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61. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Fellipe do Vale Can a Male Savior Save Women?: The Metaphysics of Gender and Christ’s Ability to Save
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This paper attempts to answer, as well as give metaphysical specificity to, a question within the philosophy and theology of gender which strikes the heart of the Christian confession of the gospel. Against critics who say that the masculinity of Christ’s human nature renders him unable to save women as well as men, it draws on the recent literature on feminist metaphysics and analytic Christology (two very resurgent bodies of literature) to develop a model of the Incarnation able to avoid such criticisms.
62. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Gary Osmundsen Sanctification as Joint Agency with the Triune God: An Aristotelian Causal Model
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If humans are sanctified by a triune God, part of the success of spiritual formation depends on understanding how one’s agency depends upon the Trinity. Some sanctifying actions require causal notions like “obedience,” “yielding,” “participation,” and “cooperation.” So, how is a Christian going to understand them? The purpose of this paper, then, is twofold: (1) develop a model of agency that provides an adequate account of understanding how one’s agency depends upon the Trinity; and (2) explain how this model can increase the reliability of one’s perceptual capacities to perceive one’s agency cooperating with the Trinity in acts of sanctification.
63. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Kirk Lougheed Anti-Theism, Pro-Theism, and Gratuitous Evil
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Ebrahim Azadegan recently argues that personal anti-theism, the view that it’s rational for a particular individual to prefer that God not exist, is a form of gratuitous evil. He justifies this evil by arguing that the anti-theist is uniquely positioned to bargain, implore, and plea to God. I argue that Azadegan faces a paradox. Once the anti-theist recognizes that God plus anti-theism makes the world better, she should convert to pro-theism. But then there can be no reflective anti-theists who could add value to the world. Ignorance is a requirement of the anti-theist who can offer these unique goods.
64. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Andre Leo Rusavuk Optimistic Molinism: Divine Reasons and Salvifically Optimal Worlds
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Some Molinists claim that a perfectly good God would actualize a world that is salvifically optimal, that is, a world in which the balance between the saved and damned is optimal and cannot be improved upon without undesirable consequences. I argue that given some plausible principles of rationality, alongside the assumptions Molinists already accept, God’s perfect rationality necessarily would lead him to actualize a salvifically optimal world; I call this position “Optimistic Molinism.” I then consider objections and offer replies, concluding that Optimistic Molinism is undefeated (for now) and merits further exploration.
philosophical notes
65. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Elijah Hess The Neo-Molinist Square Stands Firm: A Rejoinder to Kirk MacGregor
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In a previous issue of Philosophia Christi, Kirk MacGregor responded to an essay of mine in which I argued for a neo-Molinist account of open theism. The argument demonstrated how, given standard counterfactual semantics, one could derive an “open future square of opposition,” that is, a depiction of the logical relations that hold between future-tense statements from an open theistic standpoint. Conceding the validity of the argument, MacGregor nevertheless sought to deny its soundness by criticizing both its conclusion and the Stalnaker-Lewis semantics on which the argument was based. In this paper, I argue that MacGregor’s reasons for rejecting the open future square, as well as his Molinist alternative to the Stalnaker-Lewis semantics, are uncompelling.
66. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Elliott R. Crozat Does Open Theism Explain God’s Planning of Creation?: An Assessment of Timothy Blank’s “The Open Theistic Multiverse”
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In this essay, I assess Timothy Blank’s “The Open Theistic Multiverse.” In his article, Blank attempts to show that Open Theism explains how God can plan the creation of a multiverse containing creatures with libertarian freedom. I underscore some benefits of Blank’s article while arguing that, despite its strengths, his paper fails to provide a sufficient explanation of God’s precreational planning.
67. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Daniel Lorca, Eric LaRock Eliminative Materialism and Ordinary Language
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Advocates of eliminative materialism (EM) assure us that our current, ordinary approach to describing the mind (dubbed “folk psychology”) will eventually be eliminated, instead of reduced, by a matured neuroscience. However, once we take into account the flexibility, explanatory power, and overall sophistication of ordinary language, then the promissory note offered by eliminative materialism (EM) loses all credibility. To bolster the preceding claim, we present three original problems for EM: (1) the accountability problem, (2) the substitution problem, and (3) the discourse dependence problem.
68. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Chad Bogosian Recovering Our Knowledge of the Good Person: A Review Essay of Dallas Willard’s The Disappearance of Moral Knowledge
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Have you wondered how your students or friends simultaneously deny moral facts yet accept the universal wrongness of bullying, sexual assault, or greed? Dallas Willard’s much anticipated final philosophical work offers an incisive analysis of and solution to this phenomenon. Here I provide a brief overview of Willard’s main argument for how moral knowledge disappeared and has thereby become publicly unavailable for teaching it to emerging generation. We first look at what caused this “disappearance” at a social level, and then consider how have contributed to the problem. Finally, we look at Willard’s proposal for how we might recover moral knowledge, and I offer three lingering questions that may provide a springboard for those interested in extending his important project.
69. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Robert C. Koons Advancing the Aristotelian Project in Contemporary Metaphysics: A Review Essay
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In a recent book, Substance and the Fundamentality of the Familiar, Ross Inman demonstrates the contemporary relevance of an Aristotelian approach to metaphysics and the philosophy of nature. Inman successfully applies the Aristotelian framework to a number of outstanding problems in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of physics. Inman tackles some intriguing questions about the ontological status of proper parts, questions which constitute a central focus of ongoing debate and investigation.
book reviews
70. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Graham Oppy Paul Copan and William Lane Craig, eds., The Kalām Cosmological Argument
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71. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Thomas W. Duttweiler Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne, and Dani Rabinowitz, eds., Knowledge, Belief, and God: New Insights in Religious Epistemology
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72. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Todd Buras Joshua Rasmussen, How Reason Can Lead to God: A Philosopher’s Bridge to Faith
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73. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Francis J. Beckwith Matthew D. Wright, A Vindication of Politics: On the Common Good and Human Flourishing
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74. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
R. Keith Loftin Natalja Deng, God and Time
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75. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
News and Announcements
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76. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Ross D. Inman Editor’s Introduction
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twentieth-anniversary reflections
77. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
J. P. Moreland My Retrospective and Prospective Musings on the Evangelical Philosophical Society
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This article reflects on three issues: (1) the past twenty years of the Evangelical Philosophical Society (EPS), (2) ideas for EPS's future, and (3) some words of advice to my younger EPS colleagues. Regarding (1), I identify four values that were central to the rebirth of the EPS and that have guided us for twenty years. Regarding (2), I issue a warning and a challenge. Regarding (3), I provide three words of advice for keeping us on course.
78. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Angus J. L. Menuge Onward Christian Philosophers
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Christian philosophers have engaged naturalism in three main ways: (1) direct refutation; (2) systematic comparison; and (3) sustained development of compelling alternative accounts. While all of these options have value, I argue that it is (2), and especially (3), that are most likely to win converts, and that we are witnessing an encouraging strategic shift in that direction. Options (2) and (3) bring Christian philosophers into closer dialogue with their naturalistic counterparts, building mutual respect and a greater opportunity for Christian philosophers to gain a full and fair hearing. This points to a bright future for Christian philosophy.
79. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Stephen T. Davis Recent Christian Philosophy
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This brief look at Christian philosophy in the United States in recent years considers both our successes and the challenges we face. It also congratulates Philosophia Christi on its excellence in the past twenty years.
80. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
William Lane Craig The Evangelical Philosophical Society
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This brief essay offers a congratulatory notice and reflections on the 20th anniversary of Philosophia Christi. It recalls some of Craig's early involvement with the Evangelical Philosophical Society and with the founding of Philosophia Christi.