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1. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
George Brenkert Preface
2. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Islam
3. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Stanley S. Harakas An Eastern Orthodox Perspective on Economic Life, Property, Work, and Business Ethics
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Eastern Orthodox Christianity carries forward a moral tradition from the earliest Christian period, in the belief that scriptural and patristic teaching remains applicable to the contemporary economic sphere of life. The Church Fathers focused on the ownership of property and the ethical acquisition of wealth and its use; they stressed special concern for the poor and disadvantaged. Carried forward through the Byzantine and modern eras, these early Christian understandings now can be applied through a basic and elementary natural law morality to business activities. The Orthodox approach embodies traditional virtue and character ethics as well. The essay concludes by applying these Orthodox approaches to two current issues: the charging of interest and internet ethics.
4. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Protestantism: Baptists
5. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Darryl M. Trimiew, Michael Greene How We Got Over: The Moral Teachings of the African-American Church on Business Ethics
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An analysis of the business ethics of the African-American church during and after Reconstruction reveals that it is a conflicted ethic, oscillating between two poles. The first is the sacralization of the business ethic of Booker T. Washington, in which self-help endeavors that valorize American capitalism but are preferentially oriented to the African-American community are advanced as the best and only options for economic uplift. The second is the "Blackwater" tradition, which rejects any racial discrimination and insists upon social justice. The inability of the Washingtonian business ethic to address the needs of the Black underclass are explored. A new business ethic is called for, which would be committed to meeting the basic needs of the mostdisadvantaged members of American society and those of the "international poor."
6. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Shirley J. Roels The Business Ethics of Evangelicals
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Understanding the evangelical framework for business ethics is important, since business evangelicals are well positioned to exercise considerable future influence. This article develops the context for understanding evangelical business ethics by examining their history, theology, and culture. It then relates the findings to evangelical foundations for business ethics. The thesis is that business ethics, as practiced by those in the evangelical community, has developed inductively from a base of applied experience. As a result, emphases on piety, witnessing, tithing, and neighborliness, important foundations in the evangelical model for business ethics, have resulted in a multitude of applied ethical strategies. This operative ethics model is then evaluated, particularly in regarding to its limited focus on the fundamental purposes and structures of business. The article concludes with severalrecommended sources that can enrich the evangelical tradition of business ethics, suggesting many resources from the Reformed Christian tradition as well as other ideas from contemporary Protestant and Catholic thinkers.
7. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
F. Neil Brady, Warner Woodworth A Mormon Perspective on Business and Economics
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This essay examines the doctrine, the history, and the current institutions of the Mormon Church as they relate to business and economic activity. The Mormon tradition emphasizes cornmunitarian principles such as economic cooperation and equality; these which conflict with modern values of wealth acquisition, competition, and individualism. While Mormon businesspeople typically have adopted these values and become integrated quite comfortably into mainstream American business life, many have resolved the conflict by using their business skills to promote more communitarian ideals throughout the world.
8. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Protestantism: Lutherans
9. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Buddhism
10. Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business: Spiritual Goods: Faith Traditions and the Practice of Business
Manuel Velasquez Catholic Natural Law and Business Ethics
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This article describes Catholic natural law tradition by examining its origins in the medieval penitentials, the papal decretals, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and seventeenth-century casuistry. Catholic natural law emerges as a flexible ethic that conceives of human nature as rational and as oriented to certain basic goods that ought to be pursued and whose pursuit is made possible by the virtues. Four approaches to natural law that have evolved within the United States during the twentieth century are then identified, including the traditionalist, proportionalist, right reason, and historicist approaches. The normative implications of these approaches are discussed in relation to ethical issues in the tobacco industry, ITT under Geneen, the marketing of pharmaceuticals, affirmative action, and bribery. It is argued that Alasdair MacIntyre is correct in claiming that the natural law tradition issuperior to the liberal ethics of modern deontology and utilitarianism.