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Environmental Ethics

Volume 40
Chinese Environmental Philosophy

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Displaying: 21-40 of 40 documents

book reviews
21. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 3
Aimée Koeplin J. Baird Callicott, John van Buren, and Keith W. Brown: Greek Natural Philosophy: The Presocratics and Their Importance for Environmental Philosophy
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22. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 3
Per Sandin Angela Kallhoff, Marcello Di Paola, and Maria Schörgenhumer, eds.: Plant Ethics: Concepts and Applications
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23. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
News and Notes
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from the guest editor
24. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Shane Epting Philosophy of the City and Environmental Ethics
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25. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Diane P. Michelfelder Urban Wildlife Ethics: Beyond “Parallel Planes”
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Philosophical reflections on our ethical responsibilities toward urban wildlife populations have tended to be based on a “parallel planes” framework. This framework is insufficient when it comes to looking after the well-being of city-dwelling wild animals. A different starting-point in thinking about urban wildlife ethics, informed by phenomenology, can bring a number of possible obligations to the fore—for example, an ethics of attentiveness, flexibility, adjustment, and change; virtues associated with an ethic of care from attentiveness through generosity to empathy; and a practice of hospitality. These obligations are moral rather than political; their “ought” is generated from the perspective of an ethic of care.
26. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Samantha Noll Nonhuman Climate Refugees: The Role that Urban Communities Should Play in Ensuring Ecological Resilience
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Urban residents have the potential to play a key role in helping to facilitate ecological resilience of wilderness areas and ecosystems beyond the city by helping ensure the migration of nonhuman climate refugee populations. Three ethical frameworks related to this issue could determine whether we have an ethical duty to help nonhuman climate refugee populations: ethical individualism, ethical holism, and species ethics. Using each of these frameworks could support the stronger view that policy makers and members of the public have a moral duty to mitigate the impacts of climate induced migration, or the weaker claim that these impacts should be taken into account when making land-use and planning decisions in urban contexts.
27. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Shane Epting Cohousing, Environmental Justice, and Urban Sustainability
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Several researchers hold that the cohousing movement supports sustainability, but it remains economically restrictive. This condition challenges cohousing’s status as sustainable, considering that its financially exclusive nature fails to meaningfully address sustainability’s social dimension. Yet, it is doubtful that the cohousing movement set out to create this outcome. When we examine the historical conditions that pertain to multifamily housing, we discover a long-standing pattern of discrimination. For today’s cohousing communities, we see that they are dealing with the residual effects of such prejudicial practices. Most of the unfair treatment comes from zoning and lending, but we also see that cohousing has internal challenges that complicate matters. Through employing an environmental justice framework, however, we can parse kinds of responsibility. If planners, financiers, and cohousing communities can remove these barriers, then cohousing can bolster efforts in urban sustainability.
28. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Jason Matteson Walking Away from Chaco Canyon: Gift-Giving, Trust, and Environmental Decision Making in a Pre-State Urban Society
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Around 750 a.d., new settlements in Chaco Canyon in the Southwest United States began moving toward intensified urban form, monumental architecture, and increased hierarchical social organization that bordered on nation-state authority. But around 1140 a.d., the relatively concentrated populations in Chaco Canyon dispersed over just a few generations. At new destinations emigrants from the canyon did not reinstate the urban intensities and political hierarchies that had dominated there. Four lessons from this history can be drawn. First, the model of social and political coordination that best fits the history of Chaco Canyon is one of escalating and deescalating gift-giving. Models that instead appeal to purely transactional relations, such as contracts, are historically and philosophically inadequate. Second, and more broadly, the real power of any well-functioning, complex, and urbanized society must be a reserve of generalized social trust. This was true then, and remains true today. Third, while environmental pressures play important roles in the formation of foundational urban settlements such as those in Chaco Canyon, we should be careful not to explain too much by them. As then, our own environmental challenges call upon us to nurture political arrangements, especially in our cities, that can address environmental constraints and challenges. Except perhaps when circumstances become impossibly dire, we should treat environmental constraints as the boundaries into which we must fit ourselves through political means. Finally, philosophers should investigate developments in historical urban settlements. Such cases are indispensable for understanding human cooperation, forms of social authority, and environmental decision making.
29. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Brian Elliott Urban Agriculture, Uneven Development, and Gentrification in Portland, Oregon
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Portland, Oregon enjoys a growing reputation as a beacon of urban sustainability. Its modern planning history has seen effectve efforts to curb urban sprawl and introduce a comprehensive mass transit system. More recently, the city has also become a hub for a “makers” movement involving a plethora of local, small-scale craft production. Within this context, Portland is also home to a thriving urban agriculture scene, featuring community gardens, community-assisted agriculture, farmers’ markets, food co-ops, and various farm-based education and outreach programs. While recent case studies of Portland insist that the social sustainability case made for urban agriculture (UA) remains open, this position is arguably unwarranted and lacks an adequate grasp of the critical urban geography perspective developed in the work of David Harvey and Neil Smith. Following the lead of what Chiara Tornaghi calls “the critical geography of urban agriculture,” Portland’s urban agriculture should, on the whole, be seen as an adjunct to rather than a resistance movement against advanced neo­liberal urban governance.
