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Displaying: 21-40 of 44 documents


book reviews
21. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 3
Brian Treanor The Wisdom of Frugality: Why Less is More—More or Less
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22. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
NEWS AND NOTES
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23. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Lars Ursin The Ethics of the Meat Paradox
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The meat paradox—to like eating meat, but dislike killing and harming animals—confronts omnivores with a powerful contradiction between eating and caring for animals. The paradox, however, trades on a conflation of the illegitimacy of harming and killing animals. While harming animals is morally wrong, killing animals can be legitimate if done with minimal suffering and respect for the moral status of the animal. This moral status demands the ac­knowledgement of a certain justification for killing animals that makes modesty a virtue of the omnivore. The psychological problem with regard to killing animals can persist even if the moral tension is weakened, but only to a certain degree, since emotions and principles are interdependent in moral reasoning. Virtuous meat consumption demands a willingness to face the conflicting feelings involved in killing animals and to tolerate the resulting tension.
24. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Chin-Fa Cheng Environmental Ontology in Deep Ecology and Mahayana Buddhism
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Environmental ontology, as formulated by Arne Naess, includes both an “external side,” Ecosophy T and his gestalt framework, and an “internal side” to his project, the “peaceful mind” that accompanies an external transformation of living within a relational community of life. The roots of Ecosophy T are in Spinoza. It may be possible to remedy the shortcomings of Naess’ view by extending his view to connect with key ideas in Mahayana Buddhism, show­ing that human nature, the process of realization, and gestalt thinking all cooperate together.
25. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Erik Persson Option Value, Substitutable Species, and Ecosystem Services
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The concept of ecosystem services is a way of visualizing the instrumental value that nature has for human beings. Most ecosystem services can be performed by more than one species. This fact is sometimes used as an argument against the preservation of species. However, even though substitutability does detract from the instrumental value of a species, it also adds option value to it. The option value cannot make a substitutable species as instrumentally valuable as a non-substitutable species, but in many cases, it can add enough value to make the species more valuable than the projects that threaten its existence.
26. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Yogi Hale Hendlin, Konrad Ott Habermas on Nature: A Postnormal Reading between Moral Intuitions and Theoretical Restrictiveness
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Environmental ethicists typically consider Jürgen Habermas’s theory of communicative action to exclude moral consideration for nonhuman animals. Habermas's early work indeed limits relationships with nature to instrumental ones. Yet, interspersed throughout Habermas's writings are clear indications that nonhuman life deserves moral consideration, and that humans can enter into communicative relationships with nonhumans, however asymmetrical. Habermas’s anthropocentric theoretical foundations can achieve a revised, reflective equilibrium congruent with his persistent intuitions that nonhumans also possess powers of communication (but not discourse) that would grant them moral consideration, perhaps allowing us to enter into non-linguistic interspecies communicative activity. Habermasians can incorporate non-instrumental relationships with nature into discourse ethics’ set of applications without ignoring the special role of language in communication. Rather than holding that the differencia specifica between humans and nonhumans exists in communication, it makes more sense instead to displace this distinction between communicative action as a general category and the special case of discourse. Doing so permits intuitions of nonhuman moral considerability and communicative possibility without altering the discursive core of Habermas’s theory.
27. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Thomas Heyd, Bertrand Guillaume The Natural Contract in the Anthropocene
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In view of humanity’s vast and accelerating environmental impacts on the planet in its more recent past it has been proposed to think of this period as a new geologic epoch called “the Anthropocene.” While some suppose that our present situation justifies large-scale, corrective interventions, Michel Serres has proposed “a contract with nature,” which, to the contrary, calls for a reduction in our interventions on the planet. Although there are difficulties in engaging in a contract with something lacking autonomous agency, rationality, and sentience, the idea of a natural contract does make sense. It offers a richly suggestive reconception of socio-political relationships between human society and the natural world, and has enough precedents to serve as a source of inspiration and guidance for the urgently needed transformation of our approach to the natural environment.
book reviews
28. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Roger S. Gottlieb Anne Frank’s Tree: Nature’s Confrontation with Technology, Domination, and the Holocaust
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29. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Lauren Hartzell-Nichols Philosophy and the Precautionary Principle: Science, Evidence, and Environmental Policy
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30. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Ned Hettinger The Sublime in Modern Philosophy: Aesthetics, Ethics, and Nature
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31. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Eric Katz Naturalness: Is the “Natural” Preferable to the “Artificial”?
