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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Владимир Александрович Кутырёв Бытие под знаком “транс”
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The end of the twentieth century is commonly defined as the postmodern era. Now, it is claimed that this era was replaced by the post-post-modern era. Due to the ambiguity of this concept, the features of the era remain unclear. A more adequate term could be “trans-modern”. Everything becomes “trans”: transnational economy, transdisciplinary science, trans(uni) versal philosophy, transcendentalism, transgression, transhumanism, transnomonism and transvestism. “Post” meant the negation of the former state of the world: God, man, its history, culture, metaphysics, their deconstruction, and death. “Trans” is a passage through them into something new, “other” – the positive construction of the otherness. This is realized on a new substrate, which is no longer commensurate to the person, even materially or physically. It is informative, virtual-digital, either directly in the technologies, or determines decisively people’s way of live. The first ideologues of trans-modernism can be considered the “junior postmodernists”, primarily A. Badiou with his “Manifesto of Philosophy” (1989). Trans-modernism abstains from concerns about the stability of what is being developed. It focuses on the continuous innovation. Everything exists for the sake of as fast as possible change to something else. In theoretical studies, trans-modernism manifests itself in the expansion of transcendental ontology and cognitivism. Being termed as “trans” under crisis is chaotic by definition. The purpose of human activity in a trans-modern situation should be no progressive development, but the maintenance of homeostatic balance of his life world. At the heart of the philosophy of survival lies at the aesthetic worldview of multiontism and co-evolution, phenomenological realism and conservatism, coinciding in content with the perennial philosophy. We have no other option, but to choose the Being termed “humanism”.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Закир Курбан оглы Мамедалиев К постмодернистскому игнорированию и коммуникативному утверждению истины
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In this paper, based on the writings of the French philosophers Jean-François Lyotard and Michel Foucault, I consider, on the one hand, the arguments of the representatives of postmodern philosophy, that neutralize, in fact, the pretension of truth by science, and, on the other hand, Jürgen Habermas’ concept of communicative rationality that defends the right of reason on the truth. The main reason that stands behind Lyotard’s actual negation of truth in science lies in the concealed replacement of the consideration of the internal factors of production and development of scientific knowledge by an analysis in non-scientific terms of the legitimacy of science as a social institution. Michel Foucault, like Lyotard, in favor of externalism ignores completely the internal determinants of the organization and development of science. Foucault’s position is vulnerable in an essential point: if one to implement his program, then it has to reproduce objectively the subject, which he (Foucault) subjectively intends to wipe out. In order to restore the solidarity in society, J. Habermas lays all hopes on the reconciliation of reason’s potential, focusing on the communicative rationality. However, cultural problems arise when people’s actions are not commensurate with the Truth, do not serve the Good and deviate from the Beautiful. These problems have spiritual content proper. The spiritual can never be exhausted by rational judgment, in whatever form the rational might appear.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Olga Kozhina Современная философия совершенства и свободы
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Анализируется концепция философии совершенства и свободы, представленная в корпусе фундаментальных работ Н. М. Чуринова. Актуальность концепции обусловлена тем, что позволяет преодолеть онтологическое и гносеологическое противостояние ма-териализма и идеализма в современной философии. При этом на первый план в кон-цепции выступает поиск новых стандартов теоретизирования, переосмысление основа-ний науки, философии. В этом отношении Н.М.Чуринов сформировал концепцию двух проектов как способов существования науки, которые в истории философии и науке существовали всегда. Диа-лектический проект науки, берущий начало от Аристотеля, ориентированный в своем раз-витии на гностицизм, космическую модель мира и теорию познания как теорию отраже-ния. Метафизический проект науки, берущий начало от софистов, ориентированный на принцип агностицизма, универсальную модель мира, теорию познания как теорию репре-зентаций. Двум проектам науки соответствуют две модели мира, две теории познания, два типа теоретизирования. Двум типам теоретизирования, соответствуют два типа об-щества, и двум типам общества – присущи два типа личности. Н. М. Чуринов артикулирует философию в контексте социально-культурной и инфор-мационной действительности, является основателем и руководителем научно-педагогической и философской школы теории информационной реальности и ее прило-жений, которые получили свое развитие в более пятидесяти диссертаций его учеников. Концепция различия философии совершенства и философии свободы активно интег-рируется в систему современного образования. Понятие “свобода” берется как код ме-тафизического философского и научного творчества. Соответственно, категория “совер-шенство” - код диалектического теоретического творчества.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Роида Рзаева Мультикультурализм в постмодернистском контексте
