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1. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Роман Кисельов Roman Kyselov
Про осмислення плагіату в Європі до Якоба Томазія
Reasoning about Plagiarism in Europe before Jacob Thomasius

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This paper provides an overview of the early considerations regarding the phenomenon of plagiarism – from Greco-Roman antiquity to the time when a thorough study examining literary theft in its textual, legal, and moral manifestations was printed, i. e. “Philosophical Dissertation on Literary Plagiarism” (1673) by Jacob Thomasius. Although the issue of plagiarism was very vital in ancient times, all the oldest considerations concerning the appropriation of other people’s texts were essentially pragmatic moves or reactions rather than purposeful theoretical interpretations of the subject. However, in addition to the situational grounds of the accusation, they can reveal certain principles that, according to estimations of the time, could prevent or refute allegations of plagiarism. It was enough if the author stated, albeit generally but clearly, that the fragments of other people’s texts, whether altered or not, were used. It was also acceptable if the reader believed that the author considered his borrowings recognizable to educated readers. Another reason for the elimination of possible accusations was the factor of competition – the author’s desire to adapt the achievements of another cultural environment in his own one, significantly improving them. The medieval and early modern materials generally testify to the relevance of ancient views and reveal some new problems. This is, in particular, the incompatibility of new more formalized ideas about authorship and traditional educational practices, which encouraged the uncontrolled use of others’ texts. Some authors also emphasized that plagiarism was an obstacle to the development of science. The paper ends with examples that show how European ideas about the rules of using others’ writings may help interpret the writing methods of the early modern Ukrainian authors, including philosophers.
2. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анна Лактіонова Anna Laktionova
Квайн, Ґудмен, Патнем: Гарвардська філософська школа
Quine, Goodman, Putnam: the Harvard Philosophical School

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This article offers formal and doctrinal reasons that prove the existence of the "Harvard Philosophical School" as a real historico-philosophical phenomenon. The author includes Willard Van Orman Quine, Nelson Goodman, and Hilary Putnam in this school. The aim of this article is to compare the conceptualism, relativism and anti-realism of Quine, Goodman and Pantem, on the basis of (neo)pragmatic tendencies in their philosophical studies. All these philosophers were professors at Harvard University; in addition, Quine was a teacher of Goodman and Putnam, Goodman was a teacher of Putnam. Quine, Goodman, and Putnam, each in his own specific pragmatic way, stood on the positions of relativism, anti-realism, conceptualism, and tried to separate themselves from “cultural relativism”. Common touchstone concepts and tendencies in particular in their philosophical investigations are: conceptual scheme, indeterminacy of translation, internal criteria, ontological relativity and others. The obvious analogy between Quine's standards of similarity, Goodman's standards of correctness, and standards for Putnam's conceptual schemes. The role played in their doctrines by the ideas of William James, who also taught at Harvard, at least hypothetically allows us to expand the boundaries of this school.
3. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анастасія Стрелкова Anastasia Strelkova
Поняття «страждання» в буддизмі: онтологічна проблематика
The Concept of «suffering» in Buddhism: Ontological Problematics

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In this paper the philosophical problematics of the ontological dimension of suffering in the Buddhist philosophy is raised. Many modern scholars are inclined to think that a more adequate translation for the Sanskrit term duḥkha is “unsatisfactoriness”. However, from the material presented in the article it follows that this rendering does not underlie the sense of the notion of duḥkha when it is examined in the ontological plane, and thus the traditional translation “suffering” in this sense remains more adequate. It is also shown that the etymology of the Sanskrit term duḥkha as a «improperly installed» axle of the wheel of a cart has strong connotations with the metaphor of the wheel and the symbol of swastika in the Buddhist cultural tradition (wheel of being, three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma etc.). In this paper the main causes of suffering (self, body, ignorance, desire and other afflictions) exposed in Buddhist texts and scholarship are revised, and on the example of the Cūḷasuññata-sutta it is demonstrated that the real final cause of suffering in the Early Buddhism is our body and not our “self” and ignorance. While in the Mahayana Buddhism based on the philosophy of emptiness and the principle of nonduality, the dichotomy of soul and body is removed, the attainment of nirvana becomes possible in this body and the real cause and source of suffering becomes the ignorance. On the other hand, the paper argues that just the ontological view on the problem of suffering (under the angle of the principle of nonduality) provides us with understanding of the fact that the suffering can be overcome despite its indestructible ontological status.
4. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Євгенія Буцикіна Yevheniia Butsykina
Міркування про філософський та етичний метод Арістотеля. Karbowski, J. (2019). Aristotle’s Method in Ethics: Philosophy in Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Discourse on the Philosophical and Ethical Method of Aristotle. Karbowski, J. (2019). Aristotle’s Method in Ethics: Philosophy in Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

5. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Олена Калантарова Олена Калантарова
Буддійська філософія в Індії: від онтології абгідгарми до епістемології праманавади. Westerhoff, J. (2018). The Golden Age of Indian Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Буддійська філософія в Індії: від онтології абгідгарми до епістемології праманавади. Westerhoff, J. (2018). The Golden Age of Indian Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press

6. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Dmytro Sepetyi Дмитро Сепетий
The Problem of Freedom of Will: Historico-philosophical Topics in the Analytic Perspective. Hausmannn, M., & Noller, J. (Eds.). (2021). Free Will. Historical and Analytic Perspectives. Cham: Springer; Palgrave Macmillan.
Проблема свободи волі: історико-філософські сюжети в аналітичній перспективі. Hausmannn, M., & Noller, J. (Eds.). (2021). Free Will. Historical and Analytic Perspectives. Cham: Springer; Palgrave Macmillan

7. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Всеволод Кузнецов Vsevolod Kuznetsov
Коментування як жанр. Тегілім. (2020). Тегілім - Псалми. Коментар рабина Шимшона Рафаеля Гірша (Т. І-ІІ). Київ: Дух і Літера
Commenting as a Genre. Tehilim. (2020). Tehilim - Psalms. Commentary by Rabbi Shimshon Raphael Hirsch (Vol. 1-2). Kyiv: Duh i Litera.

8. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Олег Хома Oleg Khoma
Чого шукає історик філософії? Marion, J.-L. (2021). Questions cartésiennes III: Descartes sous le masque du cartésianisme. Paris: PUF
What is a Historian of Philosophy Looking For? Marion, J.-L. (2021). Questions cartésiennes III: Descartes sous le masque du cartésianisme. Paris: PUF

9. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анатолій Єрмоленко, Всеволод Хома, Ілля Давіденко, Ксенія Мирошник Anatoliy Yermolenko
Німецька філософія в українському контексті (70–80-ті роки ХХ ст.). Частина І
German Philosophy in the Ukrainian Context (70-80s, 20th century). Part I

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Interview of Vsevolod Khoma, Illia Davidenko and Kseniia Myroshnyk with Anatoliy Yermolenko.
10. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Олена Щербина, Наталія Щербина Olena Shcherbyna
Джон Лок про мовчання як аргумент і прояв поваги в аргументації
Silence as an Argument and a Manifestation of Respect in the Argumentation in John Locke's Works

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In the article, referring to the method of rational reconstruction described by R. Rorty, an analysis of some works of J. Locke has been made in order to identify new prospects in John Locke's philosophy researches. As a result, it’s been demonstrated the presence of silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect J. Locke’s research of realms of cognition, political philosophy and philosophy of education. This is not covered in modern John Locke's philosophy researches. The authors emphasize that J. Locke, although not directly exploring silence as an argument, however, describes the argument ad ignorantiam, the wording of which in the work «An Essay Concerning Human Understanding» and his understanding of tacit consent in the work «Two Treatises of Government» are related to silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect. The position that silence as an argument is present in all four arguments (argumentum ad verecundiam, argumentum ad ignorantiam, argumentum ad hominem, argumentum ad judicium) described by J. Locke is substantiated. Additionally, the argument ad ignorantiam can be considered both as an argument from silence (ex silentio argument) and as a kind of argument to silence. Considered arguments can serve as an argument to silence for the proponent and/or the third party, that is, anyone who is not directly involved in the dispute. Basing on J. Locke's explanation of the characteristic feature of tacit consent, that is, the absence of the expressed consent/disagreement, the possibility of distinguishing the indirect connection between tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam is demonstrated, since both tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam in J. Locke's works rely on the absence of expressed statements on the consent or disagreement of the opponent. It is established that the ideas of the education of children described by J. Locke also correlate with silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect. Applying the classification of the types of respect proposed by S. Hudson and complemented by R. Dillon to the use of the term «respect» to the various texts of J. Locke, it is substantiated that described by him respect covered almost all kinds of this classification.
11. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Марина Ткачук Maryna Tkachuk
Філософська проблематика в рукописних кандидатських творах студентів Ки- ївської духовної академії (1819‒1924)
Philosophical Issues in Handwritten Candidate Works of Kyiv Theological Academy Students (1819‒1924)

