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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Modesto Ortega Umpiérrez, Lucía Martínez El espacio de la infancia
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Fue Baudelaire quien advirtió que, en el juguete, podemos encontrar materia de reflexión. En un texto publicado en el Monde Littéraire del 17 de abril de 1853 con el título de “Moral del juguete”, cuenta la visita hecha siendo niño a casa de Mme. Panckoucke: Me tomó de la mano y cruzamos así juntos varias habitaciones; después abrió la puerta de una estancia que me ofreció un espectáculo extraordinario y verdaderamente fabuloso. Los muros no eran yavisibles hasta tal punto estaban recubiertos de juguetes. El desván desaparecía bajo una floritura de juguetes que colgaban como estalactitas maravillosas. El piso dejaba apenas un pequeño paso sobre el que posar los pies… Es a causa de esta aventura si no puedo detenerme delante de una tienda de juguetes y recorrer con la mirada la inextricable muchedumbre de sus formas extrañas y de sus colores dispares, sin pensar en la señora vestida de terciopelo y de pieles, que se me a apareció como el Hada del juguete.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Cătălina Elena Dobre, Rafael García Pavón Abraham y la Ética del Silencio en el Pensamiento de Søren A. Kierkegaard
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This paper presents an interpretation of the paradoxical decision of Abraham done by Søren A. Kierkegaard in his work Fear and Trembling as an ethics of silence. The main idea is to understand ethics not as moral standards or specific duties, but as the responsibility of becoming a single individual in time; singularity as the intimate and personal relationship with the calling of love. In such a way, that silence is the experience of the encounter with the paradox that being human means to be singular in conditions that claim an universal and general transparent manifestation dependent of the dominant rational discourse.Then, silence becomes the fundamental ethical claim to become a human person, as spirit in time, where it becomes a time of trial and examination, a temporality, where the trial is the fidelity to love’s calling, the listening of the possibilities that are presented by the anxiety of the decision. These possibilities are not immanent to the world or to history, they call for a personal choice, always containing a space of revelation; therefore of listening to the interiority of the personal choice that for Kierkegaard is the passion of faith, communicated and lived in silence. Concluding that an ethics of silence by the image of Abraham implies to re-think the role of philosophy in relationship to faith, hope and love in time, as a silent thought.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Cristian Rojas, Marco Galetta Indigenous Rights in The Venezuelan Legislation
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This paper is emphatically focused in the analysis on the indigenous problem such as it had been ruled by law in the different Venezuelan Constitutions since the foundation of the Republic in 1811. Our purpose does not go as far as to treat the ancestral indigenous problem in Venezuela because this would exceeds the limits of our study; although, we will do some references in relation to this question.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Lázaro Pulido Repensar la Filosofía Medieval: San Buenaventura y el Pensamiento Romántico en el Siglo XXI, una Hipótesis de Trabajo Manuel
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This paper presents a way of rethinking the current thought and the medieval philosophy, understanding that we can define the actual philosophy like neo-romanticism. The challenges of this thought can be approached from a reading of to medieval philosophy of St. Bonaventure. St. Francis of Assisi can appear as a romantic personage and the access to the philosophy is done bearing other texts in mind as the Leyenda Maior.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Eduardo Bermudez Barrera El Babero Quine con la Navaja de Occam Afeitó la Barba de Platón
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The ontological question goes way back to Plato. In his Teetetus he already searched for the answer to question of “how is it possible that when a man stares at something he would not see anything anyway”. Quine is the author of a doctrine on ontology, “On what there is”. His work follows the path of medieval authors such as William of Ockham, who proposed the methodology that came to be known as Okcham's razor. The excessive proliferation of entities is known as “Plato's beard”. Quine, among others, has shaved Plato's beard searching for logical and scientific simplicity.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Ana Carrasco Conde Carácter Inteligible: Kant, Schelling y la Libertad Metafísica en el Freiheitsschrift
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The Platonic myth in Book X of The Republic tells us how the choice of “destinies” is carried out by human souls about to be born. The revenant Er, in his particular nekia, returns to life to tell all he has seen and heard: that what life bring us is related to the good or bad choice of our future life trough a draw carried out under the eyes of Necessity and her three daughters: Lachesis, Clotho and Atropo, who weave the destiny of men (The Republic, Book X, 617e): Theintelligible character of this choice has the burden of a determinism ab origine without possibility of rewriting it, making our fate an inalterable journey. Kant could say the same in KrV, although it is true that the doctrine of the “intelligible character” only appears specifically in 1781, in the light of the Third Antinomies, in the“Dialectic” of the Critique of Pure Reason. Anyway, its long shadow appears in other texts (as in Religion Within Limits of Reason Alone of 1793)– that each one of voluntary acts of men: “it is predetermined, well before it occurs, in the empirical character of man” (KrV, A 553 / B 581) would suppose that this intelligiblecharacter would have to be understood together with the problem of freedom and decision. That threshold pointed out by Kant will be trespassed by Schelling, who will form a concept of freedom of a metaphysical character (libertas ex) which will send us to an origin, beyond all times, in which the de-cision, as ex-cision, restructures and sets in order our time. Cut or beginning, it is a wound without stitches which implies the proper opening of being into existence.