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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Ki-sang Lee 생명은 웋일름을 따르는 몸사름 ‐다석 생명사상의 영성적 차원
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Daseok is a thinker who spent his whole life in searching out the principle of life for all the global citizens’ living together peacefully freed from the ‘absolute’ centripetal force of Europe. We are now at a juncture of drawing up a new grammar of life for living together in a pluralistic age where all kinds of ideologies and world religions should coexist intermingling with each other. Daseok, as a early thinker of the global village period, tried to search out an alternative and integrative thought encompassing the thoughts of Daoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity throughout his whole life. He thought that a clue for solvingsuch a problem on a world philosophy level can be found in the spiritual mind and heart, the nature‐friendly lifestyle, and the integrative thinking structure of Korean people, and in the convivial [mutually vivifying] grammar of Korean language. In his youth, Daseok felt the mystery of life within his own body and spirit. He came to know that ‘I’ as the body is connected to all the life forms and even to all the lifeless forms till now as one unity with them all, the very present ‘I’ being a frontier [an end point] of the cosmological life event. Then, he became awakened to the truth that this ‘I’ should become firewood of the life event for the continuation of the cosmological life cord, in one of whose threads being transmitted even to ‘myself’ without interruption. Afterwards, he came to interpret thephenomenon of life as “an event for the achievement of heavenly commandment through the burning up of one’s own body.” In such an achievement, according to him, we can and should become cosmological persons living a cosmological life of vivifying and serving everything between heaven and earth in communication with the transcendent and yet omnipresent Spirit of heaven.
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2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Byung-chang Lee 김지하의 생명사상
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The most famous korean Poet Jiha Kim had turned toward the thoughts for life in the beginning of eighties in Korea. I will here introduce the causes and the basis of his thoughts. It has been recognized already that Korean traditional philosophy of DongHak (the learning in the East Asia) and the western philosophies, ie the theology of liberation, the philosophy of Bergson or Deleuze had influenced much to his thoughts for life. But the most determinate basis of his thoughts, I think is the experiences in the movements for democracy in Korea. His thoughts represent the dear believes which the mass have won since the seventies.These believes resides in the not exhausting life powers of the Minjung (Peoples repressed and alienated). His thoughts has succeed to the modern philosophy of democratic resistance but also criticised the severe problems of modern philosophies. After the democratic movement in Korea there has taken place the cultural revolution movements in Korea by new generations, which can not be adjoined to the previous democratic movements without the thoughts for life of Jiha Kim.
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3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Daihyun Chung 씨알: 誠的 지향성의 주체
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The Seed Thoughts by YU Youngmo and HAM Sukhun each may be summed up in “People are a May-fly seed” and “Seeds embodies the eternal meaning”. They used “seed” to refer to humans or people on the one hand and placed the notion of seed in the holistic context of the Eastern Asian tradition. Then, I seek to connect the anthropological notion and the holistic notion via cheng or integration. 『The Doctrine of the Mean』 says that any ultimate integration (至誠) reflects a total nature of objects involved (盡性) by showing that self realization and all other realizations are one and not two (成己成物) and by arriving at the stage ofholiness (聖). Then, I may be allowed to say that cheng is a mind or a power not only of humans but also of all other things. Important elements of cheng intentionality can be read out of two thinker’s various conceptual aspects. YU’s interpretation of history to be internalistic, his view of Hangul (Korean written language) as a revealational medium, his hermeneutics of Christian God as the Vacuum cannot be understood on the dichotomous model of humans-nature. HAM’s seed holism, his beliefs that humans’s minds are the heavenly mind and that all things under the heaven should come to be unified are best to be understood on the model of cheng intentionality of integration.
