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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Jinglin Li On the Kingcraft Spirit of Confucianism
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The Confucian theory of kingcraft represented a spirit of “moral supremacy”. Confucius and Mencius distinguished “kingcraft” from “rule by force”, which not only emphasized their essential difference at the level of value, but also paid great attention to their relevancy and overlapping of the meaning of existence at the level of being beneficial to society and achievements. The Confucian put emphasis on “justice and humanity” as the highest principle in ethical community, instead of “profit”. Only with morality and justice as the ultimate purpose and the highest principle, can utilitarian successes be purified and can the value as a human being be realized, therefore, constituted the true connotation and internal elements of “kingcraft”. Confucian kingcraft theory can be summarized as: a kind of morality-based principle of the unity of morality-utility. With regard to the principles of international relations, the Confucian kingcraft theory put particular emphasis on the internal unity of the way of heaven, god’s will, benevolent heart, the public opinion, people’s emotions and feelings, and highlighted the transcendental meaning of the principle of moral supremacy. Nowadays, the kingcraft spirit is still of great significance theoretically and practically.
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2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Shaoming Chen Between Benevolence and Righteousness
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The notion of benevolence-righteousness (ren-yi 仁义) un-doubtedly constitutes the core of Mencius’s theory concerning the goodness of human nature, it also holds the key to the entire Confucian ethics. Despite the fact that we normally give Confucius credit for his discussion over the concept of benevolence (ren 仁), it is Mencius who creates the conjoint of benevolence-righteousness (ren-yi 仁义).But as a category benevolence-righteous-ness (ren-yi 仁义) does not represent a sheer combination of benevolence (ren 仁) and righteousness (yi 义), but suggests a new or reformative version of this line of thought in the intellectual development within Confucian tradition. Mencius’s unique contribution by no means lies in an effort of simply forming a linkage between the two terms, but in the fact that he gives this concept a deeper connotation so as to transform it into an intrinsic-meaning-structure. Mencius’s thinking on this regard is mainly expressed through his theory of human nature, which forms the relation of benevolence (ren仁) and righteous-ness (yi 义), the two most important among the four starting point (si-duan四端). This paper aims to seek a comprehension of the Confucian stance towards evil or the negative phenomena in morality. According to Mencius’s under-standing, the meaning of righteousness is twofold, namely the sense of shame and the hatred of evil. Insofar as consciousness-structure is concerned, both pertain to the compassion for the innocent victims. The former refers to sort of reflection and repentance due to one’s sense of compassion; the latter to one’s coming forward against evil driven by the sense of compassion. Together they depict the whole picture of the Confucian treatment of the evil or immoral phenomena. Thus the sense of shame and that of the hatred of evil become an essential resource for the study of the sense of justice in Confucianism. In a word, the notion of benevolence-righteousness (ren-yi 仁义) indicates the combination of promoting the good and prohibiting the evil, whose function can be taken in both ethical and political terms.
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3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Zhang Haiyan “Good by Beauty” or “Unification of Beauty and Good”: Comparison of Aesthetic Status in Kant’s and Mou Zong-san’s Theory
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Both Kant’s and Mou Zong-san’s aesthetics have its own moral idea. The central concept of Kant’s theory (free will) is only a postulate by which beauty connects nature and freedom and beauty can be free of the dependency of good. Kant’s great works “Three Critics” reveal that and emphasize on the independency of beauty, which regards beauty as the intermedium of “Beauty by Good”. But the central concept of Mou Zong-san’s moral metaphysics (goodness) is the noumenon of “Unification of Noumenon and Function”. It means the dependency of objectivity on subjectivity, transcendent on empirical, then beauty have the moral connotation and the meaning of empirical experiences. Beauty is brought into the field of goodness and loses its independency, and then beauty is united into morality and under the shadow of good. In conclusion, Kant’s theory unfolds the western tradition of reason and Mou Zon-san’s theory unfolds the oneness of Chinese tradition.
