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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Valeri Zakharov Статус метафизики в естественных науках
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Since the antique Greeks “the cognition of the world” was not considered as an aggregate of the knowledges about the world but a comprehension of the “thing roots”. The Greek natural philosophers searched for the world principles but not the causes of the phenomena. The modern physics goes back to the Greek sources. It goes away more and more from the knowledges system and strives for the comprehension system. It replaces the causal description by the comprehension. A cognitive power intensiication of a theory (that is a comprehension factor) is accompanied by its prognostic power diminution. The special relativity has stated that any events cannot be connected one with other causally. The general relativity has revealed the space-time domains whose topology does not allow any prediction: it is the domains containing the singularities (black holes, Big Bang). The quantum mechanics has revealed the nonlocalities which rule out the common meaning of the causality. The quantum mechanics predicts what our mind chooses. The mind of a modern physicist allows the noumena, that is the objects being beyond the experience and beyond the Kantian Anschaulichkeit. A modern physical theory is based on the free metaphysical convention. That determines the status of the metaphysics in the modern philosophy of the natural science. (Zakharov V.D. Physics and freedom // Philosophy and the future of the civilization. Theses of reports in IV Russian philosophical congress, Moscow, 2005. Vol. 1: 449-450).
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2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Anastasia Shulyndina The World Outlook Systems: Ideological Aspect
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The research of the world outlook system is one of the main subjects of philosophy. The basis of any world-views is some world outlook or “mythological basis” (structure), which forms all elements of the system. The theistic and the a-theistic systems, to my mind, can be considered as the extreme points of understanding of this main core. Any world outlook is a consequence of the valuable experience of the human being. However, any such experience is connected with the certain “level of access” to the knowledge of the laws of the Universe. The author argues that the selection of central core is made according to free internal choice. The philosophical systems, according to which the world is a complex system of self-identified self-realized subjects, with varying degrees of freedom, most fully reflect the reality. Such, for example, is the philosophical system of Nikolai Losskii. Need of structuring of world outlook systems requires the recognition of the fact that the basis of any world outlook is directly dependent on the internal selection. To identify these is the task of the researcher, who is making an attempt to penetrate into the world-view from the inside and to maximally structure our knowledge of the world vision systems.
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3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Eduard I. Sorkin Метафизичность сознания
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Considering metaphysics as one of the ways of human thinking we have to take in account the very concept of thinking itself. We may describe the latter as a special and highest product of organized matter. Thus, the sufficient level of organization of the matter may provide a certain level of its self-knowledge. But there is still no convincing explanation, what is fundamentally different in organization of the nerve tissue of the brain, which perceives, for example, the color red petals of roses, from one hand, and the biological tissue of these petals, from another, and why one type of matter - the substance of the brain - can reflect the properties of the matter of another species - the color of roses. We may talk a good deal about functional specifics, information processes, thin quantum effects, etc. But as the 19th century Russian religious philosopher P. Yurkevich wrote: “If physiologist observes the changes, the processes in the sensory nerves [...] with the help of the most perfect microscope, anyway, in addition to the physical or chemical changes of the nerve cells, no feeling, no thought he would not see [...] The natural order of study refers us to a metaphysical thought [...] It’s not in the electrical current in the nerves that [...] but in something else, that there is in the whole content of the world.” Leibniz in “Reflections on Metaphysics” referred to the “perception of qualities such as color, warmth, which does not exist outside of us; every substance (man – E. S.) is as if the whole world and the mirror of God or the whole of the universe”. An attempt to correlate the phenomenon of thinking and consciousness with the whole of the positions of metaphysics helps to develop some kind of the holographic model, which gives the opportunity to link the well-known and rationally perceived scientific facts to ideas of supra-rational knowledge, as well as with the idea of Revelation.
