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Displaying: 51-60 of 1778 documents

articles in russian
51. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 75
Владислав Григорьевич Заволотный Учение о математическом методе философии
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We examine Plato’s arguments about the essence of two types of mathematics – mathematics of natural science and mathematics of philosophy –, about the subject-matter of two types of mathematics, the laws of their rise and development during the Modern Times. We also consider the question of essence of the mathematical method of philosophy, its objectives, problems, research tools – Plato’s ideal numbers and the objects of sacral geometry. Further, it is also considered the mathematical method of Pythagorean philosophy and its implementation in Aristotle’s Organon. We then pass over the objectives and problems of the methods of theologians and Holy Fathers of the Church – the method of “septenary” as development of the most ancient concepts about the existence of seven notes-principles and seven whirls of thinking. We proceed with an overview of the history of European philosophy and of the reasons for the attempts to create new mathematical methods of philosophy by Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, and others. We treat the mathematical methods of philosophy of our contemporaries – J. G. Bennett and Drunvalo Melchizedek and the reasons for their appearance, discoveries in physics and psychology. Finally, we suggest our own mathematical method of philosophy as a system of seven equations of identity of cognition and mode of life, as a ladder of ascension from ignorance to the awareness of the Unity. This method combines the approaches of the Pythagorean method and the ideas in Plato’s Timaeus with the method of the “septenary” of the classics of theology and ideas of contemporary science and philosophy. It is a key to the Seven Sacra-ments of the Christian Church.
articles in greek
52. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 75
Νασούλα Μπαρμπαρήγου Για μια ολιστική θεώρηση της ανθρώπινης πραγματικότητας
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Η ανακοίνωση είναι μία απόπειρα αποσαφήνισης των συνθηκών κατανοησιμότητος των αξιακών μας όρων δια της σύζευξης των διακρινομένων καταστάσεων, δηλαδή του είναι και του δέοντος (του γεγονότος και της αξίας), στη βάση του πλατωνικού προτύπου που σχηματικά περιγράφεται στον Τίμαιο του Πλάτωνα. Πρόκειται για ένα διαχρονικό, μαθηματικό πρότυπο για την ανθρώπινη πραγματικότητα, την μόνη μέχρι στιγμής τουλάχιστον γνωστή στην οποία συγκλίνουν, συνυπάρχουν και συλλειτουργούν και δη ταυτοχρόνως, οι τρεις κόσμοι, ήτοι ο μικρόκοσμος, ο μακρόκοσμος και το «οπτικά» γνωστό μας ευκλείδειο σύμπαν. Η ανακοίνωση επιδιώκει να συγκροτήσει και να δικαιολογήσει τη διαχρονικότητα του Πλατωνικού προτύπου ως τρόπον τινά «χάρτα» της ανθρώπινης προσωπικότητας. Ήτοι θέλει να δείξει σχηματικά ότι όχι μόνον η συνείδηση και το γεγονός (που είναι μη συμβατές καταστάσεις) είναι συμπληρωματικές όψεις της ίδιας πραγματικότητας, αλλά να επισημάνει και την παραπληρωματικότητα της υφής των δύο περιεχομένων της συνειδήσεως του ανθρώπου, ήτοι του περιεχομένου της εμπειρικής και της ηθικής. Διότι ο άνθρωπος, μέσω ενός άλλου είδους αρχής, που είναι η κριτική της κριτικής του δύναμης, «λαμβάνει» από τις εμπειρίες της ζωής του το άριστον και το κάλλιστον (άρα ενεργεί με βάση την μεσότητα) και δημιουργεί την ηθική πραγματικότητα του ανθρωπίνου βασιλείου πάνω στην οποία εδραιώνεται και λειτουργεί η επιστήμη της ηθικής.
53. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 75
Σταμάτης Γιακουμής Διδασκαλία του είναι
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Αναπτύσσεται η διδασκαλία του είναι , το πρώτο μέρος της εγελιανής λογικής. Οντολογικά η βασική διαφοροποίηση σε ‘Κάτι και σε Άλλο’ οδηγεί στην ανάπτυξη σύμφυτων τάσεων εντός του αντικειμένου (an ihm), στην αναδίπλωση και αυτοαναφορά του, με αποτέλεσμα το αντικείμενο να μην είναι όπως φαίνεται έξωθεν (an sich), αλλά να αναπτύσσει δυναμική για τον εαυτό του (fuer sich). Έτσι διενεργείται η μετάβαση από την ποσότητα στην ποιότητα αλλά και αντιστρόφως. Επιστημολογικά, επειδή δεν μπορεί να γίνει διείσδυση στο αντικείμενο και η ποιότητα, καθώς και η ποσότητα, φαίνεται κάτι το εξωτερικό, απαιτείται το στάδιο της ουσίας, δηλαδή η αφηρημένη θεώρηση να αντικατασταθεί από συγκεκριμένη και να γίνεται η περιγραφή με βάση καθορισμούς που επισημαίνουν σχέσεις του αντικειμένου με το περιβάλλον. Αν οι καθορισμοί είναι κατάλληλοι, το αντικείμενο συμφωνεί με αυτούς και τους επιβεβαιώνει, οπότε παράγεται η έννοια ως ταυτότητα Είναι και ουσίας, το αυτόνομο ον, που γεφυρώνει υποκείμενο και αντικείμενο.
articles in english
54. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 74
Kenneth L. Anderson The Narrative of Philosophy
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A narrative approach to the teaching of philosophy at the introductory level offers to traditional aged college students, eighteen to twenty one years old, an accessible entrée to philosophical ideas. For many students in the introductory course, this single philosophy course will be their only exposure to philosophy. Through specific reference to three Platonic dialogs and Descartes Meditations it is argued that the presentation of philosophical discipline by way of personal narrative allows an approach that is true to the spirit of the ideas as well as attractive to students at this stage of life. Reference to the settings of these philosophical works and a detailed analysis of the horse trainer analogies in the Platonic dialogs demonstrates the usefulness of this approach. It is further argued that any complete philosophical system will be similarly approachable in this way.
55. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 74
María Liliana Delgado Teaching Philosophy in Prison: An Experience of Freedom
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The frame of reference of this paper is, university teaching in prisons and the question of this paper is what teaching philosophy there really means. In my experience, it consists of transmitting philosophy as an exercise of thought between the participants of which –teacher and student- occurs an experience of freedom. It is about the paradoxical encounter between these two subjects, who are polarized by unavoidable tensions: political, epistemological, esthetic, existential. If this paradoxical dimension of philosophy is not perceived and we take for granted that it can and must be taught, we run the risk of abandoning it. Added to these tensions, there are others which are inherent to contexts of imprisonment, where the public University has been building an inclusive space- concrete end symbolic-within the marginalization of prison confinement. The students “deprived of their freedom” are the ones who declare they feel free when they approach philosophy, while inhabiting prison environment. This paradox confirms the above mentioned: tension is a condition for the possibility of philosophy, because, far from limiting it, it is its own life. The transmission of philosophy always needs an emancipating teacher; but if they teach in prisons, they should be free both from intellectual and moral superiority feelings or attitudes. This requirement – maybe the most difficult- is sine qua non, if we want philosophy to have an emancipating effect within prison confinement.
56. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 74
Scott D. Gelfand, Steve Harrist The Role of Moral Psychology in Professional Ethics Classes
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We are currently developing a short, online ethics course that attempts to teach students why (otherwise) well-intentioned people act unethically and what students can do to decrease the likelihood that they will find themselves in the middle of an ethical crisis in the future. Most of the well-known case studies in professional ethics textbooks concern ethical failures that do not involve difficult ethical choices. When our students read these case studies (e.g., Enron and Challenger), it is not difficult for them to determine what went wrong or what the players in the cases ought to have done. And students don’t need to read Kant or Mill to make these determinations. Importantly, the agents who acted wrongly usually seem to be ethical people. Rarely do cases involve moral monsters. In a similar vein, most cases of research misconduct (fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) are cut-and-dry, and most of our students who plagiarize did not enroll in the course intending to plagiarize. Rather, something went wrong. Professional ethics classes neglect to address an important practical question: Why do (otherwise) well-intentioned people find themselves in the middle of ethical crises and how can our students decrease the likelihood that they will find themselves in an ethical crisis in the future? We are developing a course that answers this question. Our course is built around the findings of John Dorris and other situationists. After teaching our students about situationism, we teach them a two-level theory of cognition that may help them avoid acting unethically.
57. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 74
Christian Lystbaek Teaching Business Philosophy: Reasoning about Rationality in Management Education
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This paper describes and discusses the philosophical underpinnings of teaching business philosophy. Management textbooks and curricula are dominated by a “managerialistic” logic or ideology according to which rational planning, prediction and control is the basis of managerial power and legitimacy. Critics have made clear that this conception of rationality is reductionist. But the critique often dismisses rationality altogether as the failed project of the Enlightenment. My paper will argue that rationality should be seriously engaged with in management education, but that such a serious engagement will illuminate business rationality as a multi-faceted concept. Thus, teachers of Business Philosophy should not be in the “trade” of promoting managerialism, neither in the “trade” of diminishing it. Rather, illuminating business rationality as a multi-faceted concept, allows us to teach Business Philosophy in a theoretical fruitful and ethically engaged manner that challenges us to see rationality as a form of activity or labor.
58. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 74
Vaidas Matonis Education of Multi-dimensional Man and Creatively Oriented Curriculum
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Inasmuch as the mind of modern man is affected by a lot of factors which in their own turn are connected with new tendencies of the world development, the system of factors could be used to impersonate some constructs of modern way of thinking of growing generation. The transitions to new ideals of man is contemporaneous with the formation of new paradigms of thinking, so the development of contemporary life, respectively, is followed by man’s changing identity. It seems that education of multi-dimensional man is one of the most important perspectives for the 21st century. On the other hand, the changing process of cultural education and globalization as well as iincreasing climate changes and the intense development of digital technologies cause new challenges for teaching content. The creatively oriented curriculum appears to meet the needs of 21st century learners, offering opportunities for education of multi-dimensional man. The author is convinced that the education of understanding a multi-dimensional man should be able to foster good traditions of cultural continuity, cultural dialogue with the past, cultural awareness as well as be able to increase the senses of responsibility, respect and other associated features.
59. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 74
C. Robert Mesle Crazy Love: Teaching Love of Others as a Continually Transcending Ideal
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John Stuart Mill argued that we should treat every person’s happiness as of equal importance, being strictly impartial. My students react negatively to this, understandable insisting that they rightly love their own family and friends more than others. It is one reason they resist Mill’s utilitarianism. In this paper I explore how to teach the idea of loving your neighbor as yourself as a continually transcending ideal, citing sacred texts from world religions as well as Mill and Kant.
60. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 74
Gabriele Münnix The Method of Thought Experiments: A Device to Stimulate and Develop Critical Thinking
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Beginning with Plato’s cave and Aristotle’s tower thought experiments represent a very old and often intriguing genre of philosophical writing. On the other side, neurophysiologic research on brain learning theories shows clearly that learning processes are more intense and more sustainable, if they engage the individual in autonomous activities. In this contribution the author who was member of a commission to plan, introduce and organize a school subject called “Practical Philosophy” in all types of secondary schools in NRW (Germany), suggests thought experiments as a method of stimulating critical and autonomous philosophical thinking. This is not only meant as a preparation of earnest philosophical studies, but can help to develop an attitude in order to enrich philosophical cultures of thinking and arguing as well.