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The article for the first time presents the powerful historical and philosophical potential of the collection of handwritten candidate works of Kyiv Theological Academy (КТА) students, which is kept at Manuscript Institute, V. I. Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine. According to the analyzed manuscripts, despite the church-confessional and specialized theological orien-tation of the theological academies, as well as the system of rigid regulations and control by the Most Holy Synod in the subject matters and content of the final works, the students showed a persistent research interest in philosophy. The author identifies more than 150 candidate works of KTA students that are directly relevant to philosophical topics and issues. Most of them are research on the history of Western (from Classical antiquity to the beginning of the 20th century), Eastern and Russian philosophy. At the same time, the handwritten works available in the col-lection express the interest of students in the problems of epistemology, philosophy of history, social philosophy, axiology, ethics and aesthetics, philosophy of religion, as well as their attrac-tion to complex interdisciplinary studies, combining the issues of philosophy and history of phi-losophy with theology, psychology, pedagogy and literary studies.
12. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Андрій Вахтель Andrii Vakhtel
Сучасна українська феноменологічна термінологія і підходи до перекладу «Картезіанських медитацій» Едмунда Гусерля
Modern Ukrainian Phenomenological Terminology and Approaches to the Translation of Edmund Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations

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The article is a translator’s commentary to the Ukrainian translation of E. Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations. The task of this article is twofold: On the one hand, to reveal the historical context of the writing and publishing of Cartesian Meditations, on the other hand, to outline the strategic and terminological aspects of the Ukrainian translation of this work. The first part of the article is devoted to the history of creation of the text of Cartesian Medita-tions. In particular, the author answers the question of why the German text of Cartesian Medita-tions was not published until 1950, almost twenty years after the French translation of the book was released. The historico-philosophical investigation conducted in the article shows that Husserl considered the publication of Cartesian Meditations as an opportunity to systematically present his phenomenological philosophy and, eventually, recognized the impossibility of embracing the com-plexity of his doctrine within this work. The difficulty of this systematic presentation led to the enhancement of the role of Husserl’s assistant, Eigen Fink, in the editing of Cartesian Meditations and, ultimately, to the creation of Fink’s Sixth Meditation. The latter, as the author of the article demonstrates, puts previous developments in the phenomenology of static and genetic types into a new theoretical perspective, mainly by introducing the method of constructive phenomenology. In the second part of the article, the author offers one of the possible strategies for translating Husserlian texts that consists in structural simplification and stylistic improvement of the text. This strategy is proposed to be implemented by using simpler grammatical structures, by supplementing the text with translator’s comments, as well as by consistent usage of the Ukrainian phenomenological terminology. During the analysis of the terminological discourse of contemporary Ukrainian phenomenology, the author revises some of the established Ukrainian translations, such as the translation of the phenomenological terms Ausschaltung and Zeitbewusstsein and introduces the translation of new terms, such as Vergemeinschaftung, Person, reell and ideell.
13. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Роланд Піч Roland Pietsch
Божественна премудрість як цвіт світла з божого серця. Огляд загальних рис софіології Якоба Бьоме
The Divine Wisdom – The Blossom of Light from the Heart of God. A survey on the essentials of Jacob Boehme’s Sophiology