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Today, multiculturalism is characterized as an ideology, a poli-cy, as well as a discourse, which makes the multiculturalist agenda to spread and become real. At the same time, multiculturalism, as a type of discourse, can be identified in several different discourses. One of them is the post-modern discourse. The phenomenon of postmodernism is currently in the focus of philosophical interest, primarily because it is seen as a characteristic philo-sophical type in modern culture. One of its most common features is that multiculturalism reflects the cultural situation of the postmodern. The postmodern era extends the meaning of multiculturalism.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Serik Nurmuratov The Spiritual and Moral Values as the Basis of Humanistic Philosophical Thought
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In the context of the modern problems of the humanitarian sphere many cultures started to show more active interest to their ethnic past, to those historic sources, which belong to the traditional forms of morality. In the large the addressing to the ethnic experience, to the traditional spiri-tual values of nation has always been one of the necessary conditions of the intellectual, constructive successes of the growing new generation. Like all the cultural – historical paradigms the Kazakh philosophic thought has passed the complicated way of establishment from the ancient primordial forms of thinking to the quite mature modern philosophic conceptions. Centuries – old history and actualization of the basic moral values in the historic process were the bases for establishment of such fundamental ethical notions in the ethnic worldview as good and evil, love and hatred, nobleness and meanness etc. The great thinkers of the Kazakh steppe Abay and Shakarim tried to solve the problems of the moral perfection of a man by the humanization of the social – ethnical space. In the Kazakh thinkers’ of the XX century opinion a man is not be born morally deprived naturally, but his negative qualities are formed in so-cial space. That is why Abay puts forward as a chief concept of his doctrine the ethical principle “Adam bol!” (Be a human!), and for Shakarim the conscience is the main ethical category in his conception of a man’s spiritual perfection. Conscience as an important notion in his worldview is the main regulator of the interpersonal relations.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Varvara Samokhvalova О некоторых особенностях проблемы нравственного выбора
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The purpose of this work is to specify the status of philosophical issues of moral choice. Traditionally, at the level of the problem in the classical age of philosophy, the problem of choice belongs to the field of ethical knowl-edge. In this case, due to the prevalence of the idea of normativity in ethics (which follows from the dominant classical rationalist philosophy), the problem is, either too smooth, or, alternatively, too dramatic: ethical intuition that true moral action is not commensurate with the finished prescription, usually is based on a conscious break with tradition of normative in ethics. This situation justifies the development of a different approach to the problem of choice - an approach that goes beyond the framework of ethical ideas in philosophical anthropological knowledge.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Muhiddinjon Teshabaev Нравственная культура личности в образовательном процессе в аспекте гуманистического мировоззрения
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In modern conditions of the being globalized world more often speech comes about preservation of traditional culture and the personality mor-al level increase. In this aspect formation of moral culture of the personality is closely connected with humanistic outlook and its stability. Harmony of moral and humanity undoubtedly conducts to formation of the original person with strongly pronounced feelings of patriotism, good, justice and moral purity. Communication between moral culture of the personality and humanistic out-look is obvious. The humanistic outlook as the generalized system of views, belief, ideals in which the person expresses the relation to the surrounding him natural and social environment, is under construction round one center – the Person. If the humanity is a basis of system of certain views on the world, the person appears a backbone factor, a kernel of humanistic outlook. Important condition of humanity education is the organization of collective educational, socially useful activity, especially such its types where pupils are put in a situa-tion of direct manifestation of care of others, assistance and support, protection younger, weak. Thus, formation of moral culture of the personality begins with the early childhood and is fixed in the course of training and education.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Julia Voropaeva Этика человеческого достоинства и ненасилие