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Gustavo Sarmiento Acerca de las Doctrinas sobre las Fuerzas Atractivas de la Materia en el Siglo XVII: John Keill y la Influencia del Newtonianismo sobre Kant
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In this paper we will refer to the doctrine of attractive forces proposed by the Newtonian author John Keill, and the influence it had on Kant. The “Epistola ad Cl. virum Gulielmum Cockburn, Medicinæ Doctorem. In qua Leges Attractionis aliaque Physices Principia traduntur,” published by Keill in 1708, proposes a doctrine of the attractive forces of matter that exerted a considerable influence on the first Newtonian authors and was criticized by Leibniz and his followers, including Christian Wolff. Keill’s views were assimilated by the young Kant in his pre-critical doctrine of the elements, or physical monads, to which he attributed attractive forces and—under the influence of Newton—repulsive forces acting at a distance. This meant to take some distance from wolffian orthodoxy. By examining Kant’s points of view, we will show that the work of Newton and his followers, in particular John Keill, is an important part of the background of his ideas about thefundamental forces of matter, ideas that passed to the critical period of his thought, where they reappeared in the Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft of 1786.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Juan Carlos Moreno Romo Descartes: La fe Según la Razón Iluminada por la Fe
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En contraste d’avec la pensée de Spinoza, pour qui la foi n’est qu’un phénomène extérieur et étrange, une notable exception à sa théorie du salut par le control des passions et l’amour intellectuelle à Dieu et par Dieu que l’homme de connaissance peut atteindre seulement grâce à la véritable philosophie, on analyse ici très brièvement la compréhension que de la foi nous proposent, en ayant l’expérience intérieure, surtout Descartes mais aussi Pascal. Pour le premier la foi relève de la volonté, à qui la grâce incline d’embrasser le message révélé à peu près comme la perception claire et distincte incline au jugement dans l’acte deconnaissance. Pour Pascal la foi et la connaissance sont de l’ordre, toutes deux, du coeur, qui comme on sait a des raisons que la raison ne connait pas.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Ana Carrasco Conde Las Heridas del Espíritu: El Sentido del Mal en el Curso de la Historia en Hegel (1807) y Schelling (1809)
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It is untrue that, as Hegel said in 1807 in the Phänomenologie, «the wounds of the spirit heal and leave no scar behind; what is done is not indelible, but is reassumed by the spirit» (GW 9, 360) since the ground of reality, that reality which, as indicated by Kant, seems to be submerged in evil (Ak. VI), refuses to be tamed by concepts. Disappearance without remnant, that dissolution (Verschwindung) mentioned by Hegel would suppose that there is no remnant of evil, thatits effects in history-such as the Jacobin terror with its macabre liturgy of severed heads referred to in the above passage of the Phänomenologieare nothing more than moments to be sublate (aufgehoben), part of a necessary process. There is no remnant to be explained. All is revealed: Offenbarung der Tiefe. The relationship between Hegel and Schelling has in this topic, the problem of evil and its meaning in history (Geschichte), one of its key points: in Schelling one can see a hollow which constitutes a pathway to the problem of finitude and evil, studied in depth in the Freiheitsschrift of 1809, partly as a response to the critics expressed by Hegel in the Phänomenologie. While Hegel reduced evil to an abstract negation, to be overcome through a determinated negation as a sign ofthe reason in history, in Schelling evil would remain a permanent possibility that can never be dissolved (verschwinden) or overcome (aufgehoben) any way.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Víctor Gómez Pin Anthropological Weight and Physical Irreality of Euclidian Geometry
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Il est tout à fait possible de soutenir que l’espace de Newton manque d’objectivité physique (ce qui est un corollaire de la théorie einsténienne) et néanmoins prendre tout à fait au sérieux la thèse de l’espace euclidien comme condition de possibilité de l’expérience. Condition de possibilité de l’émergence d’un sujet qui configure son monde en remettant tout point de son environnement à une métrique. Cette métrique ne serait autre que celle qui donne sens à la géométrie que l’on a appris à l´école, c’est à dire, la métrique euclidienne. Tout en manquant de réalité physique, tout en n`étant pas fertile à l’heure de rendre compte de la forme de l’univers, la métrique euclidienne serait la seule modalité sous laquelle il y aurait pour l’homme une prise sur le monde. Qu’on l’appelle ou pas transcendantale, la reconnaissance de la métrique euclidienne comme condition de possibilité de l’expérience nous rapprocherait de Kant sans pour autant répudier Einstein ou Poincaré.