Cover of Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology
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61. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Jiang Sun Preface: Transcultural Turn of Conceptual History Research
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62. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Zhongjiang Wang How the Concept of “Nature” Emerged and Evolved in Modern China
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The entrance of “nature” from English to Chinese and the transformation of the word ziran 自然 in Chinese had been intertwined together. In the formal process, “nature” was not translated as ziran at first while in the latter process, the western concept and Chinese ideas of nature combined together with multiple, comprehensive meanings in the history of modern China. This means the second process consists some major transformations of ziran as a key concept in modern China. Firstly, it has been a process of materialization for the traditional concept of ziran from ancient China. Secondly, traditional ideas of nature like tian, tianran, ziran, got revived during their association and collaborations with western understandings of nature as a concept of naturalist philosophy. Thirdly, it was also in this process where a humanistic and existential definition of ziran began to emerge, not only as a response to the materialized understanding of ziran, but also created the confrontation between a material occidental civilization and a spiritual oriental civilization. This dualist view not only ignored other thought like Romantism, Humanism and ideas which go against materialism or scientism, but also overlooked materialism and scientism itself in the history of Modern China.
63. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Chien-Shou Chen The Enlightenment Turns to China: The International Flow of Concepts and Their Geographic Dispersion
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This article attempts to strip away the Eurocentrism of the Enlightenment, to reconsider how this concept that originated in Europe was transmitted to China. This is thus an attempt to treat the Enlightenment in terms of its global, worldwide significance. Coming from this perspective, the Enlightenment can be viewed as a history of the exchange and interweaving of concepts, a history of translation and quotation, and thus a history of the joint production of knowledge. We must reconsider the dimensions of both time and space in examining the global Enlightenment project. As a concept, the Enlightenment for the most part has been molded by historical actors acting in local circumstances. It is not a concept shaped and brought into being solely from textual sources originating in Europe. As a concept, the Enlightenment enabled historical actors in specific localities to begin to engage in globalized thinking, and to find a place for their individual circumstances within the global setting. This article follows such a line of thought, to discuss the conceptual history of the Enlightenment in China, giving special emphasis to the processes of formation and translation of this concept within the overall flow of modern Chinese history.
64. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Donglan Huang The Concept of “Self-Government” across Cultures: From the Western World to Japan and China
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This paper focuses on the change of the meaning of “self-government” after it was introduced from Western world into East Asia in late 19th and early 20th century. By surveying the process of translation and dissemination of the concept “self-government” as well as the institutionalization of local self-government in Japan and China, the author points out that in Meiji Japan, the meaning of the word “self-government” underwent significant changes from “freedom” which means anti-authoritarianism that was transmitted in the English word “local-government” to sharing the responsibility of national administration as embodied in the German word “Selbstverwaltung” along with the establishment of Prussian modeled local self-government system. In late-Qing China, on the other hand, the term “local-government” was accepted as “self-reliance” as a way to achieve national prosperity and independence by enhancing individuals’ capacity, or “provincial autonomy” as a step to overthrow the Qing Dynasty. Qing government enacted a set of “self-government” laws with reference to Japan’s system, but it turned out to be the same as its traditional counterpart enforced by local elites to offer public services under the profound influence of the Confucian tradition of xiangguan(local heads) in ancient China instead of incorporating the local elites into the state administrative system.
65. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Jingdong Yu The Concept of “Territory” in Modern China: 1689-1910
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There are two frequent misunderstandings in the scholarship on modern China’s territorial transformation. First, the concept of lingtu 领土 (“territory”) is often seen as only developing after the 1911 Revolution, in opposition to the earlier concept of jiangyu diguo 疆域帝国 (“imperial frontier”). Second, jiangyu and lingtu are often confused and seen as basically the same concept at different historical stages. This essay takes the translation and dissemination of “territory” before the 1911 Revolution as a starting point to examine how the basic concept of lingtu developed from a translated term to describe spatial relations into an important semantic resource of a political movement. On one hand, in the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Nerchinsk and in the modern treaty system, the translation of “territory” formed a new conceptual space, centred on lingtu, which differed from the idea of the (imperial) “frontier” (jiangyu). The turn from jiangyu to lingtu was not a complete one; rather, part of the old concept was integrated into the new framework. On the other hand, the concept of lingtu also provided a semantic battlefield, and the battle was already opened before the revolution: the earlier ideas, diplomatic relations and national narrative already formed the basic concepts dominating discourses after the revolution.
66. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Hanhao Wang Discourses of “Imperialism” in the Late Qing Dynasty
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Imperialism, the key concept of modern politics and society, entered China via Japan in the late Qing Dynasty. This concept had been endowed with rich connotations before Lenin’s assertion that imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism gained a dominant position in China. Liang Qichao influenced by the Waseda University of Politics, regarded “imperialism” as the result of “nationalism”. He advocated the cultivation of nationals to cope with international competition. At the same time, Kotoku Shusui being influenced by the European and American socialist thoughts, regarded “imperialism” as the product of the politicians and capitalists’ seeking profit from the centralization of power. Mencius, a classic Confucian text, became the native resource for absorbing this proposition, attention to the universalist thought which is constructed by Confucian moral theory such as compassion. But for other East Asian countries such as China and Korea, the claim had received little response.
67. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Chao Liu Racism in the Early-20th-Century U.S. and Sun Yat-sen’s Outlook on Chinese Culture
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Confronted with the decline of Western hegemony, the post-Great-War American society witnessed a prevailing trend of racism represented by Lothrop Stoddard, who proposed to suppress the nationalist movements in Asia and completely prohibit the immigration of Asians into the United States to maintain white supremacy across the world. His racist discourse also constituted the historical context of Sun Yat-sen’s speech to The Kobe Chamber of Commerce. Unlike previous studies of the speech that focused on Sun’s expression of “Greater Asianism,” this paper examines his critical remarks on Stoddard, intending to explore the intellectual origin of the renewed outlook held by Sun on Chinese culture in his later years, as he intentionally misinterpreted Stoddard’s main idea as cultural revolt, neutralied such notions as biological determination and human inequality, and replaced white supremacy with the ascendancy of Chinese culture by emphasizing its originality, historical unity and moral superiority. On the very basis, Sun presented an alternative mode of modern civilization that diverged from the Euro-centric capitalist modernity. Echoing various anti-capitalist and counter-enlightenment thoughts of this period, Sun’s proposal could be taken as an integral part of the “new cultural conservatism” promoted by Chinese intellectuals in the 1920s.
68. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Lifeng Li Ambiguous Subject: the “Masses” (qunzhong) Discourse in Modern China
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The “masses” (qunzhong 群众) discourse in modern China was influenced by two western intellectual traditions, i.e., mass psychology and historical materialism. The former regards the masses as a blind, impulsive, and irrational crowd, while the latter thinks that only the people are the real dynamic forces of historical development. As a result, the “masses” discourse in modern China bifurcated into a negative one of “mass psychology” and a positive one of “mass movement”, both of which were employed as effective tools of political mobilization by different political parties and social elites. The concept of the “masses” was either the crystallization of the abstract “people” (renmin 人民) or the actualization of the ideal “citizenry” (guomin 国民). What is embodied in the concepts of the people, the citizenry, and the masses in modern China was actually an ambiguous image of a political subject.
69. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Yiwei Song The Experience of L’Internationale in Modern China
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During the 20th-century Chinese revolution, L’Internationale was one of the most important political symbols. After the failure of the Paris Commune in 1871, Eugène Pottier wrote the poem titled “L’Internationale” which was published for the first time until 1887. It was set to music by Pierre Degeyter in 1888 and introduced into China from both France and the Soviet Union (USSR). Qu Qiubai and Xiao San made great contribution to the work of translation that influenced the official version in 1962. From a hymn for the International Workingmen’s Association to the revolutionary song of all the proletariats, L’Internationale was the historical witness of the National Revolution, the Chinese Communist Revolution and the Continuous Revolution, whose symbolic meanings were connected closely to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism.
70. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 2
Nan Wang On the Translation of “Association” in the Manifesto of the Communist Party
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There are many Chinese versions of The Communist Manifesto and all of them had problems with the translation of foreign concepts and words, which triggered debates for years. One of the most interesting questions in the debates on the translation of the Manifesto is how to translate (Ger.) Assoziation / “association” and how Marx understood this concept.
71. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Simon C. Estok Climate Change Narratives and the Need for Revisioning of Heritage, Knowledge, and Memory
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Issues about heritage, knowledge, and memory are central to climate change narratives. In an age when reality television stars become world leaders, the urgency of climate change narratives requires us to understand the crucial roles of memory and heritage to the future of our planet. The sanctity of knowledge simply cannot be abandoned. Knowledge slips away through the cracks, both in mainstream media efforts to sell its news and in the nonchalance of the admittedly more mindful scholars and popularizers of climate change narratives. We face complex issues here, and there is an urgent need to reassess the value systems and ethics that brought us to where we are in terms of climate change. This is no easy task. To face this complex and controversial issue will require tremendous care with facts, honesty about heritage, and commitment to remembering. It will also need recognition of the painful fact that heritage can no longer be an excuse for continued derogation of the natural environment.
72. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Arianti Ayu Puspita, Agus Sachari, Andar Bagus Sriwarno, Jamaludin Knowledge from Javanese Cultural Heritage: How They Manage and Sustain Teak Wood
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Centhini manuscript is one of the ancient manuscripts from Kesultanan Surakarta Hadiningrat (Royal Kingdom) in the 19th century which has had a role in the cultural and ecological aspects in regulating the use of teakwood. Therefore, deep study into utilization of teak wood in Centhini Manuscript will be conducted as cultural heritage from Indonesia. Narrative methods is used in this research to present thematic results. Direct observation is conducted on various artifacts to analyze the symbolic value of teakwood. The results show that in the past, religious considerations, alertness and well-being is an important factor in the selection of teak in the Javanese community. Selection of teak is carried out strictly as accountability to the environment. The purpose of this research is to build cultural values as strategy on teak wood utilization in Indonesia and to develop ecology-minded design in the future.
73. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
I Wayan Mudra Bali Traditional Pottery as a Cultural Heritage on the Global Competition Era
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The existence traditional pottery in Banjar Basangtamiang, Kapal Village, Mengwi Sub-district, Badung Regency cannot be separated from the influence of global culture. The pottery craft center still serves the needs of the local community in Bali, even though there are various types of pottery from outside of Bali as a competitor. This article aims to describe the existence of traditional pottery craft in Banjar Basangtamiang as a cultural heritage on the global era. This research was done on 2016–2017. The collection of data was done using observation, interview, and documentation. The results show traditional pottery craft in Banjar Basangtamiang Kapal Village is a hereditary culture lived by artisans to the extent called as heritage. Thiscraft survives despite the existence of the pottery from outside Bali that is being sold in Bali and the global influence in artisans’ life. The factors influencing this existence is that traditional pottery is needed by Hindu community in Bali as a mean for religious, custom, and cultural ceremonies. The artisan would not leave their occupation as pottery crafter in fear of experiencing calamity. Nowadays, the young generations are less interested in pursuing this occupation.
74. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Vaida Asakavičiūtė Cultural Crisis as a Decline in Human Existential Creativity
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The article analyzes cultural crisis as a decline in human existential creativity. A review of the problematic nature of the conception of creativity shows that this concept is not strictly defined. Non-classical philosophers were among the first to theoretically ground the importance of creativity for an individual, their quality of life, the well-being of society, and the development of culture. From this philosophical perspective, it is shown that a human being has, as a natural creative faculty, an innate ability to create. This existential human creativity can be defined as the self-development of one's personality, the creation of one's life and environment. The causes and consequences of a decline in creativity are analyzed in the context of Spengler's conception of cultural crisis. The conclusion is reached that creative activity and creativity can be taken to be the most profound goal of a personality and its most perfect form of existence. From this existential creativity stems an authenticity of life, a creation of spiritual values, and an improvement and development of cultural forms. The disjunction of culture and civilization reveals that the establishment of an era of civilization and mass culture marks the decline of authentic culture as regards vibrant existential creative activity.
75. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
I Gede Mugi Raharja Heritage, Knowledges and Memories on Pura Penulisan Architecture Bali at Ancient Mount Batur Caldera Area
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Bali island’s beautiful nature in Indonesia are the result of volcanic activity under the sea, more than 23 million years ago. The geology of Bali island lies in the Sunda mountains arc, part of the volcanic rings of Pacific ring of fire. This causes the condition of Bali island is often unstable in ancient times, due to the shocks of volcanic eruptions. One of the beautiful areas caused by ancient volcanic activity is the Caldera of Mount Batur. On the northwestern side of the caldera of the ancient Mount Batur, the archaeological traces of statues in sacred venues have been found since the prehistoric Balinese civilization. The holy place built on the hill at the highest peak of this ancient Batur Mountain caldera, often called Pura Penulisan. This holy place is designed in accordance with local wisdom, the concept of punden berundak, a concept of the original architectural space of Indonesia since prehistoric times. The shape of the architectural space design follows the topography of the hills, in form of leveled terrace and equipped with plaza. Archaelogical of Pura Penulisan merges with the caldera of Mount Batur, which was formed due to eruption 5,500 years ago. Therefore, Pura Penulisan architecture and the ancient Batur Mountain caldera, are both a valuable heritage, containing knowledge, and can knit memories.
76. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Nadiya Fedchyshyn, Halyna Klishch, Tetiana Horpinich, Nataliia Yelahina Echoes of the Herbartianism in Western Ukraine (late 19th – early 20th centuries)
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The article analyzes Herbartians pedagogy in the West Ukrainian lands of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the activities of educational institutions in the light of Herbartianism; retraces the main factors of training teachers of relevant qualifications at higher educational institutions, design and development of curricula and textbooks in pedagogy, publication of research results of pedagogues-Herbartians’ research work in scientific journals; points out the Herbartians’ traditions in the symbiotic training of a teacher run both by the state and by the church.
77. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Eugenia Zaiţev The Memory and the Ailing Imagination at Immanuel Kant
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In the present paper, we substantiate the theory according to which the ailments of imagination presented by Immanuel Kant, especially in his work Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, are sources of artistic creation. It is obvious that not anyone suffering from melancholia, nostalgia, hypochondria or any other ailment of the soul, which Immanuel Kant refers to, becomes a creator of culture. Genius is required for this, but instead of diminishing the creative power of the genius, it seems to be enhanced by the ailments of imagination or generally, by the ailments of the soul. The hypertrophic imagination in the case of a genius plays a major role in the process of fixation in the individual and collective memory of what Immanuel Kant names "aesthetic ideas".
78. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Sanja Ivic European Philosophical Identity Narratives
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This inquiry examines various philosophical conceptions of identity and the clash between different identity narratives in the history of philosophy. The main goal of this paper is to show how the European philosophical idea of identity was developed. This paper explores the emergence of European philosophical identity narratives, which have shaped the ideas of justice, truth and community in Europe. It studies the foundational identity narratives that underlie the contested idea of a shared European heritage in law and culture, such as the ideas of equality, tolerance, rule of law, pluralism and the rejection of totalitarianism, and their relevance for current debates on philosophical ideas of self and identity. Identity is an open process. It is a dynamic hermeneutic category, which is constantly reinterpreted and reinvented. There are various philosophical traditions of Cogito – some of them perceive it as foundation of all knowledge and some of them perceive it as a mere illusion. In all these philosophical perspectives, the self is understood only through interpretation. The self is constituted as a narrative, as a text. Understanding oneself means understanding oneself in front of a text. The self is reinterpreted all over again only in light of narratives provided by culture. The task of hermeneutics is not only understanding of a subject, but also rethinking the subject.
79. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
I Wayan Adnyana Tiger-Hunting Scene on Yeh Pulu Relief in Bali: Romanticism of People’s Heroism in the Study of Iconology
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This article aims to analyze the tiger-hunting scene on Yeh Pulu relief, located in Bedulu Village, Gianyar, Bali. This relief is estimated to have been created by Balinese artists of the end of the era of Ancient Bali Kingdom in about the 14th century AD. There are only few in-depth studies conducted on this monumental relief in the context of iconology by visual art researchers. Therefore, the author has conducted intensive field research and studies since a year ago based on Panofsky's iconology theory. Tiger-hunting is part of a series of scenes on the relief which in general tends to tell about everyday routines. The tiger-hunting scene carries an unusual theme amidst a wide range of Balinese cultural artifacts which tend to revolve around mythology and epics such as Mahabrata and Ramayana. Based on the theory of iconology which consists of a sequence of analyses starting from the pre-iconographic analysis, the relief characters were found in the form of rough sculptures on the surface of a rocky soil wall located near the Petanu watershed in Gianyar. The iconography aspects revealed that the characters on the relief figuration tend to be naturalistic; and iconologically, they tend to relate to the meaning of narratives on the romanticism of everyday heroism. Heroism nurtures the Balinese people's proletariat side in facing challenges in their life and the political power in the era of the Ancient Bali Kingdom.
80. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Emmanuel Ifeanyi Ani The Question of Immanence in Kwasi Wiredu’s Consensual Democracy
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Kwasi Wiredu, arguably the most influential African philosopher, has proposed a democracy by consensus as an alternative to the majoritarian democracy African countries inherited from their colonial masters. His proposal has generated a lot of debates, and these debates have spanned several aspects of his proposal. In this paper, I focus on the debate regarding his attribution of immanence to the practice of consensus in traditional African social relations. Bernard Matolino has recently written an article defending Wiredu's employment of the word immanence in describing the traditional African attitude to social relations. In this article, I find Matolino's defense to be unsustainable.