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В статье рассматривается этика ненасилия с точки зрения утверждения новой рациональности, обозначенной в диалогических отношениях и реализуемой, благодаря принципам ненасилия. Этика ненасилия представляется актуальной в свете коммуникативного подхода. В свою очередь, ключом к пониманию феномена ненасилия становится абсолютный нравственный принцип, этическая категория «человеческое достоинство». Этика ненасилия должна определять принципы, по которым строится система социального действия. Впервые мотивы социального действия разработал М. Вебер. Эти идеи продолжали развиваться западной философской и социологической мысли. В частности, Ю. Хабермас различает инструментальную (основана на эмпирических показателях) и коммуникативную (основана на моральном содержании коммуникации) типы рациональности. В современной философии вновь обостряется проблема определения целей и средств социального действия. На проблемы социальности в контексте существования человека в поисках смысла жизни все большее внимание обращают современные российские исследователи. Философы Р. Г. Апресян, А. А. Гусейнов, В. С. Степин, М. Т. Степанянц, И. К. Лисеев, А. П. Огурцов рассматривают различные аспекты теории ненасилия с точки зрения коммуникативного подхода, в основе которого находится исследование сущностных связей между людьми, направленное на выявление их характера и функционирования. Философы приходят к выводу, что на практике осуществить идею ненасилия, в первую очередь, можно путем установления в обществе горизонтальных отношений, которые заключаются в расположении субъект-объектной организации, когда любой член коммуникации рассматривается, с одной стороны, как объект, а с другой, - как субъект. При этом отмечается необходимость утверждения новой рациональности, обозначенной в диалоге и ориентированной на сотрудничество и согласие. Ненасилие определяет качественную связь людей друг с другом, благодаря тому, что каждый из них обладает достоинством, в то время как достоинство становится ключом к пониманию феномена ненасилия. Нравственный облик человека есть тот канал, по которому движется ненасилие. Можно сказать, что впервые в истории человечества, достоинство получает статус ценности тогда, когда возникла идея ненасилия.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 12
Greta Solovyeva Проблема счастья в Никомаховой этике Аристотеля
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Счастье является ключевой категорией этики Аристотеля. В его учении выявляется парадоксальность этого понятия: счастье не имеет универсального, всеобщего характера и не может претендовать на понятийный статус. Но необходимо различать мнимое, ил-люзорное счастье и подлинное, которое определяется критериями добра и справедливо-сти. Именно о таком счастье ведет речь Аристотель: это деятельность души согласно добродетели. И независимо от того, какие страдания выпадают на долю человека, он будет счастливым, если идет дорогой добродетели. В статье раскрывается тезис, согласно которому в дальнейшем развитии западной традиции был утрачен интерес к проблеме счастья в связи с возрастающей наукообразностью и логоцентризмом этого типа культуры. Поэтому в сегодняшнем мире чрезвычайно актуальным становится учение Аристотеля о подлинном, универсальном счастье, пронизанном добром и справедливостью.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Виталий Юрьевич Бельский Философско-антропологическая концепция К.Д. Ушинского (1824 – 1871)
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The paper examines the socio-philosophical and anthropological views of K. D. Ushinsky. In this paper I try to outline the shaping of his philosophical system of history of philosophy, especially Hegel’s philosophi-cal system. I also focus on the qualitative features of the philosophical-anthropological system of Ushinsky, both in methodology and the understanding of the processes of formation of the ideal.
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Valerian Ramishvili Обоснование достоинства человеческого бытия в онтологии М. Хайдеггера
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Human dignity, as a form of Human’s being and understanding of the world, lost its ontological ground, which is a direct consequence of the oblivion of the being. Human dignity is possible on the ground of free thinking about Being and it is a free thinking of the being. The person has refused possibility of thinking of the being, because the Being has turned into the tran-scendence, the beyond (for God has died). Heidegger considers that Being is not transcendental, the beyond and thinking about being is possible and essential. The transcendence of Being is rejected by the explanation of possibility of “initial meeting” of Being and human. For this purpose Heidegger carried out the following steps: New understanding of an ontological difference means not only distinction of Being and real things, and distinction between Being and the form of self-giveness of Being in the world. Heidegger defined forms of a self-giveness of Being in the world as a hierarchical order: Sein ist, Sein ereignis, Sein es gibt, which is defined by the degree of openness of the Being in the world. The modern thinking forgot the paradigm of Christ, as the example of “initial meeting”. The transition from conceptualization of the Being to ontologization of the Being creates ontology of the being.