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4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Lanfen Li An Alternative Interpretation of Neo-Confucianism: An Analysis on Tang Yongtong’s Li Xue Zhan Yan
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Tang Yongtong’s contribution is not directly related to the topic we discussed, that is the interpretation of classic works. However, his study on the history of the classical interpretaion has played a special role in this field, that’s why we should take him into the horizon of our discussion. Li Xue Zhan Yan is one of his early works, the theme of which is to interpret the thoughts of Neo-Confucianism. Therefore, through analyzing this article, this paper wants to disclose Tang’s unique concern on the thoughts of Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, and elucidate his particular opinions on classic and interpretation, as well as his unique style of interpretaion. This job will be divided into four parts, and it will point out that, the way of Tang’s interpretation is neither traditional explaination of word, e.g. commentary sentence by sentence, nor pure theoretical construction, by exerting Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming’s thoughts freely. In contrast, Tang has his own concern. From his own understanding of Chinese culture and the faith that Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming’s thoughts can rescue man’s mind, moral and malady of his time, Tang convinces that in the classics of Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, there is some special ‘meaning’. In his classical interpretation, Tang not only has some cultural conservative feelings, but also requires ‘content’ (An) and ‘practical’(Shi). However, actually, in his afterwards life, this kind of interpreting style is not persisted.
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5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Yongming Li 墨子环境思想的现代意义
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现代社会发展,强调的是可持续发展。其核心是经济发展与保护资源、保护生态环境的协调一致,是为了让子孙后代能够享有充分的资源和良好的自然环境。即要求在严格控制人口、提高人口素质和保护环境、资源永续利用的前提下进行经济和社会的发展。墨子“尊天” 、“崇地”,就是尊重大自然的规律,顺应自然。他的核心思想“兼爱”,除了要求处理好人与人之间的关系,更希望人与自然之间兼相爱交相利。他提出“节用”,看到了环境容量的有限性。墨子倡导人与自然的和谐相处,在今天看来,特别难能可贵。可以说,墨子的环境思想是中国古代环境思想的一个重要里程碑。今天,环境问题发展到十分尖锐的地步,在全球范围内出现了不利于人类生存和发展的征兆,资源短缺、耗竭,表明了环境问题的复杂性和长远性。兼爱,显示出墨子这位伟大哲人思想之深刻。循此,可以为人类的现代发展找到一条可行的出路,使子孙后代能够永续发展和安居乐业。
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6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Caigang Yao Liu Zong-zhou’s Doctrine of Mistake-Correction and its Ethical Inspiration
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One of the important contents, concerning the theory of self-cultivation of Liu Zongzhou, the great scholar of Confucius at the end of Ming Dynasty, is the doctrine of mistake-correction. On the one hand, Liu Zongzhou considered the metaphysical foundation of mistake-correction and holds that the more clearly the man recognizes the inwardness ontology, the more acutely he can find his own mistake and the more confidently he can correct the mistake; on the other hand, he made careful classification of human mistakes and advocated some innovative opinions on how to correct mistakes. The ethical inspiration for the mistake-correction doctrine of Liu Zongzhou lies in the following: firstly, it has to face the dark side of human nature. Liu Zongzhou illustrates the innate goodness of human nature while carefully examining the dark side of it, which inspires us a lot. In other words, the doctrine of good human nature in Confucian, only shows a kind of potential ability, however, if the evil in realistic human nature, is overlooked, the potential ability can hardly fully realize its promise. Secondly, it has to have the idea of life time mistake-correction. It is shown by Liu Zongzhou’s doctrine of mistake-correction, that it is not easy for a man to correct mistake. The man, in the first place, has to have the courage to admit his mistakes which he can find and reflect and correct. To correct the mistakes cannot be finished overnight, but in the everyday of human life and in the whole process of the whole life.