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4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Ok-soong Cha The Philosophy of Women, See-al and Life of Haam, Seok Heon
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This thesis reviews Haam Seok Heon‘s See-al philosophy, the main philosophy about life in terms of women. The See-al philosophy was created by Haam, who went through the turbulent times of Korea. So far, we have had papers that dealt with his philosophy under the political, historical and religious contexts, but there has been no paper focused on women. Actually, Haam confessed that it was his mother who structured the foundation of his philosophy. He also said that he learned from his mother about freedom, equality, and the basics of See-al ideas. He developed his philosophy of life, See-al, through the image of his motherwho devoted her whole life to bring him up with love and willingly sacrificed her life for her beloved son. Haam regarded women as a link of all lives in history. He also thought mothers, women in other words, have that power that gives birth, breeds lives and infuses new structure into eternal life; in addition, he stated that women have energy which pulls clear and new things out of filthy and dirty things. Through his image about women, Haam's See-al philosophy extends itself as an ecological life movement. In this paper, Haam's philosophy about women is not reviewed and analyzed by the western point of view because Haam is not a man who spent his life in so-called the "times of women" in the western view. Since his philosophy emphasizes self-reflective, independent life, freedom andequality, we might find out that there are some discrepancies between his philosophy and the lives of his mother and wife who had sacrificed their lives under the patriarchal social system. However, the meaning of Haam's independent life is totally different from the western concept of if. That is, his idea of independent life is closely related to sacrifice. In the current society under the influence of Neo-liberalism, only competition and economic logic matter; however, Haam's philosophy, which states "Life is no different between you and I, and only love can save you and I as one existence" and cherishes every single life as one organism that connects all existing things--sky, earth, human beings, etc.--is of great importance for us to reconsider.
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5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Jeong-Hyun Youn 없이 계시는 하느님; 다석 유영모의 절대자 이해
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This paper is an interpretation of the thought of the twentieth century Korean religious thinker, Yoo Yŏng-mo (柳永模, 1890-1981), a pioneer figure who sought to re-conceptualise a Christian understanding of the Ultimate Reality in the light of a positive openness to the plurality of Korean religions. Yoo Yŏng-mo considered that it was possible to present an overall picture of harmony and complementarity between the three traditions of Korea and Christianity, and this is endorsed by the present thesis. This essay is aimed at providing a religious rationale for inter-faith dialogue. Using the principles of ‘Change’ (易, i) and ‘Yin-ying’ (陰陽)dominated in Chinese Classics and East Asian way of thinking, this paper lays out a methodology for envisaging harmony and mutual complementarity between traditions. The effect of some central concepts from within Confucian, Buddhist and Taioist tradition on the Christian thought of Yoo Yŏng-mo is then analysed and examined.In this respect, this paper argues that the Ultimate Reality based on the principle of harmony and mutual complementarity is not only both personal andimpersonal as well as both transcendent and imminent, but also neither personal nor impersonal as well as neither transcendent nor imminent. Essentially, therefore, this essay accepts that Yoo Yŏng-mo’s equating of the Christian idea of God with the ‘Great Ultimate’ (太極) in Confucianism, with ‘Nothingness’ (無) in Buddhism and with the ‘One’ or Tao (道) in the thought of Lao-Chuang (老莊思想) of Taoism is a legitimate equivalence to make and that this does indeed pave the way for a potentially fruitful dialogue between Korea’s main religions. The drawing together of the Great Ultimate, Absolute Nothingness, the One Absolute from the Tao and the traditional personal God of Christianity gives the discussion an entirely new direction which has become a challenge for traditional orthodoxChristian theology and also for a pluralistic religious society.
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6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Jung-bae Lee 天符經을 통해서 본 東學과 多夕의 기독교 이해 ‐기독교의 토착화를 위한 水雲과 多夕의 한 접점 모색
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What I pay attention to in this article is the relationship between Su-wun (水雲) and Da-seok (多夕) in their thoughts. As is generally known, Dong-hak (東學) has been recognized as an independent national religion which rediscovered the forgotten God of Korean People. It is indicated by the fact that Dong-hak is a system of thought which has inherited and developed the theory of three foundations (三才) as the worldview of Cheonbugyeong. In this paper, what I find to be missing in Da-seok's thought is that he did not mention Su-wun's Dong-hak. Given the fact that Da-seok had much interest not only in Buddhism and Confucianism butalso in Cheonbugyeong, it is more or less unexpected that he took Donghak, which was closely related to the scripture, out of the question in his writing. For this reason, the main task of this article is to correlate Su-wuns' Dong-hak and Daseok's thoughts (Understanding of Christianity) in the framework of the idea three foundations (三才) originating from Cheonbugyeong. In order to make these points clear, I will discuss the following in order: First, the theory of three foundationsproclaimed in Cheonbugyeong as the fundamental framework of both Dong-hak and Da-seok's thoughts. Second, the fundamental feature of Da-seok's understanding of Christianity. Third, comparison of Da-seok's understanding of Christianity and Dong-hak in term of their fundamental structure. Lastly, the encounter between Da-seok's Christianity and Dong-hak and its implications for the world history and theology of life.
