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1. Schutzian Research: Volume > 1
Nam-In Lee, Husserl의 현상학과 Schutz의 현상학적 사회학(Husserl’s Phenomenology and Schutz’s Phenomenological Sociology)
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This paper aims to clarify the influence of Husserl’s phenomenology upon Schutz’s phenomenological sociology. In developing his phenomenologicalsociology, even though Schutz was deeply influenced by Weber, he considers that the interpretative sociology developed by the latter has some difficulties. It is Husserl’s phenomenology that enabled him to overcome the difficulties of Weber’s interpretative sociology and to found a phenomenological sociology as an interpretative sociology in a true sense. In section 1, I will deal with the significance and difficulties of Weber’s interpretative sociology. In section 2, I will deal with the influence of Husserl’s phenomenological psychology and furthermore, in section 3, the influence of Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology on Schutz’s phenomenological sociology. In section 4, I will mention that there are some motives in Husserl’s later phenomenology that could be useful for the development of the phenomenological sociology.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Sun Mira, 폴 리쾨르의 Discours: 시제와 서술
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Chez P. Ricoeur se distingue de langue et de parôle en analysant de discours. Il souligne en quoi une meilleure étude des structures narrative est éclairante pour l'étude du régime d'historicité, à condition de ne pas confondre dans une indistinction ontologique les discours d'ordre historique et d'ordre fictionnel.Avec Temps et Récit, Ricoeur poursuit aussi sa confrontation avec l'oeuvre de Heidegger, dont la réflrxtion sur l'historialité a beaucoup compté pour lui. On peut déceler derrière la triologie de Ricoeur une forme de réponse à Etre et Temps. Selon Ricoeur, il ne s'agit d'hypostasier ni le récit ni le temps, mais de montrer comment dans la triangulation récit-temps-action, c'est en fait cette dernière dimention qui occupe une position fondatrice, car c'est dans l'agir et le pâtir que se situe la structure première du temps, laquelle ne peut s'exprimer que sous la forme d'un récit. On peut ainsi mesurer, sur un thème commun aux deux périodes, le parcours réalisé avec Temps et Récit. A la notion traditionnelle de continuité en histoire il substitue la notion plus élaborée de mise en intrigue, commeopération configurante du rapport du récit au temps. L'autre continuité majeure qui accompagne son intérêt pour la question de l'historicité est son souci de tenir ensemble les deux versants de celle-ci, le versant de l'histoire racontée et celui de l'histoire à faire, donc l'articulation sur un agir. P. Ricoeur place donc le discours historique dans une tension qui lui est propre entre identité narrative et ambition de vérité. Il y a aussi la condition de l'événement historique devient tributaire de sa mise en intrigue. Elle est la médiation qui assure la matérialisation du sens de l'expérience humaine du temps "aux trois niveaux de sa préfiguration pratique, de sa configuration épistémique et de sa reconfiguration herméneutique." La mise en intrigue joue le rôle d'opérateur, de miseen relation d'événements hétérogènes. En réticent face aux risques de l'hyperbole, convaincu du caractère aporétique de toute quête directe, de toute tentative de remontée aux conditions qui donnent accès à une temporalité toujours déjà constituée, déjà‐là, et donc nécessairement imparfaite.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 6
Hee-Jong Woo, Complexity Theory and the Structure of Full Awakening in Religious Experience
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Enlightened experience (i.e. awakened to the truth) is the most valuable one in most religions including Christianity and Buddhism. As well-known cases of such experience are Apocalypse St. Paul and many Grand Zen masters in Zen Buddhism, it is natural for us to believe that the enlighten is for very talented or speciallytrained ones. However, applying the complexity theory on the structure of enlightenment, based on the power law function, selforganized criticality, phase transition, and emergence, it is clear that the full awakening can be experienced by everyone in daily life. Furthermore, such experiences are not necessary to be limited in religious one. Rediscovering the path to full awakening by complexity theory leads to the demythologization of the enlightenment in Korean Zen Buddhism, which emphasizes a hard apprenticeship in temple for long periods for the purpose.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 6
Hye-Young Won, 초기 교단에 붓다의 신통력이 미친 영향
