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Displaying: 21-40 of 44 documents

book reviews
21. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Cian O'Driscoll Larry May, "After War Ends: A Philosophical Perspective"
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22. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Jessica Wolfendale Claudia Card, "Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide"
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23. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Anna Stilz Pauline Kleingeld, "Kant and Cosmopolitanism: The Philosophical Ideal of World Citizenship"
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24. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Brandon Morgan-Olsen A Duty to Listen: Epistemic Obligations and Public Deliberation
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It is a common line in democratic theory that citizens must only offer “public” reasons into political discourse. This is a civic obligation that is traditionally taken bypolitical liberals to fall on the citizen as speaker—as an individual who forwards political arguments. I argue here that taking proper account of the epistemic complexity involved in distinguishing public from nonpublic reasons entails robust civic obligations on listeners. Thus, those who accept this obligation for speakers must accept a corresponding civic obligation on listeners—a duty to attempt to identify public reasons within others’ presented arguments, even if those arguments appear nonpublic at first blush.
25. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Joseph Q. Adams Retributive Prepunishment
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This paper argues that many of our most important theories of retributivism are unwittingly committed to the radical thesis that prepunishment—punishment before an offense—is morally permissible. From the perspective of diachronic justice on which these theories crucially depend, the timing of retribution is, ceteris paribus, irrelevant. But retributivism’s counterintuitive support does not stop there: there are conditions under which pre-offense apprehension and punishment guarantees a higher probability of justice being done. Under these conditions, the popular retributive theories I have in mind do not just permit, but require, prepunishment.
26. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Kevin J. Murtagh Free Will Denial and Punishment
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If we lack the kind of free will required for moral responsibility, what does that entail for the justification of particular punitive practices and punishment generally? Everyone seems to agree that incarceration can still be justified, and that retributive justifications of punishment will be unavailable. Beyond this, however, there is little agreement. In this article, I evaluate Derk Pereboom’s discussion of this issue in Living Without Free Will, and then articulate and defend my own positive position. In my view, significant punishment can be justified on consequentialist grounds by the free will denier without betraying important concerns about justice.
27. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Mark Navin Competing Epistemic Spaces: How Social Epistemology Helps Explain and Evaluate Vaccine Denialism
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Recent increases in the rates of parental refusal of routine childhood vaccination have eroded many countries’ “herd immunity” to communicable diseases. Some parents who refuse routine childhood vaccines do so because they deny the mainstream medical consensus that vaccines are safe and effective. I argue that one reason these vaccine denialists disagree with vaccine proponents about the reasons in favor of vaccination is because they also disagree about the sorts of practices that are conducive to good reasoning about healthcare choices. Vaccine denialists allocate epistemic authority more democratically than do mainstream medical professionals. They also sometimes make truth ascriptions for nonepistemic reasons, fail to recognize legitimate differences in expertiseand competence, and seek uncritical affirmation of their existing beliefs. By focusing on the different epistemic values and practices of vaccine denialists and mainstream medical professionals, I locate my discussion of vaccine denialism within broader debates about rationality. Furthermore, I argue that gender inequality and gendered conceptions of reason are important parts of the explanation of vaccine denialism. Accordingly, I draw upon feminist work—primarily feminist social epistemology—to help explain and evaluate this form of vaccine refusal.
28. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Hallie Liberto Noxious Markets versus Noxious Gift Relationships
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I argue that women in traditional marriages are a vulnerable source for kidneys and this vulnerability gives rise to exploitative donation arrangements made within families. In so doing, I critique Alan Wertheimer’s account of the impact that emotional closeness between participants in an agreement has on the wrongfulness of exploitation. I propose a regulated market scheme that is not only less exploitative than our current donation scheme, but also resolves a variety of other moral problems that typically arise in real and imagined kidney sale scenarios, problems that render markets “noxious,” according to Debra Satz.
29. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Rebekah Johnston Marriage and the Metaphysics of Bodily Union: Framing the Same-Sex Marriage Debate
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One current line of argument against the legalization of same-sex marriage, advocated primarily by the New Natural Lawyers, is that marriage is a pre-political institution that has, as an essential element, a bodily union requirement. They argue that same-sex couples cannot realize bodily union in their sexual activities and thus cannot meet the structural requirements of marriage. Accordingly, they argue that the same-sex marriage debate must be framed as a debate about what marriage is, and not, as it was in the anti-miscegenation precedents, about who can get married. I argue that their position, which promulgates a set of pernicious stereotypes about same-sex couples, is, first of all, internally inconsistent. According to their own metaphysical principles about bodily union, they provide no rational basis for the claim that same-sex couples cannot realize bodily union and thus that same-sex couples cannot be married. Second, I argue for a deflationary account of the significance of bodily union. While same-sex couples, like heterosexual couples, can realize bodily union, this sort of union has no moral significance and thus cannot be the factor that distinguishes marriages from other sorts of relationships. Finally, I suggest that they have no basis for their claims about the inferiority of same-sex relationships.
