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Displaying: 41-50 of 1237 documents


articles in russian
41. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Backsansky Oleg E. Rethinking Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and Technology: Knowledge and Culture
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Modern cognitive approach represents the interdisciplinary branch of scientific reflection uniting researchers of knowledge, studying laws of purchase, transformation, representation, storages and reproduction of the information. People react to own experience, instead of "objective" reality. Cognitive map of the world according to which we operate, our feelings, belief and life experience create. We have no direct access to a "objective" reality, therefore our cognitive map is for us this unique "real" reality. Cognitive science widely uses methodology of synergetic approach successfully describing processes of self‐organizing. On the other hand, the synergetic addresses to modelling cognitive systems both the separate individual and collective cognitive processes. Therefore there are bases tospeak about formation cognitive‐synergetic scientific program ‐ the approach which is under construction on principles of modern nonlinear thinking.
42. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Evgeny Krotkov Диагностика Как Вид Эпистемической Практики
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Diagnostics is becoming one of the most important kinds of epistemic practice: accurate and timely diagnosis is necessary not only for ill people, but for economic, social and political systems and institutions, culture, science, technology, and ecosystems. The analysis of researches into diversity of diagnostics used in various branches enabled the author to develop the outline of the philosophical theory of diagnostics, to identify its subject matter and problems, to name the categories and principles of the epistemological and methodological analysis of diagnostics activities, and to characterize its essential components. Diagnostics is defined as the process of developing cognitive perception of the object being investigated (sought for) and identifying it with existing knowledge of the object (orobjects of the same type). Diagnostics has the following constituents: a) determining something known and constant in the unknown and inconstant; b) identifying the single and occurent with the “ready-made” classification schemes and explanatory patterns, i.e. identifying it with the common and consistent; associating new facts with the known, common and consistent by applying well-tried methods, algorithms and technologies. The author identifies two levels of diagnostics: factual (empirical) and discursive. Discourse is defined as a finite course of reasoning based on a common concept. Reasoning is defined as the search for an answer to a cognitively significant question through drawing a conclusion (making a deduction). The author also analyses the role of argumentative, interpretative (explanatory), qualifying and predictive reasoning in the diagnostic thinking. The specific character of the diagnostic search is determined by an all-important role played in its process by a priori normative (paradigmatic) knowledge, as well as by its orientation to the cognition of the single and individual. The article alsotouches upon the issue of relationship between diagnostics and research investigation. This enables the author to specify the nature of scientific work and identify the correlation of existing knowledge and innovations.
43. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Alexander Krushanov Ситуации предстандарта в историческом становлении естественных наук
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Historical becoming and evolution of scientific knowledge are connected with the passing through very specific and important stages – stages of terminological chaos and its eliminating (like it was in the times of K. Linnaeus in botany and A. Lavoisier in chemistry). This specific and important experience is not represented in the famous models of cognitive dynamics (Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Styopin etc.). Situations of such a kind are fixed in the report as “prestandard situations”. It means: 1. it’s time when some of the terms or symbols express simultaneously different meanings 2. there are some parallel terms or symbols with essentially the same meaning 3. scientific community (or some scholar) has to leave usual operating with the scientific knowledge and to work out system of terminological or symbolic priorities (standards for the field). This model includes also description of main stages of the pre-standard situation maturing.
44. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
V. A. Okladnoy The Creative and Constructive Nature of Cognition
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Rational reconstructions of cognition, outgoing from the results of cognitive activity, often introduce incorrect or imaginary cognitive procedures. Cognition needs to be examined as the open creative process directed to the unknown future. In the process of cognition a theoretical language, perceptive structures, methods of empiric researches and ontological phenomena are mutually constructed. The contents of the results of cognition are encoded in the language of theory and becomes objective in its ontology. It is the same information represented in different forms. The classic theory of truth is faithful, always used for the estimation of our assertations, but the terms of its use are constructed in the process of cognition. The only mode to show that the theory is not truthful and the ontological phenomena are not real is to construct a successful alternative theory.
45. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Niginahon Shermuhamedova Научный поиск как творческий процесс
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Complexity of studying of scientific creativity, in particular, scientific search consists that is the multiplane phenomenon comprising the whole complex of different changes, such as social, psychological, subject, information, logic, methodological philosophical and other aspects. And only consideration of all these aspects in their unity and interaction opens an opportunity of construction of the complete theory of scientific creativity (scientific search), explanations of laws and mechanisms of reception of new scientific results, fulfillment of opening. For this reason research of last time are guided by the complex analysis of creative activity, on use of methods and means of various disciplines more and more. In scientific search the main thing – to direct efforts to the decision of the putquestions, to concentrate on the studied phenomena for a long time. Even then, when scientific search leads to new results, the researcher far not always gives the exhaustive formulations, allowing considering the given question solved. It is not always capable to formulate and those conclusions which the analyzed material allows it to make. The researcher during search should reconsider constantly former guesses, ideas and hypotheses, differently its search will not lead to success. In scientific search of success or failure always depend on set of factors. These factors can change both a course and a direction of the search. Alongside with it scientific search is impossible without persevering aspiration, without creative boldness of the researcher. Search is fruitful and effective only when the researcher arms with progressive ideas of time, possesses independence and impartiality of thinking, a wide general outlook and feeling new when search reflects the certain expectations of a society.
articles in chinese
46. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Kaifeng Huang 历史认识与历史评价
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By exploring the inner relationship between historical understanding and historical evaluation, this essay argues that the understanding and the evaluation of history are two indispensable parts of a full process of historical study. There is a unification between the subjectivity of evaluation and the objectivity of knowledge. Understanding history is not just for respecting the facts, but for exploring the influence of the past on the social progress nowadays. Only by combining theassessment of value and the understanding of past facts, can an integrated research process come into being. Evaluation never stops so long as the understanding of historical fact goes on. For obtaining an understanding of historical objectivity, one needs to cultivate his correct, reasonable value and philosophy, to conduct his research in accordance with the value of promoting social progress and with the people as the subject. A correct and reasonable concept of value helps historians to acquire objectivity in their historical knowledge; even so, objectivity comes first, for it is a symbol for historical study becomes science. A past which once existed, after all, shapes and prescribes the limit of historical evaluation.
47. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Dongkai Li 一切人文知识的根本根据是什么
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RENE DESCARTES had a dream , to find out the root basis theory for human’s all knowledge. Obviously in 16th century , that was only a dream. Since the onto is the root basis of everything, then, the knowledge of everything should have their root in the onto. Believing in this law, the philosophiers like Descartes in the thousands years history, had the same dream--to find out the root basis theory for all the knowledge. This root basis theory for knowledge, in fact, is refers to the onto, but at the aspect of cognition in philosophy. In ontology, it is theory of the onto, in cognition, it is called the root basis for knowledge. In my other papers, I already presented my new study in the ontology and cognition, my new theory in the ontology and cognition, is to be the root basis of knowledge. In my this paper, as per my new ontology and cognition, I will demonstrate which kind of humanities knowledge could be produced.
articles in korean
48. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Seon-Hui Lee Perception as Act in Bergson
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This paper is for the purpose of clarify that perception is a conscious act through Bergson’s theory of images and perception in Matter and Memory. And yet this ‘act’ is not a pure action of consciousness or of sprit, which is transcendental from the reality and composes or recomposes it. That is, our perception is not pure knowledge. A pure conception is unconscious one, which takes place infinitely within the system of matter that is an ‘aggregate of images’ in which all the elements act and react upon one another according to the law of nature. This system is excentric. On the contrary, the consciousness comes into being in themoment when these unlimited actions/reactions are limited and with choice, that is, when the passage from the ‘immediate’ to ‘useful’ in done. Therefore an activity of consciousness is already a practice of life. However, this perception as act reveals at the same time a proper capacity to subject/being, in that it forms a realm of subjectivity and creates its own field of perception, which are not reducible to the movement or nature of matter, so are different system from matter, every moment through memory.
articles in english
49. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 52
M Kenneth L. Anderson Teaching Ethics through Experience
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In teaching introductory ethics courses it is a struggle to find ways to ground the theoretical approach in a context accessible to students. Two way to provide this context are to use feature films and service learning. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages. Feature films provide students with a consistentnarrative, the filmmaker’s intentions, and identical experiences. Service learning provides students with an open encounter with uncertain meaning, concrete human problems, and at best similar experiences. The benefits and weaknesses of each approach depend upon the objectives of the course. Films allow for greater clarity in interpretation of ethical theory, while service makes possible an appreciation of the ambiguities of ethical actions.
50. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 52
Piotr Boltuc Online Philosophy: A Teaching Opportunity
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The trend to engage in online education becomes global allowing for truly international courses and degrees taught by faculty and attended by students from various universities, countries and continents. The traditional worries about quality of online education, and its applicability to the humanities, are the song of the past. Yet, philosophers are reluctant to join online education. This presents a danger to the professions since many potential philosophy classes will be delivered online in other related disciplines. Instead of lamenting the situation I present some achievements in online learning of the University of Illinois at Springfield.