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1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 37 > Issue: 3
Steve Fuller Steve Fuller
Social Epistemology as the Science of Cognitive Management: Releasing the Hidden Potential in the History of Philosophy
Social Epistemology as the Science of Cognitive Management

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Looking broadly at the history of philosophy, I develop the ideas of 'cognitive management' and 'cognitive economy', which have always informed my conception of social epistemology. I elaborate two general tendencies, which have been also expressed in more conventional philosophical terms, such as Kant's famous contrast of 'rationalism' and 'empiricism'. The former tradition stresses the mind's capacity to remake the world in its own image, whereas the latter stresses the mind's receptiveness to the inherent character of the world. In 'economic' terms, the resulting conceptions of knowledge are, respectively, 'demand' and 'supply' driven. In the former case, knowledge consists in the realization of the mind's own needs; in the latter, knowledge is proportionate what the world has to offer. In terms of access to ultimate truth, the former tends to overestimate (i.e. 'proactionary'), the latter to underestimate (i.e. 'precautionary'). I also discuss the idea of 'undiscovered public knowledge' as a pressing problem in cognitive management that relates to the scale and scope of the scientific enterprise in our time.
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 37 > Issue: 3
Ilya Kasavin, Tom Rockmore, Evgeny Blinov Ilya Kasavin
Social Epistemology, Interdisciplinarity and Context: A Discussion by Ilya Kasavin, Tom Rockmore and Evgeny Blinov
Social Epistemology, Interdisciplinarity and Context

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The discussion is devoted to the notion of context and its use in connection to the notion of interdisciplinarity. These two notions are claimed to be crucial for understanding how “naturalization of social epistemology” can be possible and whether it can be exhausted by an interpretation of knowledge in social context and whether it has its own philosophical importance. These questions were initially raised in the works of I.Kasavin.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Tom Rockmore Tom Rockmore
A Progress Report on Cognitive Foundationalism and Metaphysical Realism
A Progress Report on Cognitive Foundationalism and Metaphysical Realism

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Metaphysical realism, though not under that name, runs throughout the entire Western tradition at least since Parmenides. His basic ontological claim, that is, that what is is and cannot not be, hence cannot change, influentially creates a central philosophical task. Cognitive foundationalism, whose exemplar is Descartes, is a cognitive strategy intended to respond to metaphysical realism. Plato rejects any form of a representational approach to knowledge in rejecting the backward causal inference from ideas in the mind to the world. The Cartesian strategy is based on a justified inference from the idea in the mind to the world, which reverses the Platonic criticism. Criticism of the Cartesian inference from the idea in the mind to the world supports Plato’s rejection of representationalism in all its forms.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Juan J. Acero Juan J. Acero
The Arrival and Establishment of Analytic Philosophy in Spain
The Arrival and Establishment of Analytic Philosophy in Spain

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This article summarily describes the arrival and establishment of Analytic Philosophy [= AP] in Spain. It first expounds the role played in that process by philosophers such José Ferrater Mora, exiled alter the Spanish Civil War, and by Manuel Garrido, Jesús Mosterín, Javier Muguerza, Josep Blasco y José Hierro, the proper introducers of AP in the Spanish university. Secondly, the article refers to the work developed by the introducers’ former students and disciples, and holds that this second wave of AP in Spain largely helped to its consolidation. Finally, the current situation–a third wave of analytic philosophers in action–is reviewed. Its most actives centres are identified, the main changes in the national scientific policy, its profound effects on academic activities for the last twenty years, and the high degree of internationalization reached by Spanish AP from the 1990s, after the founding of the Sociedad Española de Filosofía Analítica (S.E.F.A.), are concisely pointed out.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Tian Yu Cao Tian Yu Cao
Incomplete, but Real: A constructivist Account of Reference
Incomplete, but real

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Various theories of referent are critically but briefly surveyed from the perspective of structural realism; a constructivist version of structural realist account of referent is outlined, and its implications for history of science and for descriptive metaphysics are briefly indicated.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Alexei Chernyak Alexei Chernyak
Indirect Reference for Indexicals and Ambiguous Self-Identification
Indirect Reference for Indexicals and Ambiguous Self-Identification

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The article is devoted to a philosophical discussion of semantics of indexical expressions inspired mainly by theories of D. Kaplan and P. Schlenker. The author considers Schlenker’s arguments contra Kaplan that referents of indexicals sometimes may not be considered as directly provided by contexts of their use. He argues that the idea that indexicals can have shifted reference can and should be developed further. The author discusses cases which seem to call for a broader understanding of context dependency of indexicals. In particular the cases that introduce contexts where the speaker does not refer to herself as a unique individual specifically located in space and time. It is argued that references in such cases can hardly be explained as either shifted or not shifted in the standard way suggested by Schlenker. These examples are followed by more examples of conditional shifting and examples of split shifted parameters. The author argues that such real speech situations along with communicative intentions of speaker suggest that a broader understanding of context dependency of indexicals should be taken into account.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Hans Poser Hans Poser
Leibniz’ Projects for Academies and Their Importance in Science, Politics and Public Welfare
Leibniz’ Projects for Academies and Their Importance in Science, Politics and Public Welfare

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Leibniz wrote more than 60 proposals, concepts, and outlines for academies for Holland, Germany, Austria and Russia. Unlike the academies in Paris, London or Rome he intended a narrow connection of theoria and praxis. This should be achieved by his Scientia generalis as a theoretical unification, whereas the aim consisted in a universal Harmony.
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 42 > Issue: 4
Inanna Hamati-Ataya Inanna Hamati-Ataya
Outline for a Reflexive Epistemology
Outline for a Reflexive Epistemology

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This paper addresses the notion of a “theory of knowledge” from the perspective of sociological reflexivity. What becomes of the meaning of epistemology once the ontological status of knowledge is taken seriously, and its political dimensions impossible to ignore? If the knower is no longer an impersonal, universal subject, but always a situated and purposeful actor, what kind of epistemology do we need, and what social functions can we expect it to play? Sociological reflexivity embraces the historicity and situatedness of knowledge understood as a cultural product and a social practice. It therefore enables us to cope with the collapse of our absolute and universal epistemic foundations and frames of reference, and to redefine the existential and practical meanings of knowledge for social life. In so doing, it also gives political meaning to epistemology itself, understood as a sociological theory of knowledge, not a normative one. Reflexivity can be envisaged as both a “bending back” and a “bending forward” of knowledge as praxis. As a bending back of knowledge on itself, it entails a rigorous understanding of the social conditions of possibility of our thought and our values, and hence a critical assessment of what our worldviews and notions of truth owe to the social order in which we are inscribed. As a bending forward, it turns this objective understanding into an instrument of existential and social emancipation, by delineating the structural spaces of freedom and agency that allow for a meaningful and responsible scholarly practice.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 43 > Issue: 1
Hans Poser Hans Poser
Justification of Justification: The Case of Techno Sciences
Justification of Justification

10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 44 > Issue: 2
Yuri Balashov Yuri Balashov
Experiencing the Present
Experiencing the Present

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I had excruciating back pain last night. The next day I went to a spa and the pain disappeared. Psychologically speaking, my pain is gone. Where is it, speaking ontologically? Atheorists have an easy time here (more or less). But B-theorists who think that persons persist by enduring are in trouble. Why am I finding myself at this particular time, with this particular set of experiences, rather than at numerous other times, with different experiences, despite the fact that all times are on the same ontological footing and I am wholly present at all of them? I argue that the Puzzle of the Experience of the Present is a real challenge for B-theorists, and the best way to deal with it is to adopt the stage view of persistence.