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7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Yonghao Yuan Lao Tzu and Zhuang Tzu’s Critique of Confucian Theory of Moral Community
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What is called theory of moral community is a socialpolitical idea that was established by Confucius and Mencius on the base of political practice of Yao, Shun, Yu and King of Chou and that was used as ideology of ancient Chinese Empire. Lao Tzu and Zhuang Tzu criticized the theory of moral community and established their naturalistic philosophical system. Lao Tzu said in the first chapter of Tao Te Ching that “The Tao is too great to be described by the name Tao. If it could be named so simply, it would not be the eternal Tao”. If Tao which is indispensable to mortal fortune can be described, it must have existed in discourse of human beings; If the important pole that accords with fact can be named, it must have named by human beings. So people who lived in ancient times regarded the political idea of Yao, Shun, Yu and King of Chou as Tao that has been justified. At the same time they named Yao, Shun, Yu and King of Chou as sons of Heaven who inherited the vocation of Heaven. Hence by all appearances,Lao Tzu was denying the validity of traditional social-political idea. And Lao Tzu thought the traditional social-political practice, in fact, had kept away from intrinsic morality and switched to extrinsic criterions. Zhuang Tzu, as an inheritor of Lao Tzu, criticized the moral community of Confucius straight from the shoulder. First, according to Zhuang Tzu’s opinion, the system of demise is a way of handing over and taking over power accorded with particular instance of the time which was chosen by Yao, Shun and Yu, but it is not a perfect and universal political pattern as Confucius thought. Second, Zhuang Tzu enumerated many immoral behaviors done by these sons of Heaven, on the one hand, on the other hand he regarded the Confucian politics of all over the world was an hegemonic politics in essence which would destroy human’s moral faith on their autonomy. Contrary to Confucian theory of moral community, Lao Tzu brought forward a social idea of “a little state with a small population" which was often misunderstood as “a small state with a little population”, in fact the idea of “a little state with a small population" is a naturalistic political idea that will safeguard and realize freedom, equality and plural values by weakening compulsion of state and lusts of human beings furthest. Lao Tzu and Zhuang Tzu’s critique and reflection of Confucian theory of moral community, with their social-political idea of “a little state with a small population" will be very helpful to establish correct historical consciousness and build wonderful future society.
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8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Jeong-Jun Choi 서법(筮法)의 관점에서 바라본 천부경과 주역의 象數論
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In the Choui, the way of worldly change is presented with symbols of Yin and Yang, but the actual situations are discussed with the phase of Gue Hyo (卦爻). And, the operation to determine the phase of Gue Hyo is made by the number. So, the phase number of Gue Hyo and the way order always go along. When we call theoperation that reveals the future world with the specific phase of Gue Hyo as the Jeom (Prediction) of Choui, the Jeom is operated with the number. At this time, the operation method of the number is called Seobeop. In this paper, by examining the Seobeop in the book of Hongbeomhwangeuk (洪範皇極) along with that in Choui, the numerological research will be carried out about the coincidence and difference between the Samjaeron (Three element theory) in theCheonbugeong and the Yin-Yang theory of Choui in the Seobeop.
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9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Seon-Hui Lee Perception as Act in Bergson
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This paper is for the purpose of clarify that perception is a conscious act through Bergson’s theory of images and perception in Matter and Memory. And yet this ‘act’ is not a pure action of consciousness or of sprit, which is transcendental from the reality and composes or recomposes it. That is, our perception is not pure knowledge. A pure conception is unconscious one, which takes place infinitely within the system of matter that is an ‘aggregate of images’ in which all the elements act and react upon one another according to the law of nature. This system is excentric. On the contrary, the consciousness comes into being in themoment when these unlimited actions/reactions are limited and with choice, that is, when the passage from the ‘immediate’ to ‘useful’ in done. Therefore an activity of consciousness is already a practice of life. However, this perception as act reveals at the same time a proper capacity to subject/being, in that it forms a realm of subjectivity and creates its own field of perception, which are not reducible to the movement or nature of matter, so are different system from matter, every moment through memory.
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10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Dae-Ryun Chung A Study on Developing Picture Books and Parent-Teacher Manuals for Philosophy for Korean Young Children
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This paper is a short report about a series of picture books and manuals designed for P4C (especially Philosophy for Korean Young Children). There were not proper educational reading materials or books to help Korean young children to think by (or for) themselves and dialogue with. Dr. Sharp’s <Doll Hospital> is a very helpful guidebook for young children to think by themselves, dialogue with friends, and discuss with others (peers, older or younger children, teacher and parents, etc.). However, there remain some needs for consideration of Korean culture. I developed new eight picture books for young children and short manuals for parents and teachers to do ‘thinking experiments’ with children. The stories were created in the contexts of Korean young children’s daily lives and typical episodes. The community of inquiry, which Korean young children participate in, needs to consider general and special aspects, such as the relationship between peers, children-parents, and children-teachers, Confucius or new western customs, new and old generations, moral and cultural atmosphere of Korean kindergartens or childcare centers, etc. Various episodes and scenes in the picture books will revoke and encourage Korean children’s deeper or higher thinking, interesting and creative dialogues, vivid and harmonious discussions based on their own experiences and contexts of life in the community of inquiry.