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4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Йозеф Шмайс Эволюционная онтология как духовная парадигма для XXI века
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Эволюционная онтология от традиционной отличается: 1) предметом; 2) способом его интерпретации; 3) общественной ролью. 1) Предметом традиционной онтологии было абстрактное понимание бытия. Предметом эволюционной онтологии наряду с природным бытием, а также онтически оппозиционным бытием культурным является его онтический конфликт с природой. 2) Традиционная онтология в трактовке природного бытия предпочитала стабильность, пассивность и обратимость, эволюционная онтология подчеркивает процессуальность, онтическую активность и необратимость. 3) Традиционная онтология была абстрактно академичной и индивидуально утешающей. Эволюционная онтология, которая открывает суть глобального экологического кризиса, может выполнять функцию культурно-парадигматическую. С помощью этой онтологии, опирающейся на научную аргументацию, мы должны попробовать переломить духовную хищническую парадигму.
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5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Fan Valishin Pythagoras and Ontological (Monistic) Tradition
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On the basis of the formulation and solution of the Initial Problem of Reality, namely, the Problem of the Beginning, first, the initial structure of Reality is revealed that penetrates all worlds including the physical nature, human being, universe… - Ontology and Monism coincide. This means that the Occam’s Razor is reduced to the Ontological Imperative, to the requirement of the completeness of Reality; second, the presence of the Initial World Tradition is revealed, namely, the Ontological (Monistic) Tradition with its Historical Breeding Grounds, each of which is a Philosophical-Methodological Center according to the structure of Ontology; third, it is established that this Tradition is alive only then and is discovered only then when it is found that it is born anew – the appearance of the FMTs-Dynamism with its strategy of dynamism makes it possible to elucidate the structure of the historical Breeding Grounds of the Initial Tradition, including the structure of Pyphagorean. It is shown that Sufficient and Necessary in the initial Mathematical Units and Formulas cor-relate with the structure of the Ontological Formulas. Sufficient has the nature of Algebra and Necessary has the nature of Geometry. In turn, the structure of Algebra itself corresponds to the essential measurements of Reality, corresponds to the structure of Motion; Geometry as the measurement of Reality from the side of Existence corresponds to the ontological fact of Meeting of all worlds. A New Era appears along with the appearance of a New Ontology on the Earth. Philosophy plays the role of a Cosmic Grain and Methodology the role of means to process the Earth’s ground for this Grain. The structure of this ground is composed of the state of the art of science, technology, art, literature, politics, economy, culture. According to the new continuation of the Ontological (Monistic) Tradition, the Era of Dy-namism begins now. The first step in launching the strategy of dynamism is the creation of the Program of designing Science correlated with Ontology. Such Program is created at the FMTs-Dynamism, and many things are already implemented: Postulate of Dynamism; Process—State concept; a new variation principle called the local variation principle (LVP); the mathematical apparatus suitable for the new continuation of the optical-mechanistic analogy and the study of the nature of the physical vacuum opening prospects for the creation of a new, namely, trajectory-wave physics.
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6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Дмитрий Александрович Щербаков Бытие прошлого
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Автор ставит задачу найти онтологические основания для понимания прошлого как бытия. Автор показывает, что бытие не должно отождествляться только лишь с действительностью настоящего, потому что настоящее не имеет длительности и пребывает в движении к будущему. Автор указывает, что обычно в философии категорией «небытие» объемлются различные онтологические феномены. Он предлагает провести границу между двумя типами небытия: небытие положительное (небытие того, что было и исчезло, превратившись в нечто другое) и небытие отрицательное или абсолютное (небытие того, чего вообще никогда не было). В статье делается вывод, что реальность прошлого, неразрывно связанная с действительностью моментального настоящего, раскрывающего возможности будущего создают представление о длящемся бытии, как единстве прошлого, настоящего и будущего.
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7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Suhrob Norkulov The Modern Understanding of Personal Being
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The ontology is one of the most ancient philosophical disciplines. Problems of being interested ancient wise men more than all other philosophical questions. Eventually the problematics of understanding of being became complicated. If in Antiquity as being was understood micro- and macrocosm, and in the Middle Ages Divine being, that, since an era of New time and to the present being finds itself in all spheres of life of society, forms of public consciousness, in natural, humanitarian and technical sciences. The most important form of being in the modern world is being of society and being of the person. Personal being represents the whole world of the individual with his pleasures, pain, fears, dreams etc. Interaction between persons assumes also interaction of various spheres of being at interpersonal and personal and public levels. The person in the process of knowledge of his being faces various situations, such as life, illness, death, loss, desire, disappointment, etc. However, it doesn’t mean that the person starts to realize the life completely by any intermediate boundary. This process can occupy all life and there is no guarantee that on a life outcome the person can answer all interesting his questions.
