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1. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 62 > Issue: 1
Bronislav Stupňánek Bronislav Stupňánek
Anaximander’s πρηστῆρος αὐλός
Anaximandrův πρηστῆρος αὐλός

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The word πρηστήρ creates confusion and controversy almost wherever it occurs. Its lexicon entry in LSJ has been revised several times but it is still not very helpful. Lack of clarity of the expression also lies in the fact that it describes tornadic, fiery, and luminous meteorological phenomena. A recent discussion about the term πρηστῆρος αὐλός in Anaximander raised this issue again. This study clarifies the meaning of πρηστῆρος αὐλός, as well as the word πρηστήρ, on the basis of examination of all known occurrences of this word. The study excludes the meaning “bellows”, the meaning “lightning” is confirmed rather for the late texts, the basic meaning “tornado” is typical especially for authors dealing with marine navigation and meteorology. Πρηστῆρος αὐλός is the funnel of a tornado. Based on current knowledge of meteorology (with regard to the Greek region), it is also explained why a tornado was often seen as fiery.
2. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Pavel Materna Pavel Materna
Logical Analysis of Natural Language as an Organic Part of Logic
Logická analýza přirozeného jazyka jakožto organická součást logiky

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There are two kinds of logical errors. Either you use a non-valid scheme of an argument or your analysis of the premises is mistaken. No extensional or intensional theory can solve the following problem connected with analyzing NL expressions: The Leibniz principle of substituting identical for identical contains the condition a = b. Extensional as well as intensional systems (at least if intensions are defined as functions from possible worlds) analyzing this condition as formulated in natural language are happy if a is contingently or logically or analytically equivalent with b, while this may be insufficient for applying Leibniz. Examples are adduced that show the absurdity of applying Leibniz in such cases. A following remedy is thinkable: one could try to formulate some axioms or perhaps meta-formulated rules that would eliminate the critical cases. This would mean however that a new theory came into being just to shield us from incorrectly applying Leibniz rule. Instead a procedural analysis of NL expressions is offered that makes it possible to unambiguously determine their sense and so their denotation in such a way that the above mentioned critical cases cannot set in. It is shown that the hyperintensional system defined by Transparent intensional logic is able to generally solve the main problems connected with using NL expressions.
3. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Rostislav Niederle Rostislav Niederle
Realism in Art: A Short Note
Realismus v umění: krátká poznámka

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Art has been considered in one way or another to be in close relation to truth. The goal of each and every author is and has been to relay something vital regarding the world, to express a kind of truth. Most likely no artist has ever wanted intentionally to lie. A work of art that speaks truth is normally described as a realistic one. Does this mean that the concept of realism as something expressing truth is related to all works of art? Is realism a trivial concept? The goal of this paper is to attempt to clarify the concept of artistic realism in a simple way. To begin, some thoughts about artistic realism are introduced. In the following parts, e. g. a brief attempt to clarify realism based on possible worlds semantics is made. It is stated that the more true a representation is, the less informative it is. The most realistic work wouldn’t in conclusion say anything. So, the possible world semantics is found to be not proper tool for our goal. Finally, a proposal for a natural concept of artistic realism as a meaningful component of a critics’ vocabulary is proposed.