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The article examines the sources (visions and inspirations) of Boehme’s mysticism and theosophy. Subsequently, it offers an outline of the principles of his sophiology: God as the will of wisdom and wisdom as his revelation; the role of divine wisdom or the eternal wisdom on the noble Virgin Sophia in the creation of the world and man; and finally their participation in the salvation and rebirth of humankind.
14. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Сергій Йосипенко Serhii Yosypenko
«Більше ніж інтерв’ю». Огляд тематичного блоку «Усна історія філософії» часопису «Філософська думка»
“More than an interview”. The review of a special issue The Oral History of Philosophy in Filosofska Dumka journal

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The article analyses how the oral history of philosophy can be conceptualized as a genre and a discipline of the history of philosophy. The need for this kind of conceptualization arose due to recent spreading of interviews in the genre of the oral history of philosophy, which in turn became a subject for the special issue The Oral History of Philosophy in Filosofska Dumka. Analysing this issue, the author proves that the “dialoguing” nature of the interview builds inflated expectations about the oral history as well as its boundaries as an approach in a historical-philo-sophical study. He also suggests distinguishing the interview as a genre of oral philosophy – dialogue, which is a traditional philosophical literary form, from a tool in historical-philosophi-cal study. In the latter case, it is important to determine who will play a role of a historian: an author of historical narration, an interviewee or an interviewer. Depending on the answer to the previous question, the author distinguishes three possible perspectives of the oral history of philosophy development: an interview as a self-sufficient study in the history of philosophy, an interview as a self-sufficient source for historical-philosophical research and an interview as one of sources for historical-philosophical research. Each of them has its opportunities for a historian of philosophy and plays its role in recruiting students and doctoral students (who often are involved as interviewers) to research work.
15. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Володимир Ратніков Volodymyr Ratnikov
Історія філософії науки як галузь філософських досліджень. Stadler, F. (Ed.). (2017). Integrated History and Philosophy of Science: Problems, Perspectives, and Case Studies. (Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook, vol. 20). Vienna: Springer
History and Philosophy of Science as a Field of philosophical Researh. Stadler, F. (Ed.). (2017). Integrated History and Philosophy of Science: Problems, Perspectives, and Case Studies. (Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook, vol. 20). Vienna: Springer

16. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Євген Скопов Evgen Scopov
Історія «маленької людини». (Немчинов, І. (2019). Малининъ/ Малінін: Реконструкція «втраченої біографії» київського професора. Вінниця: ФОП Барановська Т.П.)
The history of the Little Man. (Nemchinov, I. (2019). Malinin / Malinin: Reconstruction of the "lost biography" of Kiev professor. Vinnitsa: FOP Baranovskaya TP)

17. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Олег Хома Oleg Khoma
Сучасне глобальне декартознавство. Nadler, S. et al (2019). The Oxford Handbook of Descartes and Cartesianism. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Contemporary global Descartes studies. Nadler, S. et al (2019). The Oxford Handbook of Descartes and Cartesianism. Oxford: Oxford UP

18. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Владислав Артюшенко Vladislav Artiushenko
Ричард Бет. Як бути Пірроністом?Bett, R. (2019). How to Be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP
Richard Bett. How to Be a Pyrrhonist. Bett, R. (2019). How to Be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP

19. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Поліна Коржикова Polina Korzhikova
Данкан Ларж та ін. Неперекладність: міждисциплінарні перспективи. Large, D., Akashi, M., Józwikowska, W., & Rose, E. (2019). Untranslatability: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Routledge: New York.
Duncan Large et al., Untranslatability: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Large, D., Akashi, M., Józwikowska, W., & Rose, E. (2019). Untranslatability: Interdiscipli-nary Perspectives. Routledge: New York

20. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Ельвіра Чухрай Elvira Chukhray
Cенс життя і великі філософи. Leach, S., & Tartaglia, J. (2018). The Meaning of Life and the Great Philosophers. Routledge: London, & New York.
The Meaning of Life and the Great Philosophers. Leach, S., & Tartaglia, J. (2018). The Meaning of Life and the Great Philosophers. Routledge: London, & New York