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Adel Ivanova, Valentin Pukhlikov Исторические судьбы диалектики как метода философствования о мире и человеке
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The history of philosophy is, in a certain sense, the history of development of dialectics as a method of building the system of ontology and epistemology. Dialectics appeared in Ancient Greece as a result of the attempts of philosophers to express the changeability and movement of the world in the system of concepts. Socrates’s dialectics becomes a consciously applied method of searching for the truth in philosophy. This method gets developed in Plato’s philosophy, where the dialectics is expressed in a system of contradictory assertions which are both true and both false. This concept of the dialectics was solidified in Kant’s philosophy by fixing the system of antinomies in the sphere of pure reason. Hegel made an attempt to convert the dialectics into a necessary element of the scientific proof. Later this attempt was developed to the logical limit in the philosophy of Marx and Engels. This concept of the dialectics was criticized in the works of Russian philosophers I. Il’yin and S. Frank.
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Любовь Владиленовна Денисова Свобода совести, как универсальное право человека
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Freedom of conscience belongs to universal natural rights. It is defined as claim of the possibility to confess any religion or to confess no reli-gion at all, individually. Freedom of conscience has natural boundaries for its realization. First, this is a characteristic of the subject of religion, depending on age. Secondly, it is the abuse, which humiliates religious freedom and, thirdly, it is an incitement to a crime that leads beyond the boundaries of loyalty and annulation of rights. The boundaries of freedom of conscience are primarily manifested by the right of propagation of religious views and the right of ac-complishment of religious rites.
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Anvar Niyazmetov Burkhanuddin al-Marginani: The Great Representative of the Sharia Science
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Ali ibn Abu Bakr ibn Abdulzhalil al-Ferghani ar-Rishtani al-Marginani (1123-1197) is one of scientists who made a huge contribution to the development of theology. He received the initial knowledge in Margelan, later he moved to Samarkand and remained there till the end of his life. He made pilgrimage to Mecca in 1444. In the book Kitab ul mashoyy (The book about Sheikhs) he provided names more than forty scientists from whom he got his education. The biggest, world renowned Burhanuddin al-Marginani’s work is the Al-Khidoya. Thanks to this work he became very known scientist in all Islamic world. In the previous works on a science about laws of Sharia, only insignificant questions in the jurisprudence sphere were considered, while there were the problems connected with national life of the population, and the society and state. From this point of view, detailed studying of unstable conditions, during his time, to distinguish priority questions from minor tasks, decision making process, and comprehensive study and deep supervision of these matters were demanded by the author. According to the scientists, the carrying-out research on Marginani’s work could help solving these problems.
15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Alena Apaeva Мартин Хайдеггер о предельном философском мышлении
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Проблема бытия человека в мире – одна из главных проблем в философии М. Хайдеггера. Но такая многогранная тема не может быть в целостности схвачена в одной небольшой статье. В данной статье внимание обращено к самим фундаментальным основаниям человеческого бытия, к самому бытию, в котором становится возможным бытие человека. Бытие для людей в современном мире не является больше подлинной трансценденцией, как философия перестала для них быть истинным делом. Хайдеггер стремится вернуть фундаментальную философию. Он обращается к древнегреческому понятию φύσις, в котором скрывалось то, что еще полновластно определяло человеческое бытие. Φύσις, как самообразующее владычество, охватывает и держит в своей власти все в мире. Пусть постижения φύσις в современном мире может быть только через отрицание, через постижение Ничто.
16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Anatoliy Kosichenko Philosophy and the Philosopher in the Modern World
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Today, philosophy has lost its importance as “guide of humanity”. Why has it happen? Firstly, because the philosophy, as well as philosopher has changed the essence of philosophy - being “science” about wisdom, being wisdom, to live in accordance with the demands of wisdom. Philosopher cannot be an immoral, but, today he is obviously immoral, he is a same consumer of material benefits as every other human. To demand moral behavior from philosopher, today, is ridiculous: philosopher is dissolved in being that has lost its meaning. What to do in this case? It seems, one should return to intelligent life, especially, when any other attempt to live (to live out of sense, out of creation, out of comprehension) lead neither to success, nor to happiness, nor to the hope of meeting with. Moral - conscience – meaning of life are inseparable unity, a human in order to be a human being should join in himself these determinacies of being, otherwise – crash of human and humanity is inevitable. Today, the task set before the philosophy is to return its high importance, before philosopher is to recover the moral content of his service – these are the purpose and meaning of the present philosophy.