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The author of this paper aimed to understand the early Buddhism community in its entirety by examining the individual episodes in the "Mahavagga". There is a remarkable experience of the psychic power between the Buddha and the Brahmins. They are both aware of coming across of psychic forces that entered the way to the Buddhist Community. Using the brahmins mythology as a instrument for missionary work, the early Buddhism brings people close to Buddha's community. The Buddha visited Uruvela-Kassapa and took lodging for the night where the sacred fire was kept, in spite of Kassapa's warning that the spot was inhabited by a fierce Naga. The Buddha, by his magical powers, overcame, first this N ganad then another, both of whom vomited fire and smoke. Kassapabeing pleased with this exhibition of iddhi-power, undertook to provide the Buddha with his daily food. The Buddha spent the whole rainy season there, performing, in all, three thousand five hundred miracles of various kinds, reading the thoughts of kassapa, splitting firewood for the ascetic sacrifices, heating stoves for them to use after bathing in the cold weather, etc. Still Kassapa persisted in the thought, "The great ascetic is of great magic power, but he is not anarahant like me." Finally the Buddha decided to startle him by declaring that he was not an arahant, neither did the way he followed lead to arahantship. Thereon kassapa owned defeat and reverently asked for ordination. The Buddha asked him to consult with his pupils, and they cut off their hair and threw it with their sacrificial utensils into the river and were all ordained. Nadi Kassapa and Gaya Kassapa were ordained with their pupils. At Gay sisa the Buddha preached to them the Fire Sermon, and they all attained arahantship for the early Buddhist Community. The episode of Uruvela Kassaps in the Mahavagga text ultimately idealizes the power of psychic and the start of the community. It is probable, even at the time when the episode were written, that as a matter of fact every one, in ordinary daily life, spoke imply the vernaculars in a much more simple and natural state of society. It is the Mahavagga authors, when addressing a cultured public at a date when the vernaculars had become the paramount literary language. Another point is that though brahmins take part in the religious and philosophical conversations of those early tims, and in the accounts of them are always referred to with respect, and threaten with the same courtesy that they always themselves extended also to others, yet they hold no predominant position. The majority of the ascetic, and the most influential individuals among them, are not brahmins. That is only a matter of course will be the obvious subjection. The Mahavagga texts I quotes, if not the work of bitter opponents, were at leastcomposed under India bramins influence, and are prejudiced against the brahmins.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Jung-Geun Hong, 巍巖 ․ 南塘 以後 性理學派의 人物性同異 論: 任聖周와 奇正鎭을 중심으로
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The great academic disputation of Ho-rak had been made for about 200 years since it began in 1709. An argument that the human nature and the nature of things are same or different was one of the main subjects for the great academic disputation. Gan Lee (李柬, 1677-1727) and Wonjin Han (韓元震, 1682-1751) were leading discussants of the argument. After Lee and Han, Neo-Confucian scholars in Joseon dynasty attempted comprehensively to synthesize their two views. But such Scholars as Seong-ju Lim (任聖周, 1711-1788) and Jeongjin Ki (奇正鎭, 1798-1879) criticized a reformulation of One Principle and Many Differentiations. Lim argued that there was not only One Principle but also one vital breath as well as Many Differentiations of vital breath as well as One Principle. His idea of One Principle is relevant for a similarity between the natures of humans and things, and his idea of Many Differentiations is relevant for a difference between the natures of humans and things. Lim grasped that all the natures of things had two aspects of similarity and difference. But Gi criticized that their discussants were too narrowly specific in arguing this issue. He argued that One principle and Many Differences entailed each other. Like Lim's idea, his idea confirmed the sides of both, too. The nature of original substance is equivalent to the nature of existence. It seems to me that such a fruitful result of Korean philosophy, which an argument between the natures of humans and things had been distinctly made, for the future, will be an area of being made a deeper exploration from various aspects.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Heejae Lee, Confucian’s Perspective on the Family Rituals of the 19 Century in Korea
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A Li (禮) means a rituals that was expressed to outside, differ from Li (理) expressed inner mind. A Li (禮) as a rituals is not enforce law but it need inside devout attitude. 19 century in Korea rapidly changed political situation, typical Confucian value challenged by western religion and practical learning. Though this crisis, Chuzu scholars keeps their philosophy as a absolute value. They faught against westernization and also protect Confucian rituals such as community and family rituals. In the wedding rituals, they take a serious view of spouse’s personality than what one’s wealth. They worried about free sex and desire for material life. If they lost traditional value, then they must be a barbarous animal life. The morning rituals case, they estimated righteous death is better then injustice life. They think that righteous death for nation and people is a true scholar. 19 century many Chuzu scholars faught against Japanese invasion, they called themselves ‘wyijeong cheoksa (衛正斥邪) protection of right and expose of wrong) Chuzu scholars in 19 century in Korea made a typical teachers Kim, Jang-sang and Song, Si-yeol. They believe absolutely traditional Chuzu learning is a perfect and also traditional rituals is unchangeable manners contains Li (禮).