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8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Геннадий Николаевич Мезенцев Прогнозообразующая природа свойств вещей в свете демаркации онтологии и эпистемологии
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One of the most important problems of cognition is data acquisition to support the possibility of human activity, including prediction of the effects of human actions during the interaction with the objects of reality and the interaction of the latter among themselves. In response to this need the subject of cognition starts to distort, in some cases, the features of being in itself and ascribe to it attributes that are not peculiar to it. These attributes include the epistemological effects that consist in the identification of possible outcomes of interaction of the things and the characteristics of the things and the associated with one of the most common types of their description in the terms of properties and quality. The content of the concepts property and quality is something new, which is different from the interacting objects themselves. Many “truths” of language have been incorporated in the pre-reflexive period of development of cognition. The human everyday experience, which is effected through common sense situations, become the meanings of the language. In this connection, the methodological principles of analytic philosophy, such as “the world is a text”, require a more critical stance. Concepts continue to being incorporated in the “truths” of language even during the contemporary reflexive period of cognition. Among such concepts are the potential energy, the inertial mass of the body, and, at a deeper level, the gravitational mass. The results of the physical sciences, on which philosophy of physics and ontology traditionally rely, should be perceived more critically when analyzing the ontological problems that concern the understanding of certain aspects of the Being.
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9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Дмитрий Николаевич Воропаев Я и Ничто
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В работе рассматривается проблема понимания категории «Я» в связи с категориями «бытие», «небытие», «Ничто». Автор предлагает понимать категорию Ничто как тотальное несовпадение с бытием и небытием. Такой подход, на его взгляд, позволит приблизиться к разгадке человеческого Я, постоянно ускользающего от непосредственного познания. Автор указывает, что Я трудно обнаружить по той причине, что оно ищется в бытии теми же методами, которые используются для познания бытия. Однако, наличие Я (как субстанционального ядра) совсем не то же самое, что наличность вещей в бытии. Я не то же самое, что структуры, образующие личность человека, т.к. элементы этой структуры формируемы в бытии.
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10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
A. A. Belostotsky Тезисы о бытии и мышлении
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All processes in both objective and subjective reality can be naturally derived from basal representations of things and their mutual influences. Cogitative operations and facts of perceptible world are quite similar though they are not fully symmetric. Proceeding from this it is easy to describe different cogitative operations and cognition as well as to solve the knowledge reliability problem. That was demonstrated in the following work presented in a theses form.
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11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Валерий Дмитриевич Диденко Выражение невыразимого как коррелят онтологических sи гносеологических оснований духовного
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The paper demonstrates that art, as a component of the common foundations of the spiritual, exerts an expressive function in culture. This is attained by “supplementing” the scientific picture of the world that is shaped by theoretical (reliable) knowledge, to achieve the necessary completeness and integrity required by the boundlessaspirations of the human spirit, in which the unknown appears as strange, wonderful, fantastic, nevertheless, meaningful principle of individual and socal life.
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12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Д.ф.н. Т. В. Кузнецова Эстетические формы красоты, моды и гламура
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Человеческую историю можно рассматривать с различных точек зрения, автор говорит: и как прогресс в духовном саморазвитии, и как прогресс в свободе реализации – это прогресс продуктивных сил. Также можно его рассматривать как продолжающееся развитие человеческого понимания красоты. В статье показано, как идея красоты развивается с античных времен до настоящего времени. Какая связь существует между пониманием красоты и гламуром. Этот концепт в первую очередь относится к моде на одежду и косметику, а в широком смысле – стилю жизни, развлечениям, выбору предметов потребления.