book reviews
30. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Robert Wilson Environmental Humanities: Voices from the Anthropocene
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31. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 2
Holmes Rolston, III The Synthetic Age: Outdesigning Evolution, Resurrecting Species, and Reengingeering our World
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32. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
From the Editor: This and That
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33. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Doug Anderson From the Guest Editor: Environmental Thought in China
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34. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Li Yingjie, Wang Qian The Intellectual Features and Cultural Backgrounds of Modern Environmental Ethics in China
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The perception of modern environmental ethics in China has been greatly influenced by two factors: scholarship of environmental ethics in Europe and the United States on the one hand, and ideological resources from traditional Chinese culture on the other. In practice, while Chinese governmental agencies, enterprises, and social organizations are paying more and more attention to the perspective of environmental ethics in technology assessment and social governance, they are still faced with the challenge of a large number of realistic problems. Behind these intellectual features, there is the potential impact of cultural back­grounds, including traditional views of nature, epistemology, methodology, and axiology in China. Modern environmental ethics in China is growing into a kind of environmental ethics with the characteristics of the philosophy of organism, which can meet the requirements of sustainable development and responsible innovation, so that it may play its unique role in the era of globalization.
35. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Liu Yongmou, Wang Hao Zhuangzi’s Ecological Politics: An Integration of Humanity, Nature, and Power
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There is a problematic dichotomy of nature/power in Western ecological politics. In this article, we try to argue for a new type of ecological politics, based on Chinese Taoism, especially the idea of Zhuangzi, that can integrate humanity, nature, and power. Zhuangzi’s idea of “play with nature” constitutes a new kind of play-style view of nature. This view not only emphasizes the freedom and pleasure in everyday human practices with nature, but also proposes a way to deconstruct the rigid authority, symbolism, and ideology surrounding these practices. It thereby opens up an ecological politics with a play-style position, which can break down the mind’s fixations that are disciplined by power, of encountering situations as they emerge, and living with nature in a sincere and joyful manner.
36. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Wang Xiaowei Confucian Cosmological Life and its Eco-Philosophical Implications
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This article discusses a Confucian notion of cosmological life and its eco-philosophical implication. In contrast to the Kantian notion of the man who has exclusive moral worth, existing as the ultimate value-conferrer among beings, Confucian cosmological man understands his/her selfness through the lens of sacred unity with other beings. The modern ecological disaster is arguably caused by the reluctance to recognize the inherent value of nature, which is due to the anthropocentrism partly introduced by the enlightenment notion of humanity. The Confucian cosmological person worships the ultimate value of the cosmos as a unity of heaven, humans, and earth, and in so doing delivers genuine care for the environment, not for the sake of its instrumental but for its inherent value.
37. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Song Tian Why Does a Human, a Mammal, Have to Drink Milk of a Cow, Another Mammal?
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Why Chinese culture has turned to the use of cow’s milk needs to be reexamined. The reason given to the Chinese people is that the drinking of milk is scientifically supported. However, the actual drinking of cow’s milk has been and continues to be problematic for Chinese people since many have lactose intolerance. This problem leads to the larger question of why one might trust science for the answer all issues, especially when science is often working for corporate interests and not merely for truth.
38. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Gao Shan From Intrinsic Value to the Emotion of Wonder: The Paradigm Shift in the Construction of Chinese Environmental Ethics
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Since environmental ethics research started in China in the 1980s, it has been deeply influenced by environmental ethics theory in the United States. Some Chinese environmental philosophers have adopted the key concept of intrinsic value to construct Chinese environmental ethics. However, in recent decades, the concept of intrinsic value has been criticized by scholars in both the United States and China. Many Chinese have found that environmental ethics in the United States that is founded on the concept of intrinsic value is incompatible with Chinese philosophy and culture. They have begun a new effort that is aimed at developing a localized environmental ethics based on traditional Chinese philosophy. However, the Chinese scholars’ theoretical effort neglects the important concept of wilderness that is emerging from preservation and conservation practices in China. In this context, the emotion of wonder and its interrelationship with intrinsic value is the new paradigm for constructing a Chinese environmental ethics.
book reviews
39. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Eric Katz Autonomous Nature: Problems of Prediction and Control from Ancient Times to the Scientific Revolution
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40. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Per Sandin Plant Ethics: Concepts and Applications
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