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Displaying: 51-60 of 11865 documents


51. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 114 > Issue: 1
Luc Lauwers, Peter Vallentyne, A Tree Can Make a Difference
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We show that it is not possible to extend the ranking of one-stage lotteries based on their weak-expectation (Easwaran 2008) to a reflexive and transitive (but possibly incomplete) relation on the collection of one- and two-stage lotteries that satisfies two basic axioms, the minimal value axiom and the reduction axiom. We propose an extension that satisfies only the first axiom. This ranking takes payoffs, their probabilities, and the tree structure into account.
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52. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 114 > Issue: 1
Oliver R. Marshall, Giaquinto on Acquaintance with Numbers
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Marcus Giaquinto claims that finite cardinal numbers are sensible properties, and that the smallest ones are known by acquaintance. In this paper I compare Giaquinto’s epistemology to the Russellian one with which it invites comparison, before showing how it is subject to a version of Jody Azzouni’s “epistemic role” objection. Then I argue that the source of this problem is Giaquinto’s misconception that numbers, like quantities, are sensible properties. Finally, I offer a sketch of a theory of how we grasp finite cardinals on the assumption that they are not sensible, and show why this is not subject to the epistemic role objection.
53. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 114 > Issue: 1
In Memoriam: Derek Parfit
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54. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 113 > Issue: 12
Wade Munroe, Words on Psycholinguistics
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David Kaplan’s analysis of the factors that determine what words (if any) someone has used in a given utterance requires that a speaker can only use a word through producing an utterance performed with a particular, related intention directed at speaking that word. This account, or any that requires a speaker to have an intention to utter a specific word, proves inconsistent with models of speech planning in psycholinguistics as informed by data on slips-of-the-tongue. Kaplan explicitly aims to formulate a theory of words that elides the details of the processes responsible for speech planning and production. Though it may superficially seem that the picture of speech planning and production offered by psycholinguistics can add no insight into our analysis—on closer inspection—we find a rich body of empirical data that should be integrated into any viable account of what words someone has used in a given utterance.
55. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 113 > Issue: 12
Andrea Iacona, Two Notions of Logical Form
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This paper claims that there is no such thing as the correct answer to the question of what is logical form: two significantly different notions of logical form are needed to fulfil two major theoretical roles that pertain respectively to logic and semantics. The first part of the paper outlines the thesis that a unique notion of logical form fulfils both roles, and argues that the alleged best candidate for making it true is unsuited for one of the two roles. The second part spells out a considerably different notion that is free from that problem, although it does not fit the other role. As it will be suggested, each of the two notions suits at most one role, so the uniqueness thesis is ungrounded.
56. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 113 > Issue: 12
New Books
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57. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 113 > Issue: 12
Index to Volume CXIII
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58. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 113 > Issue: 11
Carolina Sartorio, PAP-Style Cases
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Over the years, two models of freedom have emerged as competitors: the alternative-possibilities model, which states that acting freely consists (at least partly) in being able to do otherwise, and, more recently, the actual-sequence model, which states that acting freely is exclusively a function of the actual sequence of events issuing in our behavior. In general, a natural strategy when trying to decide between two models of a certain concept is to look for examples that support one model and undermine the other. Frankfurt-style cases have been used for this kind of purpose, to challenge the alternative-possibilities view and support the actual-sequence view. In this paper I examine the prospects of the counterparts of Frankfurt-style cases: “PAP-style” cases, or cases that could be used to support the alternative-possibilities view and challenge the actual-sequence view. I argue that there are no successful PAP-style cases.
59. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 113 > Issue: 11
Duncan Pritchard, Epistemic Risk
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The goal of this paper is to mark the transition from an anti-luck epistemology to an anti-risk epistemology, and to explain in the process how the latter has advantages over the former. We begin with an account of anti-luck epistemology and the modal account of luck that underpins it. Then we consider the close inter-relationships between luck and risk, and in the process set out the modal account of risk that is a natural extension of the modal account of luck. Finally, we apply the modal account of risk to epistemology in order to develop an anti-risk epistemology, and then explore the merits of this proposal. In particular, it is shown that (i) this account can avoid a theoretical lacuna in anti-luck epistemology, and (ii) there is a stronger theoretical motivation for anti-risk epistemology compared with anti-luck epistemology, especially when it comes to explaining why environmental epistemic luck is incompatible with knowledge.
60. The Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 113 > Issue: 11
Lei Zhong, Physicalism, Psychism, and Phenomenalism
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The dominant way to define physical entities is by appeal to ideal physics (as opposed to current physics). However, it has been worried that physicalism understood in terms of ideal physics would be too liberal to rule out “psychism”, which is the view that mentality exists at the fundamental metaphysical level. In this article, I argue that whereas physicalism is incompatible with some psychist cases, such as the case of “phenomenalism” in which ideal physics adopts mental concepts to denote fundamental entities, physicalism should accommodate a certain type of psychist case in which fundamental mental entities are denoted by non-mental concepts in ideal physics. In so doing, I propose a distinctive account of physical entities, which is based on two plausible theses: 1) physical entities are entities denoted by physical concepts; and 2) physical concepts are non-mental natural concepts in ideal physics. Physicalism thus understood is expected to be neither too liberal nor too demanding.