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13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Попова Елена Васильевна В эстетике не “все позволено“
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В современной культуре утрачен эстетический эталон, а искусство лишается присущего ей аристократизма. Одна из причин снижения уровня современной культуры – в ложном понимании свободы. Свобода как универсальная ценность в современном мире превращается в свою противоположность, когда человек решает: все позволено. Искусство – это главный канал культуры, которая всегда требует ограничений. В Нобелевской речи И.А.Бродского есть важная мысль: «В этике не “все позволено“ именно потому, что в эстетике не “все позволено“». Сегодня в эстетике преобладают эпатажные формы, замешанные на политических интересах. «Альтернативное искусство» манифестирует себя под масками либерализма, толерантности и демократизма, которые не безупречны. Культура должна пониматься как экологическая среда, в которой действуют определенные запреты и ограничения. Классическое сознание знало идеальные нормы, которые и определяли высокий этический и эстетический уровень гуманитарной культуры. Классическая литература и классическая философия – это та верховная инстанция, которая может сказать: это добро, а это зло. Классическое сознание предупреждало: «Дух зла соблазняет человека» (Гете).
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14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Сиднева Татьяна Борисовна Музыка в эпоху эстетизации
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A characteristic feature of the modern era is the penetration of the aesthetic in all spheres of cultural space. At the same time throughout the process unfolds dissolution of art in everyday life, its ‘desecration’ (Benjamin) and ‘dizaynizatsiya’ (Baudrillard). In these circumstances, the music as “Lullaby name of all art” (Goethe), is particularly sensitive to the counter trend of modern era. On the one hand, the all-pervading power of music has led to unprecedented sound environment era - in strength, ambiguity, and information richness of the audio stream. Such large volumes of musical memory is not known in history. On the other hand, the music loses its limits: lofty and low, author`s and borrowed, art and non-art, musical and non-musical. It no longer refers primarily to the hearing, but reveals the dependence on visual perception tuned to the shaped concrete, material nature, tangibility. So, it may be treated as a ‘non-musical’ era. However, penetrating the whole vertical culture and joining into the situation of “mixing genres” (Baudrillard), music is able to perform the function of a universal language, combining multidirectional processes of era with a mood of sensitivity to the processes of life.
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15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Feruza Bozarova Эстетическая Проблематика Иммануила Канта
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The most essential contribution to development of a philosophi­cal aesthetics, according to many experts, the largest representative of German classical philosophy Immanuel Kant has brought. In the Kant aesthetic views the Second, so-called critical, period of his creativity is most interesting, when he has created the most considerable works: “Criticism of pure reason” (1781), “Criticism of practical reason” (1788) and “Criticism of ability of judgment” (1790). Unlike the predecessors-educators demonstrating a subject of aesthetics in objective reality, looking for the objective bases of beauty, Kant after Burke, and relying on development of psychological school of Wolf, didn’t think of the sphere aesthetic without the subject and his perception of object. Main for him category of esthetics are “expedient”, “taste”, “free game”, “beauty”, “sublime” the essence of the characteristic of aesthetic contemplation which is accompanied by special pleasure, or disinterested creative activity. Ability of Kant to understand clearly and present an originality of the art sphere explains attractiveness and authoritativeness of his aesthetics.
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16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Суздальцева Светлана Николаевна Эстетические проблемы интерпретации современной живописи
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настоящая публикация рассматривает проблемы интерпретации современной живописи в ракурсе актуального искусства. Согласно семиотической традиции, абстрактное живописное произведение рассматривается как текст. Определяется эстетический способ существования живописного произведения как объекта эстетического опыта. На примере художественных практик модернизма и постмодернизма выявляются основные тенденции установки границ интерпретаций. В рамках рассматриваемого вопроса акцентируется позиция американской теории искусств (Р.Краус), ее концепция индексального знака. Намечаются перспективы возможных путей интерпретации современной живописи.
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17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Владимир Александрович Кутырёв Бытие под знаком “транс”
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The end of the twentieth century is commonly defined as the postmodern era. Now, it is claimed that this era was replaced by the post-post-modern era. Due to the ambiguity of this concept, the features of the era remain unclear. A more adequate term could be “trans-modern”. Everything becomes “trans”: transnational economy, transdisciplinary science, trans(uni) versal philosophy, transcendentalism, transgression, transhumanism, transnomonism and transvestism. “Post” meant the negation of the former state of the world: God, man, its history, culture, metaphysics, their deconstruction, and death. “Trans” is a passage through them into something new, “other” – the positive construction of the otherness. This is realized on a new substrate, which is no longer commensurate to the person, even materially or physically. It is informative, virtual-digital, either directly in the technologies, or determines decisively people’s way of live. The first ideologues of trans-modernism can be considered the “junior postmodernists”, primarily A. Badiou with his “Manifesto of Philosophy” (1989). Trans-modernism abstains from concerns about the stability of what is being developed. It focuses on the continuous innovation. Everything exists for the sake of as fast as possible change to something else. In theoretical studies, trans-modernism manifests itself in the expansion of transcendental ontology and cognitivism. Being termed as “trans” under crisis is chaotic by definition. The purpose of human activity in a trans-modern situation should be no progressive development, but the maintenance of homeostatic balance of his life world. At the heart of the philosophy of survival lies at the aesthetic worldview of multiontism and co-evolution, phenomenological realism and conservatism, coinciding in content with the perennial philosophy. We have no other option, but to choose the Being termed “humanism”.