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7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Liangkang Ni A New View of the Problem of the Relationship of Founding between Objectivating Act and Non-objectivating Act
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Both Chu Hsi and School of Wang Yang-ming distinguished two kinds of moral consciousness: one is “Emotion latent” as non-objective, un-objective moral consciousness; the other is “Emotion shown” as intentional moral consciousness which intends concrete object. Accordingly, they also point out two kinds of different Kung-fu (practice). As for the questions of “Emotions shown or latent”, both of them have common ontological understand and Kung-fu’ understand. “Emotion latent” (as pro-objectivating act) and “Emotion shown” (as post-objectivating act) are two kinds of “non-objectivating act”, they have different foundational relations with objectivating act. Thus, the relations between objectivating act and non-objectivating act in the background of Phenomenology achieve a completely new interpretation in the horizon of the doctrine of Mind of Confucianism
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8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Yongyi Zhang The thought of Fang Yizhi in his later years reflected in Renshu Lou Bielu
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Renshu Lou Bielu, a very short dialogue, is very important datum for us to understand the thought of Fang Yizhi (1611-1671) in his later years. We could get some conclusions from it. First, Fang Yizhi has never given up the attention to knowledge even if he was under pressure to become a Buddhist monk. Second, he never forgot the identity of Confucius even though he was an abbot in Qingyuan Mountain. Last, most of his theories have come from the Book of Changes even though he agrees with the syncretism of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism.
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9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Caigang Yao 論明末清初的王學修正運動
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Wang Yang-ming’s philosophy of mind brings about some abuses with its spread, such as despising moral cultivation and upholding mysteries, which cause the school to be degenerated in the later Ming dynasty. Some scholars, who are worried about the situation, starting from the abuses, retrospect and rectify the theoretical defects in the doctrine of Wang Yang-ming and his disciples. The article reviews the rectifying movement of Wang’s school during the later Mingdynasty and the early Qing dynasty, and reflects the relation between personality emancipation and moral rational spirit, hsin-hsing (mind-nature) and social achievements.
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10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Zhou Hai-chun 《论语》“忠”的伦理道德意义
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It has limitations to understand “fidelity” of the Analects of Confucius in the thinking pattern of subject-object. The interpretation patterns of self-other and private-public ethics can’t also completely explain the philosophical meaning of “fidelity” in the Analects of Confucius. “Fidelity”, in Confucian theory and practice, has important place, therefore, the paper will try to explore the philosophical meaning of “fidelity” of Confucius from the following suppositions in order to find a new way of philosophical explanation. The suppositions are as the following: First of all, “fidelity” can’t be understood, in Chinese, as a verb which means “faithful to sb”. It is a noun or a gerund. Basing on the distinction of “material world” and “meaning world”, the paper holds that the connotation of “fidelity” has its inner regulation and its meaning is, first of all, regulated not by the material world but by the other contextual logic categories, in this way, it has the characteristic of independence and transcendence. The core meaning of “fidelity” is “center”, the paper calls it as “the centric wisdom” from the epistemological perspective. Wesuppose that Confucius has presupposed that every life has enough wisdom to know what the affirmative value is. For Confucius, his philosophical thinking on “fidelity” has both traditional heritage and personal innovation. We should pay attention to the latter. Basing on the understanding that takes “fidelity ”as “the centric wisdom”, the paper holds that one of the meanings of “fidelity”, as an ethical concept, in the Analects of Confucius, is personal ethics which includes thereorganization of individual values. One part of the individual value is to recognize and practice the value which is independent of social value. Another part of the value is to practice and exhibit the wisdom of “fidelity” in personal speech and behavior including the spiritual activities. The “fidelity” of the Analects of Confucius, as an ethical concept, has another meaning, i.e. the inter-personal relationship which shows the affirmative value under the guidance of wisdom. The inter-personal relationship under the guidance of wisdom can exhibit the affirmative value and can be called as the “ethical” relation. The main requirements are as the following: we have to bring the reflective factor of “wisdom” into inter-personal relation and, under the guidance of wisdom, try to take our social responsibilities required by the social role, or to abide by the public or the professional ethics. We have to maintain positive value direction in the verticalinter-personal relation which means supervision so as to realize the political affirmation. In the horizontal interpersonal relationship, basing on the individual wisdom, we have to keep the keen feeling of morality so as to realize our affirmative values. The understanding of these meanings concerning the word of “fidelity” is naturally resulted from our concern for the inner logic relation in the Analects of Confucius and for the form of idea-expressing of Confucius.
