, translation constitutes an intellectual, selfreliant work of writing, and it is also a research activity
6. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Frank Garrett Negative Hermeneutics and Translation: The Unworkable Poetry of Wisława Szymborska
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Situated at the fissure between translation and hermeneutics, my essay looks at two poems by Polish Nobel laureate Wisława Szymborska in an attempt to explicate my notion of negative hermeneutics, which stems from Maurice Blanchot’s philosophy. Blanchot understands that the material of language exposes us to a two-fold dimension. On the one hand, the text bears witness to certain historical and biographical information; on the other hand, the grammatological nature of the text exposes readers and translators alike to the rupture of radical diff erence and distance, thus revealing nothing about its author or its contexts. To what extent does a work have anything relevant to say about its author? To what extent does a work authentically speak of the historical circumstances in which it came about? Can a work from the past speak to us today? Can it ever be more than a mere artifact or historical curiosity to us?
7. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Miriam Paola Leibbrand Der Beitrag der hermeneutischen Dolmetschforschung zur Begrundung einer Translationshermeneutik
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The doctoral thesis Verstehen verstehen: Modellierung epistemologischer und methodologischer Grundlagen für die Konferenz - dolmetschforschung ausgehend vom Simultandolmetschen in die B-Sprache (Modelling Comprehension in Interpreting Studies: Epistemological and Methodological Foundations for Research on Conference Interpreting; with an Initial Concentration on Simultaneous Interpreting into the B-Language) (Leibbrand2009a/ 2011a) is situated thematically in the discipline of Interpreting Studies (Pöchhacker 2004). After briefly outlining the issues treated in my doctoral thesis, this essay tries to show what contribution the approach called “Hermeneutical Research into Interpreting” (Hermeneutische Dolmetschforschung) can make to the new field of Translational Hermeneutics. In addition, the essay demonstrates how this approach can fecundate the discussion concerning Hermeneutics and Cognitive Science on the one hand and, on the other hand, provide insights into the question concerning whether or not Hermeneutics and Empirical Research are conflicting paradigms. For Hermeneutische Dolmetschforschung, Translational Hermeneutics should not restrict its research to understanding in translation per se; rather it must go beyond this and also explore how understanding itself can serve as a research method and as the foundation for an epistemological attitude. The power and productivity of Hermeneutics for building a paradigm in Translation Studies is not limited to observing and explaining the processes and products of translation. Neither is it limited to contributing to the discussion of methods adopted by the translator/interpreter in translating or interpreting. The question of method includes the questioning individual who is actively and hermeneutically reflecting on his/her own research activities. The new methodology resulting from my investigations is called Verstehende Forschung and it is grounded on the epistemological attitude of Epistemologische Off enheit. Th is methodological approach is qualitative, notquantitative. Hermeneutical Research into Interpreting defines the process of understanding while interpreting (comprehension) as Produktionsorientiertes dynamisches Verstehen. However, the core of this new approach is built by the methodological dimension of Hermeneutics. Therefore, a contribution geared towards solving the LAP-versus-ESP-controversy in Translation Studies lies at the very heart of Hermeneutical Research into Interpreting.
8. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Radegundis Stolze Faktoren einer hermeneutischen Übersetzungskompetenz
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Hermeneutical translation is based on the conviction that one first has to understand a text before being able to present the message once again in another language. The objective is precision in the sense of an authentic presentation of that message in the translation. Th is task requests a dynamical translation competence that interlinks knowledge-based, refl exive and strategic elements. Th e article off ers a systematic description of the factors involved in such a competence. Specifically, it addresses the necessary cultural and technical knowledge, hermeneutical fields of orientation as to how to comprehend texts and formulate their translation, and the issue of the translator’s intellectual growth brought about by lifelong learning and the inter-relation between various translation assignments. Hermeneutical translation competence, which can be presented in a systemic model,proves to be an informed, self-critical, dynamic and fl exibly networking approach to texts and their worlds.
9. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
George Heffernan Translating Augustine and Interpreting the Academicians: An Application of Übersetzungshermeneutik to the Questionable Relation between an Inaccurate Translation and an Inadequate Interpretation
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According to the most recent and most read English edition/translation of the work, namely, that of Peter King, Augustine’s Contra Academicos/Against the Academicians (386/387) is “a manifesto written by a former skeptic presenting himself for the f rst time as a platonist and a Christian”. On this interpretation, Augustine for a time “despaired of finding the truth and went through a period of being a skeptic”. During this time, he also “defended the view of the Academicians”, “did so publicly”, and “did so” by “peddling” it with the use of their skeptical notions of the “plausible” (probabile) and the “truthlike” (veri simile). Thus Augustine was “more than sympathetic” to the Academicians and it is wrong for scholars “to minimize his attachment” to them. The argument of this paper, on the other hand, is that the notion that Augustine once defended Academic skepticism is not a demonstrable fact but an untenable interpretation. The reason is that it can be proven, for example, that King’s interpretation is inadequate because it rests on an inaccurate translation. In addition, it is shown that there is no evidence that would convince a judicious scholar beyond a reasonable doubt that Augustine ever assented to Academic skepticism. Finally, it is suggested that the attempt to argue that Augustine was once an Academic skeptic obfuscates the legitimate issue of whether he may have been a skeptic in a different, philosophically more significant, sense. The result is ahermeneutical case study of the questionable relation between an inaccurate translation and an inadequate interpretation.
10. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Adriana Şerban Writing, Directing and Translating Poetic Film
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In this paper I examine the possibility of a holistic approach to audiovisual translation which puts the emphasis on people, context(s) and interpretation(s). I consider the relation between image, sound, and the spoken and/or written word in the audiovisual medium, and then explore some of the issues involved in creating poetic films, in particular the choice of language or silence. Th e translator’s mediating voice is not always easy to observe in subtitles. For they are governed by a complex set of constraints and conventions, to such an extent that it may appear there are no significant choices to be made, choices which, if noticed, might reflect competing interpretations. I endeavour to trace the translators’ voice in a small collectionof poetic films translated into English and French, and explain that it manifests through more or less felicitous subtitling choices, and sometimes through failure.
11. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
John Wrae Stanley Translational Hermeneutics and Inverted Worlds: Some Reflections on Paradigms
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Translational Hermeneutics – a discipline aspiring to approach human communication from a hermeneutical vantage point – is in its infancy. The presentations delivered at the first Hermeneutics and Translation Studies Symposium – most of which shared an interest in merging hermeneutics withtranslation studies – were marked by a strong diversity. The widely differing perspectives and approaches embodied by the presentations make it difficult to delineate what Translational Hermeneutics actually is. The purpose of this essay is to prodand stimulate the debate. The essay begins with an analysis of the Kadean perspective on translation studies, for it offers a sharp contrast to any hermeneutical approach. Then the essay proposes a hermeneutical lineage, one emphasizing the phenomenological roots of the tradition running from Husserl, through Heidegger and up to Gadamer. The purpose of the historical overview is to define some aspects of the hermeneuticaltradition that Translational Hermeneutics rests upon. In so doing, some essential cornerstones will be laid for Translational Hermeneutics. In particular, the link to Husserl’s phenomenology not only sets high standards regarding scientific rigor, it also distances the Translational Hermeneutics from the approach taken in the natural sciences. The link to phenomenology requires that we not only re-examine the notion of objectivity but also enrich and develop the concept of “subjectivity.” The interdependence between the “subject” and “object” in experience robs the objects of their predominant role as a source for truth claims and stability in communication. The loss of this foundation for research and stability in communication leaves a vacuum that has to be filled within the paradigm of Translational Hermeneutics.
12. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Marianne Lederer Modern Hermeneutics: a New Approach to the Translation of Culture
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Various translation theories adopt some of the stances of hermeneutics without espousing all of them, as does the Interpretive Theory of Translation (ITT). The first part of this paper argues that, contrary to the view held by a number of translational hermeneutists, language and culture are far from being inseparable. It also tries to put into perspective the question of the translator’s subjectivity. It then deals with the comprehension of culture in intralingual communication and compares it to translators’ comprehension and readers’ comprehension of translated texts. The last part of the paper asks whether it is possible for translators to transmit a source culture as a whole and how a translator can make readers of translations understand the relevant parts of culture included in the text.
13. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Douglas Robinson Fourteen Principles of Translational Hermeneutics
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Th is paper organizes the hermeneutical study of translation into fourteen principles, the fi rst six borrowed from a paper (in this volume) by Larisa Cercel, John Stanley, and Radegundis Stolze entitled “Hermeneutics as a Research Paradigm”: subjectivity (1), historicity (2), phenomenology (3), process (4), holism (5), and reflection (6). The next seven are a compilation of the author’s own research agenda “beyond” or “outside” classicalhermeneutics, but arguably congruent with and supportive of a hermeneutical project: social constructivism (7), iterability (8), multiple subjectivities (9), dialogism (10), the double-bind (11), performativity (12), and rhetoric (13). Th e last (14) is somatics: It’s not enough to study how we interpret; we have toexplore how we work in groups (almost always unconsciously) to regulate interpretation. Without social regulation, imperfect and incomplete as it is, incapable as it is of imposing robotic conformity on human communication, interpretation remains a subjective will o’ the wisp, an evanescent connectivity that is easily dismissed as sheer solipsistic fantasy.
14. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Seyed Mohammad Alavi Quran Translation: A Hermeneutical Case Study
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Th is paper investigates the role of translators’ experience and understanding of Islam in the translation of the Quran. After juxtaposing and analyzing four translations of the verse 4:34, which deals with the issue of women’s rights and obligations, it shows how conservative, moderate, modernist and pro-feminist readings produce completely different images of women and their relationship to men in family and society from a Quranic viewpoint. It also provides a hermeneutical analysis of the assumptions each translator brings into play when trying to reconcile the question of modern women’s rights with the scripture. In doing so, this paper demonstrates how translators as real agents of translation immerse themselves from a particular viewpoint, or horizon, into the living context of the original text.
15. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Lothar Černý Hidden Hermeneutics: The Beginnings of Translation Studies in Germany after World War II
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This paper introduces some of the most infl uential fi gureheads in the emerging field of Translation Studies in East and West Germany after World War II. It outlines the reasons why Translation Studies parted from the traditional hermeneutical approach to translation. On the other hand it traces theresurgence of a new hermeneutical inquiry into the process of translation in the new, basically linguistic approaches and their science orientation.
16. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Rainer Kohlmayer Die Stimme im Text als tertium comparationis beim Literaturubersetzen
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By neglecting to integrate the final step of rhetorics into theory, i. e. pronuntiatio and actio, modern text linguistics passed a theoretical deficit on to modern translation studies. Literary texts must be read aloud in order to realize the acoustic potential programmed into the text by the author. The rhetorical tradition of writing and reading aloud was marginalized in the course of the 18th century when reading became a private and silent affair. Herder’s (and others’) foregrounding of the ‘tone’ or the ‘voice’ in literary texts and their translations is a theoretical attempt to return to the holistic view of text production, integrating performance into the process of literary production and reception. In practice, however, great literary translators always paid attention to the ‘voice in the text’. The tradition of orality – distinguishing precise voices in literary texts – seems to come to an end in Jelinek’s anti-individualistic texts.
17. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Larisa Cercel, Radegundis Stolze, John Stanley Hermeneutics as a Research Paradigm
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The historical overview covering Schleiermacher and the disciplinary status of translational hermeneutics was written by Cercel, the sections on important concepts and research within the paradigm of translational hermeneutics was authored by Stolze, and Stanley wrote the last three sectionsdealing with language games, a concrete research project and the role of phenomenology in research. The text was geared towards providing some background information on translational hermeneutics, a field which has bearing not only on the practice of translation but also on research in TS. From the vantage point of translational hermeneutics, research in translation studies takes its point of departure from the translator’sperspective: The guiding question is one centered on how a translator deals with the texts he or she has to translate.
18. Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2015
Brian O’Keeffe Prologue to a Hermeneutic Approach to Translation
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The purpose of this essay is to explore the place Hans-Georg Gadamer makes for the activity of translation within his philosophy of interpretation. In general terms, the interest of Gadamer’s approach lies in the effort to inscribe translation within what is described as the ‘hermeneutic circle’. This essay accordingly offers a brief, but detailed account of the Gadamerian arc of interpretation, but suggests that the critical issues – along the lines suggested by Werner Hamacher in his book Premises – concern the way in which the circle begins to turn, and furthermore, how one actually enters the hermeneutic circle. If these are matters basic to the Gadamerian way with textual interpretation tout court, the principal claim of this essay is that it is the translatorwho experiences the most serious diffi culties in beginning, and indeed, in entering the ambit of hermeneutics. In detailing these particular difficulties, one reaches a limit-case of the hermeneutical interpreter – the translator as one to whom Gadamer grants a privileged place in his philosophy, but also as one who reveals to hermeneutics the nature of the problems that beset hermeneutic philosophy from the outset.