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11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Jinwhan Park 도덕판단에 있어서의 추리의 역할
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In 2007 Korea began to focus on moral thinking ability in her National Curriculum. So far Korean moral education stressed personality education, therefore the contents of texts filled with persuasive lectures instead of various moral view points or inquiry based learning material. New curriculum encourages text makers todeal with subject oriented contents for improving student’s autonomy and thinking abilities. Nevertheless there are no specific suggestions about what kind of moral thinking exactly. So far moral thinking was interpreted in Kholbergian paradigm and Hare’s judgment model. I would like to introduce new moral thinkingparadigm in this paper. I will try to fulfill the spirit of new curriculum. New curriculum stressed ethical approach as the academic background. My discussion centered on 7th grade curriculum. There are following teaching targets : moral inquiry and moral reasoning. What is the meaning of moral inquiry and moral reasoning? If it is not Kholbergian or Hare’s model, what kind of model should be introduced? I tried to figure out what kind of inquiry is needed to develop moral thinking ability and sound judgments. Inductive, deductive and analogical reasoning were discussed with the relation to these subjects.
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12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Hyun-Joo Lee, Dae-Ryun Chung 한국 유아를 위한 철학적 탐구공동체 활동의 실제
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This paper is about activities of ‘community of inquiry’ on the basis of Lipman’s model applied at a kindergarten in Seoul, Korea. The activities of community of inquiry, basically, includes a series of activities, for example, reading textbooks, making up questions, discussing on themes, working out exercises and further responding. At the beginning of P4C lessons, young children had difficulties in reading texts with no pictures, and making up questions. Having philosophy lessons repeatedly, they were accustomed to the activities, felt joy of thinking by themselves, and enjoyed dialoguing with friends and discussing together. The young children in the community of inquiry showed intimacy and curiosity about the stories written by Dr, Chung, which described typical Korean young child’s daily life and were full of situations experienced in their families and kindergartens. The young children were interested in inquiring philosophical aspects of the stories, tried to think by themselves like philosophers, and finally could achieve the goals of P4C, in short, to think by themselves, to cultivate ethical and aesthetic mind, and to harmonize with others.
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13. Schutzian Research: Volume > 1
Nam-In Lee Husserl의 현상학과 Schutz의 현상학적 사회학(Husserl’s Phenomenology and Schutz’s Phenomenological Sociology)
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This paper aims to clarify the influence of Husserl’s phenomenology upon Schutz’s phenomenological sociology. In developing his phenomenologicalsociology, even though Schutz was deeply influenced by Weber, he considers that the interpretative sociology developed by the latter has some difficulties. It is Husserl’s phenomenology that enabled him to overcome the difficulties of Weber’s interpretative sociology and to found a phenomenological sociology as an interpretative sociology in a true sense. In section 1, I will deal with the significance and difficulties of Weber’s interpretative sociology. In section 2, I will deal with the influence of Husserl’s phenomenological psychology and furthermore, in section 3, the influence of Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology on Schutz’s phenomenological sociology. In section 4, I will mention that there are some motives in Husserl’s later phenomenology that could be useful for the development of the phenomenological sociology.
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14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 6
Hee-Jong Woo Complexity Theory and the Structure of Full Awakening in Religious Experience
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Enlightened experience (i.e. awakened to the truth) is the most valuable one in most religions including Christianity and Buddhism. As well-known cases of such experience are Apocalypse St. Paul and many Grand Zen masters in Zen Buddhism, it is natural for us to believe that the enlighten is for very talented or speciallytrained ones. However, applying the complexity theory on the structure of enlightenment, based on the power law function, selforganized criticality, phase transition, and emergence, it is clear that the full awakening can be experienced by everyone in daily life. Furthermore, such experiences are not necessary to be limited in religious one. Rediscovering the path to full awakening by complexity theory leads to the demythologization of the enlightenment in Korean Zen Buddhism, which emphasizes a hard apprenticeship in temple for long periods for the purpose.