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11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Li Weiwu The Historical Formation of Confucian Doctrines and the Possible Transfigurations in the Future
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In the development since two thousand years, Chinese Confucian doctrine had been keeping its relatively independent form and presenting the different thoughtbarycenter and theoretical form. From the early Qin Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty, Confucian doctrines developed one after another the Confucian doctrine of human life, the Confucian doctrine of society, the Confucian doctrine of politics, the Confucian doctrine of metaphysics and the Confucian doctrine of critique. In the beginning of 20th century, facing the serious crisis of above traditional Confucian doctrines, modern Neo-Confucian began to rebuild Confucian doctrines. They first as the conservatism founded the Confucian doctrine of culture in probing into the problems of the outlet in Chinese culture, and then tried to rebuildontology and formed the Confucian doctrine with modern content, which made the modern Neo-Confucian doctrine have great influence in 20th century, but there were no any great achievement in the Confucian doctrine of human life, also absent of systematical contribution in the Confucian doctrine of society and of politics. Summarizing the historical development of the Confucian doctrines, it clearly shows that the future of Confucian doctrine in 21st century lies in rebuilding the Confucian doctrine of human life by the characters of Confucian doctrine and the changes of Chinese life world, and further developing the Confucian doctrine of culture and of metaphysic and softly realizing the resource transformation of the Confucian doctrines of society and politics.
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12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Qi Si “易和哲学”: 中国哲学的和谐发展观
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Yi-He is universal symbol of Chinese philosophy, it contains two thoughts of “Yi” and “He”. Thought of “Yi” represents idea of change in Chinese philosophy,thought of “He” represents idea of harmony in Chinese philosophy. “Philosophy of Yi-He” is dialectical synthesis of thought of “Yi” and thought of “He”, as well as the unique nature of Chinese philosophy thought. It embodies the deep structure of Chinese cultural spirit and the innovative pattern of Chinese philosophy thought. At present, “philosophy of Yi-He” conforms to the topic of the age, i.e. developing in all-round and coordinating way and constructing harmonious society. It constitutes Chinese philosophy idea which reflects and criticizes modern civilization and creating viewpoint on harmonious development. “Philosophy of Yi-He” calls on harmonious world and constructs harmonious development idea in the relationship between human being and nature, human being and society, human being and themselves, human being and civilization. The viewpoint on harmonious development of Chinese philosophy aims at creating an ideal of harmonious world.
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13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Jingzhao Liu 当代哲学怎样成为“自由的学校”?