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32. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Donald A. Brown Nature’s Trust: An Environmental Law for A New Ecological Age
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33. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Robert Streiffer Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two-Level Utilitarianism
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34. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Amy Linch Engaging Nature: Environmentalism and the Political Theory Canon
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35. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 1
News And Notes
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features
36. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 1
Mei-Hsiang Lin Traditional Chinese Confucianism and Taoism and Current Environmental Education
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In an era in which a conflicting relationship exists between humans and nature, ways of solv­ing environmental problems need to be introduced into people’s thinking about what to do, what lifestyle we should accept, and what kind of people we should become to support our environmental protection work using better justifications. Traditional Chinese Confucianism and Taoism can exert a profound ideological, philosophical, and spiritual influence on how people judge the meaning and value of their lives. Regarding how humans face the natural environment and how they perceive the meaning and value of human lives, Chinese Con­fucianists and Taoists who possess profound wisdom and great benevolence have provided unique philosophical views. The philosophical views and thinking of Chinese Confucianism and Taoism provide links to the environmental crises that humans encounter today.
37. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 1
David E. Storey Nietzsche and Ecology Revisited: The Biological Basis of Value
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There has been relatively little debate about Nietzsche’s place in environmental ethics, but the lines of the debate are well marked. He has been viewed as an anthropocentrist by Michael E. Zimmerman, a humanist by Ralph Acampora, a biocentrist and deep ecolo­gist by Max Hallman, a constructivist by Martin Drenthen, and an ecocentrist by Graham Parkes. Nietzsche does provide a theory of intrinsic value and his philosophy of nature is germane to an environmerntal ethic. His philosophical biology grounds his value theory. The secondary literature contains three main claims plaguing the debate about his views. First, commentators tend to ignore or downplay Nietzsche’s biology. Second, his value theory is not adequatey addressed. Third, does Nietzsche’s emphasis on hierarchy enable him to maintain that human life is more valuable than that of other life forms, but that the lower life forms have a different kind of value insofar as they enable and support higher life forms? This view is roughly parallel in many respects to the views of Paul Taylor, David Ray Griffin, and Michael E. Zimmerman.
discussion papers
38. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 1
Jonathan Parker Stoic Quietude: Rethinking Stoicism in Relation to the Soundscape
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Soundscapes are comprised of biological sounds (biophony), non-biological sounds (geophony), and sounds introduced through human activity (anthrophony). These sounds provide us with the opportunity to both better understand and enjoy the natural world. Di­verse soundscapes across the globe are being degraded and disappearing altogether in the face of global climate change and habitat alteration. Humility and quietude are required as a means to confront the devastating loss of soundscapes. Stoicism offers fruitful accounts of these virtues that can be useful to us in our modern lives as we attempt to appreciate and protect natural soundscapes.
39. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 1
Tony Lynch, Stephen Norris On the Enduring Importance of Deep Ecology
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It is common to hear that deep ecology “has reached its logical conclusion and exhausted itself” in a vacuous anthropomorphism and absurd nonanthropocentrism. These conclusions should be rejected. Properly understood, neither objection poses a serious problem for deep ecology so much as for the ethic of “ecological holism” which some philosophers—wrongly—have taken to arise from deep ecology. Deep ecology is not such an ethic, but is best understood as an aesthetically articulated conception of what, following Robinson Jeffers, may be called “Wild Mind,” and such a Wild Mind is characterized—not criticized and condemned—by just that anthropomorphism and nonanthropocentrism critics focus on when they attack the ethic of ecological holism.
40. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 38 > Issue: 1
Willis Jenkins The Turn to Virtue in Climate Ethics: Wickedness and Goodness in the Anthropocene
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Ethicists regularly turn to virtue in order to negotiate features of climate change that seem to overwhelm moral agency. Appeals to virtue in climate ethics differ by how they connect individual flourishing with collective responsibilities and by how they interpret Anthropocene relations. Differences between accounts of climate virtue help critique proposals to reframe global ecological problems in terms of resilience and planetary stewardship, the intelligibility of which depends on connecting what would be good for the species with what would be good for an individual life. A pragmatic way of establishing that connection may need a strong role for respect of nature.