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18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Закир Курбан оглы Мамедалиев К постмодернистскому игнорированию и коммуникативному утверждению истины
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In this paper, based on the writings of the French philosophers Jean-François Lyotard and Michel Foucault, I consider, on the one hand, the arguments of the representatives of postmodern philosophy, that neutralize, in fact, the pretension of truth by science, and, on the other hand, Jürgen Habermas’ concept of communicative rationality that defends the right of reason on the truth. The main reason that stands behind Lyotard’s actual negation of truth in science lies in the concealed replacement of the consideration of the internal factors of production and development of scientific knowledge by an analysis in non-scientific terms of the legitimacy of science as a social institution. Michel Foucault, like Lyotard, in favor of externalism ignores completely the internal determinants of the organization and development of science. Foucault’s position is vulnerable in an essential point: if one to implement his program, then it has to reproduce objectively the subject, which he (Foucault) subjectively intends to wipe out. In order to restore the solidarity in society, J. Habermas lays all hopes on the reconciliation of reason’s potential, focusing on the communicative rationality. However, cultural problems arise when people’s actions are not commensurate with the Truth, do not serve the Good and deviate from the Beautiful. These problems have spiritual content proper. The spiritual can never be exhausted by rational judgment, in whatever form the rational might appear.
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19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Olga Kozhina Современная философия совершенства и свободы
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Анализируется концепция философии совершенства и свободы, представленная в корпусе фундаментальных работ Н. М. Чуринова. Актуальность концепции обусловлена тем, что позволяет преодолеть онтологическое и гносеологическое противостояние ма-териализма и идеализма в современной философии. При этом на первый план в кон-цепции выступает поиск новых стандартов теоретизирования, переосмысление основа-ний науки, философии. В этом отношении Н.М.Чуринов сформировал концепцию двух проектов как способов существования науки, которые в истории философии и науке существовали всегда. Диа-лектический проект науки, берущий начало от Аристотеля, ориентированный в своем раз-витии на гностицизм, космическую модель мира и теорию познания как теорию отраже-ния. Метафизический проект науки, берущий начало от софистов, ориентированный на принцип агностицизма, универсальную модель мира, теорию познания как теорию репре-зентаций. Двум проектам науки соответствуют две модели мира, две теории познания, два типа теоретизирования. Двум типам теоретизирования, соответствуют два типа об-щества, и двум типам общества – присущи два типа личности. Н. М. Чуринов артикулирует философию в контексте социально-культурной и инфор-мационной действительности, является основателем и руководителем научно-педагогической и философской школы теории информационной реальности и ее прило-жений, которые получили свое развитие в более пятидесяти диссертаций его учеников. Концепция различия философии совершенства и философии свободы активно интег-рируется в систему современного образования. Понятие “свобода” берется как код ме-тафизического философского и научного творчества. Соответственно, категория “совер-шенство” - код диалектического теоретического творчества.
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20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Роида Рзаева Мультикультурализм в постмодернистском контексте
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Today, multiculturalism is characterized as an ideology, a poli-cy, as well as a discourse, which makes the multiculturalist agenda to spread and become real. At the same time, multiculturalism, as a type of discourse, can be identified in several different discourses. One of them is the post-modern discourse. The phenomenon of postmodernism is currently in the focus of philosophical interest, primarily because it is seen as a characteristic philo-sophical type in modern culture. One of its most common features is that multiculturalism reflects the cultural situation of the postmodern. The postmodern era extends the meaning of multiculturalism.
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