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联合国教科文组织在2005年发表的《跨部门哲学战略》中把哲学比喻为“自由的学校”。显然,这一比喻是基于哲学在当今时代的独特价值。本文旨在简要论证当代哲学怎样成为“自由的学校”:首先,时代的变革与深层次矛盾要求哲学做出积极回应;其次,哲学“自由的学校”应该体现为开放性、创造性和生活化三个向度; 第三,“ 自由的学校”意味着,哲学将不再是哲学家把玩的知识古董和教条,而应当是所有人均可从中获益的精神家园。
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14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Cai Hou 哲学的伦理化与现代性的重塑
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当代哲学发展的一个重要趋向是哲学的伦理化,即哲学经过古代的宗教化和近代的科学化之后而进入道德和伦理之域。哲学发展的这一重要趋向给当代哲学提出的首要和根本任务是“合理的现代性” 的塑造和构建。它规定了当代哲学的最重要的使命和任务,也构成思考当代哲学发展的基本的立足点和视域。“现代性”的基本矛盾是科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的矛盾。“合理的现代性”及其塑造应体现科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的有机统一。所以,当代哲学应自觉地致力于解决科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的矛盾,致力于人类价值观的重建以及引导人类需求方式和生存方式的改变。这是对当代哲学发展的重大挑战,同时也是当代哲学发展的重大契机。
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15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Lihua Liu 马克思主义价值观上的误区
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Marxist value standpoint taking the value of working classes as more important and higher than universal human value has already been proved wrong by the antihuman practice led by the standpoint in the 20th century. Though the disastrous historical reality was definitely beyond or not the expectation of Marxism founders, the practice is logically necessary result of the unavoidable historical limitation and theory mistake of Marxism. In their early years, both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels held the criterion of the universal human value such as freedom, democracy, equality and fraternity. However, decided or required by the spacetime concrete circumstance, they had to concretize the ideal of ‘human liberation’ into the aim of ‘the liberation of proletariat’. According to such the three principles: social existence decides social consciousness, there is no common human nature in a society in which people belong to the different classes, and productive forces is the final motive power and cause of social development, historical materialism demonstrates the supreme position of the value of working classes. These arguments are not persuasive in theory. Marxism itself has to take the universal human value as moral criterion against capitalism. Historical materialism has the problem of inherent reductionism in its epistemic methodology. Also, Marxism commits the obvious simple mistake to negate generality with specialty in expounding no common human nature existing in a class society. And The Marxism founders were rational arrogance when building their theory system. These are epistemology and psychology factors to form the prejudiced value standpoint. This reflection on the mistake of Marxist value standpoint expects to reach such a common consensus: to accept consciously and further improve and perfect the universal human values that mark the maturity level of today’s human spirit as human’s qualification.
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16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Mao-tang Dai “死”的三重哲学解读: 从苏格拉底之死说起 ―读《柏拉图全集》“申辩篇”、“ 斐多篇”有感
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The paper has seriously explored the triple meanings of death in western philosophy by taking the instance of Socrates’ death. Comparing to God, the westernphilosophy emphasizes that death is necessary. Comparing to the materials, the western philosophy emphasizes that death is happy. Comparing to the man, the western philosophy emphasizes that death is independent.
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17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Li-jing Wang, Xin Xie 论积极的中庸——进取互利
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Active reciprocity is a process of human harmonious development, which is based on reciprocity. Reciprocity is the result of trichotomy and the expression of golden mean; Active reciprocity is the expression of active golden mean, which discards the passive part of reciprocity. Active reciprocity is a form of rational collectivism which, generally speaking, has two rules for individual communication behavior, namely mutually benefiting and mutually tolerating. It also has three rules for individual behavior, namely benefiting the others without harming oneself, benefiting both oneself and others, benefiting oneself without harming others. It has, through norms, incorporated values and ideas such as fairness, reason, democracy, philanthropism, freedom, harmony, as well as right, responsibility, respect, tolerance, trust, sustainable development. However, it has to be pointed out that active reciprocity should oriented towards altruism, with the minimum requirement of doing no harm to others. Otherwise it will result in moral relativism.
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18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Zihu Liu 生命起源的理论模型和生命力延伸理论
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This paper adopted a constructive thinking model which is highly abstract and summary to investigate the life phenomena. It is more inclined to avoid detailednonessentials to grasp macroscopic outline trend, which is like: clearly see the direction of mountain range only by climbing to a height and looking forward; the more you enter into the braches and knots of trees, the more difficult to distinguish the general picture of the forest. Adopting this macroscopical mode of thought, it will be easier to break away from the limitation of life body to grasp the inherent essence and common property of life. Any life is like a “running machine” and the running and living life state is the essential property of life. This life state isn’t windy; instead, it is a state of life material system and a state which could makematerial synthesis and energy transfer to keep automatic circulation and linkage running. When this state is established, life is formed. When this state is destroyed, life will be perished, when this state is restored, life could relive. It is the task of chemist and biologist to clarify precise material structure. From the property and characteristics of the life state, we could unearth the common connection and profound value meaning of movement development of objective world. It is Philosopher’s task to make it as the doctrine to guide the development of life world. On the basis of this life state, this paper put forth a theoretical model of life origin, so as to find answer of life origin theoretically. It opened passage between physical world and life world and made the life generated inmaterial system under specific condition to become an inevitable law. It will indicate orientation and a way out for the practical activity of exploring life origin. Meantime, this essay also found the vitality, which created life and push life to continuously run and develop, in addition, it created a significant theory of vitality extension. By means of life body, it downwardly connected with natural science law and upwardly connected with truth and doctrine of human society through life activity. It organically connected with material world, life world, human society and human spirit, offering an explanation to the world. It makes beautiful and simple world weltbild, which is like a developing and rising monument: A stele of weltbild.