review essays
30. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Thaddeus Metz “The Meaning of Life Lies in the Search”: Robert Kane’s New Justification of Objective Values
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31. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Robert Kane Searching for Wisdom About the Good in Theory and Practice: A Response to Metz
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32. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Meira Levinson Tacking Toward Justice
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33. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
M. Victoria Costa Justice as Fairness and Educational Policy: A Response to Levinson
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book review
34. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Michael Potts T. M. Wilkinson, "Ethics and the Acquisition of Organs"
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35. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Catriona McKinnon Vertical Toleration as a Liberal Idea
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This paper argues that the direct, vertical toleration of certain types of citizen by the Rawlsian liberal state is appropriate and required in circumstances in which these types of citizen pose a threat to the stability of the state. By countering the claim that vertical toleration is redundant given a commitment to the Rawlsian version of the liberal democratic ideal, and by articulating a version of that ideal that shows this claim to be false, the paper reaffirms the centrality of vertical toleration in the Rawlsian liberal account of state-citizen relations.
36. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Eva Erman, Niklas Möller Three Failed Charges against Ideal Theory
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An intensified discussion on the role of normative ideals has re-emerged in several debates in political philosophy. What is often referred to as “ideal theory,” represented by liberal egalitarians such as John Rawls, is under attack from those that stress that political philosophy at large should take much more seriously the nonideal circumstances consisting of relations of domination and power under which normative ideals, principles, and ideas are supposed to be applied. While the debate so far has mainly been preoccupied with defending or rejecting ideal theory through a defense or rejection of a specific ideal theory, this paper instead focuses on a number of general philosophical concerns on which the critique relies. More specifically, it brings up for scrutiny, and ultimately rejects, three charges against ideal theory: the charge that ideal theory is not action-guiding, that ideal theory is impossible, and that ideal theory is distorting. By investigatingthese charges in tandem, the paper shows that the criticism against ideal theory is premised on assumptions about the relationships between thought and action and between concepts and the world for which there is little or no support.
37. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Ayelet Banai Political Self-Determination and Global Egalitarianism: Towards an Intermediate Position
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Proponents of global egalitarian justice often argue that their positions are compatible with the principle of self-determination. At the same time, prominent arguments in favor of global egalitarianism object to one central component of the principle: namely, that the borders of states (or other political units) are normatively significant for the allocation of rights and duties; that duties of justice and democratic rights should stop or change at borders. In this article, I propose an argument in defense of the normative significance of territorial boundaries that draws on a political interpretation of the principle of self-determination. The political interpretation is distinct from the two major approaches to self-determination: the national and the democratic. It makes a twofold contribution to the debates about global justice and democracy; while it (a) challenges the position that political memberships and political borders are morally arbitrary; it (b) helpsdefine the realm of permissible autonomy for self-governing political units, which does not ignore duties to nonmembers and outsiders.
38. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Andrew Lister Reciprocity, Relationships, and Distributive Justice
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This paper argues that the concern for distributive justice might be universal rather than contingent on a morally optional relationship, but limited in the demands it places upon us where a reasonable assurance of reciprocity is lacking. Principles of distributive justice apply wherever people are interacting, even if they have no choice but to interact, but are grounded in the goal of constituting relationships of mutual recognition as equals, and so partly conditional on compliance by others. On this view, there is no unilateral duty to share the benefits of cooperation fairly, only a unilateral duty to help establish institutions that will permit fair sharing with a reasonable assurance of reciprocity.
39. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Suzy Killmister Autonomy and the Problem of Socialization
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One of the more intractable problems in the debate over autonomy is how we should distinguish autonomy-enhancing from autonomy-compromising forms of socialization. In this paper I first survey a range of theories of autonomy, from the procedural through to the substantive, and argue that none offers sufficient resources to resolve the problem of socialization. In the second half of the paper I develop an alternative theory that can both differentiate benign from pernicious socialization and, more importantly, provide an explanation for the means by which pernicious socialization compromises autonomy.
40. Social Theory and Practice: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Frej Klem Thomsen But Some Groups Are More Equal Than Others: A Critical Review of the Group-Criterion in the Concept of Discrimination
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In this article I critically examine a standard feature in conceptions of discrimination: the group-criterion, specifically the idea that there is a limited and definablegroup of traits that can form the basis of discrimination. I review two types of argument for the criterion. One focuses on inherently relevant groups and relies ultimately on luck-egalitarian principles; the other focuses on contextually relevant groups and relies ultimately on the badness of outcomes. I conclude that as neither type of argument is convincing, the criterion is morally arbitrary, and as such untenable. Finally, I suggest both some of the conceptual and some of the practical implications of abandoning the criterion.