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15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 6
Hye-Young Won 초기 교단에 붓다의 신통력이 미친 영향
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The author of this paper aimed to understand the early Buddhism community in its entirety by examining the individual episodes in the "Mahavagga". There is a remarkable experience of the psychic power between the Buddha and the Brahmins. They are both aware of coming across of psychic forces that entered the way to the Buddhist Community. Using the brahmins mythology as a instrument for missionary work, the early Buddhism brings people close to Buddha's community. The Buddha visited Uruvela-Kassapa and took lodging for the night where the sacred fire was kept, in spite of Kassapa's warning that the spot was inhabited by a fierce Naga. The Buddha, by his magical powers, overcame, first this N ganad then another, both of whom vomited fire and smoke. Kassapabeing pleased with this exhibition of iddhi-power, undertook to provide the Buddha with his daily food. The Buddha spent the whole rainy season there, performing, in all, three thousand five hundred miracles of various kinds, reading the thoughts of kassapa, splitting firewood for the ascetic sacrifices, heating stoves for them to use after bathing in the cold weather, etc. Still Kassapa persisted in the thought, "The great ascetic is of great magic power, but he is not anarahant like me." Finally the Buddha decided to startle him by declaring that he was not an arahant, neither did the way he followed lead to arahantship. Thereon kassapa owned defeat and reverently asked for ordination. The Buddha asked him to consult with his pupils, and they cut off their hair and threw it with their sacrificial utensils into the river and were all ordained. Nadi Kassapa and Gaya Kassapa were ordained with their pupils. At Gay sisa the Buddha preached to them the Fire Sermon, and they all attained arahantship for the early Buddhist Community. The episode of Uruvela Kassaps in the Mahavagga text ultimately idealizes the power of psychic and the start of the community. It is probable, even at the time when the episode were written, that as a matter of fact every one, in ordinary daily life, spoke imply the vernaculars in a much more simple and natural state of society. It is the Mahavagga authors, when addressing a cultured public at a date when the vernaculars had become the paramount literary language. Another point is that though brahmins take part in the religious and philosophical conversations of those early tims, and in the accounts of them are always referred to with respect, and threaten with the same courtesy that they always themselves extended also to others, yet they hold no predominant position. The majority of the ascetic, and the most influential individuals among them, are not brahmins. That is only a matter of course will be the obvious subjection. The Mahavagga texts I quotes, if not the work of bitter opponents, were at leastcomposed under India bramins influence, and are prejudiced against the brahmins.
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16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Jung-Geun Hong 巍巖 ․ 南塘 以後 性理學派의 人物性同異 論: 任聖周와 奇正鎭을 중심으로
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The great academic disputation of Ho-rak had been made for about 200 years since it began in 1709. An argument that the human nature and the nature of things are same or different was one of the main subjects for the great academic disputation. Gan Lee (李柬, 1677-1727) and Wonjin Han (韓元震, 1682-1751) were leading discussants of the argument. After Lee and Han, Neo-Confucian scholars in Joseon dynasty attempted comprehensively to synthesize their two views. But such Scholars as Seong-ju Lim (任聖周, 1711-1788) and Jeongjin Ki (奇正鎭, 1798-1879) criticized a reformulation of One Principle and Many Differentiations. Lim argued that there was not only One Principle but also one vital breath as well as Many Differentiations of vital breath as well as One Principle. His idea of One Principle is relevant for a similarity between the natures of humans and things, and his idea of Many Differentiations is relevant for a difference between the natures of humans and things. Lim grasped that all the natures of things had two aspects of similarity and difference. But Gi criticized that their discussants were too narrowly specific in arguing this issue. He argued that One principle and Many Differences entailed each other. Like Lim's idea, his idea confirmed the sides of both, too. The nature of original substance is equivalent to the nature of existence. It seems to me that such a fruitful result of Korean philosophy, which an argument between the natures of humans and things had been distinctly made, for the future, will be an area of being made a deeper exploration from various aspects.