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19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Jian Hu “平等”视角下的人权、民权与国权 ——孙中山的“三民主义”之价值
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Sun Yat-sen’s superior position in modern Chinese history is represented in the movement of the modernization of China with him as a representative went from the stage of ‘imitation’ to the stage of ‘creativity’. He put forward, China, as a country engaging in modernization late, could draw on Western experience and lessons, run (“突驾”) from capitalism directly into socialism, and realize ‘accomplishing both the political revolution and the social revolution at one stroke’. He designed the modernization program of ‘accomplishing both at one stroke’ as the Three People's Principles (Nationalism, Democracy and the People's Livelihood); each separately connects with Human rights, civil rights and national sovereignty pursued by modern Chinese and the essence of them develops around the value of equality approved by socialist thoughts of the day. According to Sun’s thinking: 1. People’s livelihood is the root of the Three People'sPrinciples, which involves most primary human rights --- right of survival because the value of human’s seeking survival necessarily directs to ‘equality and helping each other’, which is the law of the evolution of humanity. So the justice of socialism lies in ‘Leveling out the differences between the rich and the poor’, which can be realized with many ‘artificial’ elements such as nation and morality, etc. What must be done by People’s livelihood in contemporary China are ‘equalizing landownership’, ‘regulating capital’ and ‘developing industry’. 2. Democracy is the request of ‘civil rights’ in the sense of modern democracy. In the special national situation of China, it presents itself as the specific political framework ‘balancing people’s civil rights with elite administration’. 3. The essence of nationalism lies in constructing modern Chinese national country to save the nation from crises. Sun Yat-sen pointed out: First, the foundation on which Chinese nations build up their country is totally different from that of the West. So the country must take ‘collectivism’ as its value direction. Secondly, the ethos of the Chinese nation is different from that of the West. Chinese national country must take ‘morality first’ as the direction of value. Sun’s point of view is unique and single-eyed but contains unavoidable historical limits.
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20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
DongKai Li 民主是为了保护人权
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Freedom is natural, Human rights come from nature, human strive for happiness, in a civilization society, how to protect human right? how to help people strive for happiness? The answer is the democracy. Democracy is not simply a kind of political system, but the essence way to protect human right, the best way to help people get the happiness. So, the democracy political system, is used to protect people’s human rights, protect equality. To assist people get happiness, it is not only the political game frame rules. So, the way to judge a country’s political system democracy or not, is to see if that system could protect peoples’s human rights, if it could assist people’s working for happiness in economy and political, if it goes in the direction of human’s civilization. To judge democracy is not by the shape, but the essence inside. So, in different place /country, probably the democracy shape is not the same, but the democracy value, the democracy essence could be the same. Only the democracy political system is the only correct political system in civilization time. The root basis theory of my democracy come from my new ontology and cognition, as following : New ontology: The Onto is the uniform contradiction being. The essence of people: The uniform contrast body within people’s body, is “ ego and nonego.“ New Cognition: Cognition course moves by the force from the contrast between the Ego and Nonego within an exist being live body. “EGO” + “Nonego” →→ Force to move(N times) →→Feeling(N times) →→ Idea(N numbers) + thinking(N times) →→Knowledge (N numbers) ≈ Object →→ =Object
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