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
In-Chang Song, The Thought of Concentrating Kyoung (敬) and its Contemporary Meaning of Dongchundang Songjoongil (1606-1672)
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Dongchundang Songjoongil (1606-1672) was a scholar who represented Gihoyeahak and Sanlim (山林) influencing the society of Chosŏn dynasty since the middle of 17th century. This report focus on its contemporary purport and reconciliation spirit on the Kyoung (敬) of Dongchundang. The Kyoung is the core idea that elucidates Dongchundang's philosophy and its characteristic. Dongchundang tried to continue to live the life of 'according knowledge and action' (知行一致) and dreamed the world of 'harmonization but not same' (和而不同) which indicates the principle of heaven, meaning the harmony never following suit without reflection and a just and great cause, going through with his original idea through the Kyoung. In addition, Dongchundang expanded the Kyoung from personal existential problems to social ethic practical ones in the viewpoint of more reason than vitality, and aimed to build the ethic kingdom that came the harmony andreconciliation of all the communities together, interacting his subjectivity and the universal. The Kyoung and reconciliation spirit of Dongchundang is the orthodoxy of Dohak(道學), and it made him live moral intention and through real life and summarized the manner and spirit pursuing the just and great cause beyond factions. In this sense, Dongchundang's philosophy is the concentration of the Kyoung and philosophical expression of reconciliation spirit. As the peculiarity of Dongchundang's philosophy is based on the Kyoung, it is the everlasting principle of what one should do and practice in human life.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Cheon-Sung Lee, The Mind and Natural theory of Nong Am, Chang-hyup Kim and its Influence on Nak School
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A controversy of the Perception is focused on the Mind-Nature relation by Confucian Scholars in 18th century Joseon Dynasty. Chang-Hyup Kim [金昌協], especially, asserted that the Perception should be the unique side of Mind, because the Wise [智: the Mind of Judgment, remarkably about the righteous or not] is one aspect of the Nature. He needs to define the category of Wise and Perception, because the existing definition of Wise as an unprocurable activity of Mind. That might bring a confusion of concepts though The Mind and Nature, in his view. More over he added the essential aspect of Perception to real activity of Perception, and in this point of view, the position of Mind is important to the process of consolidating into Nature. Therefore he asserted that we should perceive the Nature, the essence, in the side of Mind [卽心指性]. This vision of the aim to Nature in the point of Mind, which was reinvestigation of Neo-Confucianism and this was succeeded to the general with academic traditional of Nak School [洛學].
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Kyo-Jin Sung, 牛溪 成渾의 主理主氣纔發或主說에 關한 硏究
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The Li-Primacy Qi-Primacy theory (主理主氣說) of Sung Woogye, Neo-Confucian scholar in 16th century Joseon dynasty, is contained in the 5 letters among the 9 letters of inquiry sent to Yi Yulgok. What Woogye liked to emphasize was, when our mind of Li Qi combination (理氣合物) begins to arise, Li and Qi does not arise separately but Li and Qi become prime (主) or subordinate (從) alternatively to be in a thread. It is that we approach one thread to take the important and say (就一途而取其重而言也). The terms of Li-Primacy Qi-Primacy were in the letter of reply to Kobong (高峰:奇大升) by Yi Toegye. He said the four clues (四端) were Li-Primacy and the seven feelings (七情) were Qi-Primacy. In the inquiries and answers between Woogye and Yulgok, it was developed that moral mind follows Li-Primacy while human selfish desire follows Qi-Primacy. Woogye liked to see human mind and moral mind as the theory of rise and fall (消長說). However, Yulgok liked to grasp them as the theory of beginning and end (始終說). In plain language, the ratio between human mind and moral mind can be 1:99 or 99:1 in the theory of rise and fall, but never be 0:100 or 100:0 as in the theory of beginning and end.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Cheol-Seung Lee, 유가철학에 나타난 충서(忠恕)관의 논리 구조와 현실적 의미
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Today, the trend of "globalization" with the background of neo-liberalism, led by some economically developed countries around the U. S. is on the increase. However, while the ideology of the neo-liberalism plays a positive role in securing the individual rights independent from a group, it also causes diverse socialconflicts derived from the differences among groups and regions as well as individuals, according to its logic of competition, which evokes infinite egoism. For this reason, a group of scholars have been exerting themselves to find out the wise solution for the social problems. And the "Zhongsu (忠恕)" Thought, which roughly means the consideration for "Zhong (忠)" and "Shu (恕)", has become a significant ideological resource to solve such problems. Traditionally, in Confucian world, "Zhong" is understood as the revelation of the pure good morality as an innate nature of the self, and "Shu" the expansion of the "Zhong" to others. Such point of view of traditional Confucian world regards the two areas not as separate spheres but as closely related ones. That is to say, it is maintained that the sphereof "Zhong", which covers the moral order of an individual and that of "Shu," which covers that of the society are organically related to establish a community based on morality resulted from the ideal relationship between an individual and a society. However, it is somewhat difficult to apply the idea of moral society of traditional Confucian world based on the relationship between "Zhong" and "Shu" to the present society, which emphasizes pluralism in the origin and the contents of its morality. For the nature of morality contained in the "Zhongshu" Thought of traditional Confucian world is based on the "Good Human Nature Principle," which covers the absolutist ethics emphasizing the immediate identification of existence and value, while many people of today regard such point ofview as a result of the false ideological system without any realistic foundation. Those who criticize the absolutist ethics maintain that morality is not a transcendental gift but an empirical product and the value and principle of life shaped by the heros of a historical period. For the reason they regard morality as a relative value restricted by time and space, not as an invariable transcendental value. They also maintain the point of view of limited or conditional universality thatthe universality of morality is a common conscious shaped by an organic relationship between specialities, which can be continued for a specific period of time and then would change or disappear. As mentioned above, the "Zhongshu" thought of traditional Confucian world has some difficulty in being adopted into the plural society of today, which means that it should be transformed into a new shape to be significantly utilized in today's society.