17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Valeri Zakharov Статус метафизики в естественных науках
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Since the antique Greeks “the cognition of the world” was not considered as an aggregate of the knowledges about the world but a comprehension of the “thing roots”. The Greek natural philosophers searched for the world principles but not the causes of the phenomena. The modern physics goes back to the Greek sources. It goes away more and more from the knowledges system and strives for the comprehension system. It replaces the causal description by the comprehension. A cognitive power intensiication of a theory (that is a comprehension factor) is accompanied by its prognostic power diminution. The special relativity has stated that any events cannot be connected one with other causally. The general relativity has revealed the space-time domains whose topology does not allow any prediction: it is the domains containing the singularities (black holes, Big Bang). The quantum mechanics has revealed the nonlocalities which rule out the common meaning of the causality. The quantum mechanics predicts what our mind chooses. The mind of a modern physicist allows the noumena, that is the objects being beyond the experience and beyond the Kantian Anschaulichkeit. A modern physical theory is based on the free metaphysical convention. That determines the status of the metaphysics in the modern philosophy of the natural science. (Zakharov V.D. Physics and freedom // Philosophy and the future of the civilization. Theses of reports in IV Russian philosophical congress, Moscow, 2005. Vol. 1: 449-450).
18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Anastasia Shulyndina The World Outlook Systems: Ideological Aspect
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The research of the world outlook system is one of the main subjects of philosophy. The basis of any world-views is some world outlook or “mythological basis” (structure), which forms all elements of the system. The theistic and the a-theistic systems, to my mind, can be considered as the extreme points of understanding of this main core. Any world outlook is a consequence of the valuable experience of the human being. However, any such experience is connected with the certain “level of access” to the knowledge of the laws of the Universe. The author argues that the selection of central core is made according to free internal choice. The philosophical systems, according to which the world is a complex system of self-identified self-realized subjects, with varying degrees of freedom, most fully reflect the reality. Such, for example, is the philosophical system of Nikolai Losskii. Need of structuring of world outlook systems requires the recognition of the fact that the basis of any world outlook is directly dependent on the internal selection. To identify these is the task of the researcher, who is making an attempt to penetrate into the world-view from the inside and to maximally structure our knowledge of the world vision systems.
19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Eduard I. Sorkin Метафизичность сознания
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Considering metaphysics as one of the ways of human thinking we have to take in account the very concept of thinking itself. We may describe the latter as a special and highest product of organized matter. Thus, the sufficient level of organization of the matter may provide a certain level of its self-knowledge. But there is still no convincing explanation, what is fundamentally different in organization of the nerve tissue of the brain, which perceives, for example, the color red petals of roses, from one hand, and the biological tissue of these petals, from another, and why one type of matter - the substance of the brain - can reflect the properties of the matter of another species - the color of roses. We may talk a good deal about functional specifics, information processes, thin quantum effects, etc. But as the 19th century Russian religious philosopher P. Yurkevich wrote: “If physiologist observes the changes, the processes in the sensory nerves [...] with the help of the most perfect microscope, anyway, in addition to the physical or chemical changes of the nerve cells, no feeling, no thought he would not see [...] The natural order of study refers us to a metaphysical thought [...] It’s not in the electrical current in the nerves that [...] but in something else, that there is in the whole content of the world.” Leibniz in “Reflections on Metaphysics” referred to the “perception of qualities such as color, warmth, which does not exist outside of us; every substance (man – E. S.) is as if the whole world and the mirror of God or the whole of the universe”. An attempt to correlate the phenomenon of thinking and consciousness with the whole of the positions of metaphysics helps to develop some kind of the holographic model, which gives the opportunity to link the well-known and rationally perceived scientific facts to ideas of supra-rational knowledge, as well as with the idea of Revelation.
20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Йозеф Шмайс Эволюционная онтология как духовная парадигма для XXI века
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Эволюционная онтология от традиционной отличается: 1) предметом; 2) способом его интерпретации; 3) общественной ролью. 1) Предметом традиционной онтологии было абстрактное понимание бытия. Предметом эволюционной онтологии наряду с природным бытием, а также онтически оппозиционным бытием культурным является его онтический конфликт с природой. 2) Традиционная онтология в трактовке природного бытия предпочитала стабильность, пассивность и обратимость, эволюционная онтология подчеркивает процессуальность, онтическую активность и необратимость. 3) Традиционная онтология была абстрактно академичной и индивидуально утешающей. Эволюционная онтология, которая открывает суть глобального экологического кризиса, может выполнять функцию культурно-парадигматическую. С помощью этой онтологии, опирающейся на научную аргументацию, мы должны попробовать переломить духовную хищническую парадигму.