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17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Heejae Lee Confucian’s Perspective on the Family Rituals of the 19 Century in Korea
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A Li (禮) means a rituals that was expressed to outside, differ from Li (理) expressed inner mind. A Li (禮) as a rituals is not enforce law but it need inside devout attitude. 19 century in Korea rapidly changed political situation, typical Confucian value challenged by western religion and practical learning. Though this crisis, Chuzu scholars keeps their philosophy as a absolute value. They faught against westernization and also protect Confucian rituals such as community and family rituals. In the wedding rituals, they take a serious view of spouse’s personality than what one’s wealth. They worried about free sex and desire for material life. If they lost traditional value, then they must be a barbarous animal life. The morning rituals case, they estimated righteous death is better then injustice life. They think that righteous death for nation and people is a true scholar. 19 century many Chuzu scholars faught against Japanese invasion, they called themselves ‘wyijeong cheoksa (衛正斥邪) protection of right and expose of wrong) Chuzu scholars in 19 century in Korea made a typical teachers Kim, Jang-sang and Song, Si-yeol. They believe absolutely traditional Chuzu learning is a perfect and also traditional rituals is unchangeable manners contains Li (禮).
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18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
In-Chang Song The Thought of Concentrating Kyoung (敬) and its Contemporary Meaning of Dongchundang Songjoongil (1606-1672)
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Dongchundang Songjoongil (1606-1672) was a scholar who represented Gihoyeahak and Sanlim (山林) influencing the society of Chosŏn dynasty since the middle of 17th century. This report focus on its contemporary purport and reconciliation spirit on the Kyoung (敬) of Dongchundang. The Kyoung is the core idea that elucidates Dongchundang's philosophy and its characteristic. Dongchundang tried to continue to live the life of 'according knowledge and action' (知行一致) and dreamed the world of 'harmonization but not same' (和而不同) which indicates the principle of heaven, meaning the harmony never following suit without reflection and a just and great cause, going through with his original idea through the Kyoung. In addition, Dongchundang expanded the Kyoung from personal existential problems to social ethic practical ones in the viewpoint of more reason than vitality, and aimed to build the ethic kingdom that came the harmony andreconciliation of all the communities together, interacting his subjectivity and the universal. The Kyoung and reconciliation spirit of Dongchundang is the orthodoxy of Dohak(道學), and it made him live moral intention and through real life and summarized the manner and spirit pursuing the just and great cause beyond factions. In this sense, Dongchundang's philosophy is the concentration of the Kyoung and philosophical expression of reconciliation spirit. As the peculiarity of Dongchundang's philosophy is based on the Kyoung, it is the everlasting principle of what one should do and practice in human life.
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19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Kyo-Jin Sung 牛溪 成渾의 主理主氣纔發或主說에 關한 硏究
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The Li-Primacy Qi-Primacy theory (主理主氣說) of Sung Woogye, Neo-Confucian scholar in 16th century Joseon dynasty, is contained in the 5 letters among the 9 letters of inquiry sent to Yi Yulgok. What Woogye liked to emphasize was, when our mind of Li Qi combination (理氣合物) begins to arise, Li and Qi does not arise separately but Li and Qi become prime (主) or subordinate (從) alternatively to be in a thread. It is that we approach one thread to take the important and say (就一途而取其重而言也). The terms of Li-Primacy Qi-Primacy were in the letter of reply to Kobong (高峰:奇大升) by Yi Toegye. He said the four clues (四端) were Li-Primacy and the seven feelings (七情) were Qi-Primacy. In the inquiries and answers between Woogye and Yulgok, it was developed that moral mind follows Li-Primacy while human selfish desire follows Qi-Primacy. Woogye liked to see human mind and moral mind as the theory of rise and fall (消長說). However, Yulgok liked to grasp them as the theory of beginning and end (始終說). In plain language, the ratio between human mind and moral mind can be 1:99 or 99:1 in the theory of rise and fall, but never be 0:100 or 100:0 as in the theory of beginning and end.
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20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Cheon-Sung Lee The Mind and Natural theory of Nong Am, Chang-hyup Kim and its Influence on Nak School
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A controversy of the Perception is focused on the Mind-Nature relation by Confucian Scholars in 18th century Joseon Dynasty. Chang-Hyup Kim [金昌協], especially, asserted that the Perception should be the unique side of Mind, because the Wise [智: the Mind of Judgment, remarkably about the righteous or not] is one aspect of the Nature. He needs to define the category of Wise and Perception, because the existing definition of Wise as an unprocurable activity of Mind. That might bring a confusion of concepts though The Mind and Nature, in his view. More over he added the essential aspect of Perception to real activity of Perception, and in this point of view, the position of Mind is important to the process of consolidating into Nature. Therefore he asserted that we should perceive the Nature, the essence, in the side of Mind [卽心指性]. This vision of the aim to Nature in the point of Mind, which was reinvestigation of Neo-Confucianism and this was succeeded to the general with academic traditional of Nak School [洛學].
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