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Journal of Philosophical Research

Philosophy as Inquiry and Way of Life

Volume 40, Issue Supplement, 2015
Selected Papers from the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy

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  • Issue: Supplement

Displaying: 21-30 of 47 documents


eros
21. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Jonathan Lear Ironic Eros: Notes on a Fantastic Pregnancy
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This paper is an investigation of Plato’s thought that the disruptive force of Eros can lead us in a good direction. It takes seriously Diotima’s teaching to Socrates that the erotic encounter with the beautiful beloved stimulates a pregnancy in the lover. This paper argues that Plato did not, and we should not, think of this pregnancy merely as a metaphor or an allegory. The paper also argues that we misread Diotoma’s account of erotic ascent if we think of the lover as coming to disdain his first loves, the beautiful body or the beautiful individual. What he comes to disdain is the thought that this could be the ultimate telos of his quest. But the beloved, or the memory of the beloved, in all his or her corporeality remains of crucial importance throughout the lover’s life. Giving birth in the beautiful—however creative the act—occurs in the aura of the beloved. The paper then takes these Platonic ideas and investigates them in relation to a fantasy-pregnancy that was long suppressed in the history of psychoanalysis: that of the patient known as Anna O. giving birth to her doctor’s baby. The paper argues that this should be understood as a pregnancy of soul—one that played a significant role in giving birth to psychoanalysis itself.
philosophy and religions
22. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Jean Ferrari Philosophie et Religions
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La problématique générale de ce symposium est celle de la confrontation de la philosophie, considérée dans son unicité comme une démarche critique à laquelle rien de ce qui est humain n’est étranger et les religions dans leur diversité à travers l’espace et le temps. Il en résulte des types de rapports très divers, selon que la philosophie emprunte aux religions certains thèmes de sa réflexion ou que, par ses concepts, elle contribue à la théorisation dogmatique de celles-ci. La question essentielle demeure aujourd’hui celle des rapports entre la raison philosophique et les croyances religieuses, que l’on en fasse l’histoire ou qu’en fonction des évolutions de l’une et des autres dans le monde contemporain, l’on tente d’en inventer des formes nouvelles.
23. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Suwanna Satha-Anand Silencing Metaphysics: Reflections on the Silence of the Buddha on Questions of Metaphysics
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Past discussions on the silence of the Buddha have focused on speculations on the “reasons” of the Buddha’s silence. Most scholars offer an analysis of the Buddha’s pragmatic considerations or his argument on human epistemic limits, that is, either that the metaphysical questions are irrelevant to the cessation of suffering or that the metaphysical contents cannot be known. This paper argues that the silence of the Buddha can be seen as a “speech act” whose absence of words actually achieves two purposes, first, the silence expresses the Buddha’s refusal to participate in these debates, and second, the silence creates a “space” which guides the interlocutors to re-direct the focus of their religious understanding. It will be illustrated that this silence of the Buddha is a point of both distinction and connectivity between philosophy as pure speculation on the one hand, and religion as a problem-solving practice on the other.
24. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Seizō Sekine Philosophical Inquiries into Religions: A Japanese Old Testament Scholar’s Perspective
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Philosophy, which is limitless but abstract, and religions, which are concrete but unable to shed the limitations of their symbols, must construct a complementary relationship that draws on the strengths of both. Through developing philosophical insights into religious truth and values, we can shine new light on our modern maladies and urgent problems, such as the tendency to pursue facts but not truth in scholarly research (section 1), religious conflicts (section 2), and the rivalry between religion and ethics (section 3). The author demonstrates ways this is possible from the perspectives of Old Testament studies, ethics, and modern Japanese Philosophy.
25. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Michael von Brück Wisdom and Responsibility: Towards a Relationship of Knowing and Acting in Mahayana-Buddhism
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art and cultures
26. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Jos de Mul Athens, or the Fate of Europe
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In his essay ‘The Idea of Europe’ George Steiner claims that European culture derives from “a primordial duality, the twofold inheritance of Athens and Jerusalem.” For Steiner, the relationship between Greek rationalism and Jewish religion, which is at once conflictual and syncretic, has engaged the entire history of European philosophy, morality, and politics. However, given this definition, at present the United States of America seem to be more European than ‘the old Europe’ itself. Against Steiner, it will be argued that in order to fathom the distinctive characteristic of European culture, we have to take a third European tradition into account, which is inextricably bound up with Athens: the tradition of Greek tragedy. If we may call Europe a tragic continent, it is not only because its history is characterised by an abundance of real political tragedies, but also because it embodies, as an idea and an ideal, a tragic awareness of the fragility of human life. Instead of reducing the ‘idea of Europe’ to a financial and economic issue, Europe should remain faithful to this idea and ideal.
27. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Yacouba Konaté Pour Qui L’artiste Contemporain Africain Cree-T-Il?
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La scène contemporaine des arts visuels et de la danse contemporaine en Afrique, semble proposer une illustration réussie du mot de Theodor Adorno selon lequel « l’art a perdu son caractère d’évidence.» Et nombreux sont les artistes qui acceptent de ne pas être compris des publics locaux. En fait, on remarque que les productions artistiques de type patrimonial ou de type moderne et contemporain, apparaissent dans des occurrences inégales. Parfois, l’offre et la demande se raccordent avec bonheur. Parfois, l’offre attend en vain la demande et il apparaît qu’en art comme ailleurs sur d’autres marchés, la valeur n’est pas tant un attribut intrinsèque de l’objet, qu’une valeur ajoutée par l’artiste et les opérateurs culturels.
28. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Tom Rockmore Remarks on Art, Truth, and Culture
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Plato both created the Western aesthetic tradition and rejected the artistic claim to truth. I suggest that Plato’s rejection of the view that non-philosophical art is true gave rise to a debate later traversing the entire Western aesthetic tradition. I further suggest that the post-Platonic Western aesthetic tradition can be reconstructed as an effort by many hands to come to grips with and if possible overturn the Platonic judgment. I finally suggest that Hegel, in disagreeing with both Kant and Plato, presents an interesting anti-Platonic argument for “reforging” as it were the ancient link between art and truth. For in the final analysis, art, or at least some kinds of art, is not only beautiful but also in a deep sense true.
29. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Wolfgang Welsch Protokulturelle und Transkulturelle Dimensionen der Kunst
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Are all cultural products to be understood in cultural terms alone? The paper tries to open up our awareness beyond current culturalistic constrictions towards protocultural as well as transcultural factors involved in the production and understanding of art and other cultural phenomena.
technology and the environment
30. Journal of Philosophical Research: Volume > 40 > Issue: Supplement
Workineh Kelbessa Technology and the Environment: Introductory Remarks for this Session
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This paper explores the relationship between technology and the environment. Although technological intervention can help humanity to address some of the most pressing environmental challenges, technological advances alone cannot solve all environmental ills. In some cases, the attempt to manipulate the environment through technology can lead to different types of environmental destruction. This paper thus suggests that the introduction and use of technology requires a critical assessment of its ethical and environmental benefits.