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Volume 13, 2015
La Providence dans la pensée Grecque et sa première réception Arabe

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Displaying: 21-40 of 51 documents

21. Chôra: Volume > 13
Izabela Jurasz Dieu comme dêmiourgos et poiêtês des auteurs chrètiens du IIe siècle
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The article is dedicated to the study of the origins of Christian cosmogony. Christian authors of the 2nd century are known for their enigmatic or ambiguous positions on the issue. The problem concerns mainly the apologists, but it first appears in Ignatius of Antioch (†180) and continues in Bardesanes (†222). Although they all confess God as the Creator, their ways of presenting the act of creation are strongly marked by philosophical doctrines, primarily by Platonism, or by Stoicism in the case of Bardesanes. The Christian Creator receives the characteristics of a demiurge and an artisan. This approach has implications for the notions of universe and matter. But first and foremost, the idea of God as a demiurge and an artisan determines the role assigned to the Logos in the act of creation. Those concepts are later abandoned in favour of a doctrine based more on the Bible, but they give us a better understanding of the relationship between young Christianity and Platonism.
ii. dans la philosophie grecque et latine
22. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Mauro Bonazzi Numenio, il platonismo e le tradizioni orientali
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Contrary to what is often assumed since the seminal studies of Puech, I argue that Numenius’ interest in Oriental Wisdom is part of his Platonist stance. The most important testimony is fr. 1a des Places, which shows that Plato is not only the reference‑point but also the criterion and measure to judge the truthfulness of the other philosophical traditions and religions. Numenius’ dualism therefore can be explained as an attempt to preserve the transcendence of the first principle, the typical problem of Middle Platonists as opposed to Hellenistic philosophies such as Stoicism.
23. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Gretchen Reydams-Schils Calcidius on Matter : A Minimalist Dualism: (summary of presentation)
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Cette contribution est le résumé d’une communication sur la notion de la matiere dans le commentaire de Calcidius sur le Timée de Platon. Pour arriver a un dualisme minimal, Calcidius (a) combine des éléments d’Aristote, des Stoiciens, et de Numénius, mais (b) rejette la notion qu’il attribue aux Hébreux, certains aspects de la notion de Numénius, et d’une notion qu’il attribue a certains Platoniciens.
24. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Béatrice Bakhouche Le dualisme en question dans le Commentaire au Timée de Calcidius: (réponse a G. Reydams·Schils)
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Before I reply to the account of Gretchen Reydams‑Schils on the theory of matter in the Commentary on Timaeus by Calcidius, I would like to clarify the organization of various topics into the commentary. Nevertheless the first point will deal with the study of dualism in Plato’s dialogue. Then I will show that the cosmos works as a continuum and I will present the ‘symphonic’ composition of the Latin exegesis. About the matter‑hyle, I will try to link it with the soul.
25. Chôra: Volume > 13
Silvia Fazzo Verso una nuova editio minor della Metafisica di Aristotele
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iii. traditions «occultes»
26. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Zlatko Pleše Dualism in the Hermetic Writings
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L’article examine la tension qui existe entre tendances monistes et dualistes dans l'ancien hermétisme et propose de considérer que les écrits hermétiques, tout en opérant dans un cadre dualiste pluriforme (ontologique, cosmologique, anthropologique), soutiennent un modele moniste de la réalité issue d’une divinité transcendante et tout‑englobante. L’imposition d’un état d’esprit dualiste est typique pour les premieres étapes de l’initiation hermétique, suivies par un dépassement progressif de toutes les dualités (Aufhebung) et l’acquisition finale d'un point de vue totalisant et noétique du monde.
27. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Helmut Seng Πατρογενὴς ὕλη. Au sujet du dualisme dans les Oracles Chaldaiques
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The Chaldaean Oracles are works of Middle Platonist poetry in Greek dating from the late 2nd century AD and attributed to Julian the Theurgist, who may have produced them together with his father Julian the Chaldaean. Only fragments survive, most via late antique Neoplatonists, whose many and varied individual interpretations often deviate from any meaning possibly deducible from the primary text. The question of dualism in the Chaldaean Oracles can be seen from two perspectives. From an ethical point of view, man stands in the middle between the intelligible and the material and has to choose his way. The material world is described in negative terms as a kind of netherworld and a most dangerous dwelling‑place for man who is exposed to seduction by material pleasure and attacked by demons personifying the passions ; he should turn his mind towards the intelligible. From an ontological point of view, however, matter is not an autonomous (and evil) principle, but originates from the highest entity, the intelligible Father ; for this reason, it is called πατρογενής (although this might be an inference by the interpreters of the Oracles). Ethical dualism is thus combined with ontological monism. The Chaldaean notion of not two, but three worlds, material, ethereal, and fiery (= intelligible), as well as the idea that in special cases a material body might be transformed into an ethereal one, could be interpreted as a kind of mediation of the two positions.
comptes rendus
28. Chôra: Volume > 13
Filotheia Bogoiu Semantik und Ontologie, Drei Studien zu Aristoteles
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29. Chôra: Volume > 13
Matthieu Guyot Neoplatonisme. De l’existence et de la destinee humaine
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30. Chôra: Volume > 13
Alessandro Stavru Corpi di parole. Descrizione e fisiognomica nella cultura greca
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iii. traditions «occultes»
31. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Lucia Saudelli, Adrien Lecerf Matiere «issue du Pere» ou matiere «primordiale» ?: (réponse a H. Seng)
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In this response, we discuss Professor Seng’s proposal according to which the Chaldaean Oracles call the matter πατρογενής («derived from the Father») and not πρωτογενής («primordial»). We first explain the philosophical problem raised by this philological reading and we formulate an objection to it ; secondly, we take into consideration the Late Neo‑Platonic tradition as an eventual confirmation of the πατρογενής hypothesis.
comptes rendus
32. Chôra: Volume > 13
Luciana Cioca Cartea celor 24 de filosofi [Le livre des 24 philosophes]
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33. Chôra: Volume > 13
Andrei Marinca Uncertain Knowledge. Scepticism, Relativism, and Doubt in the Middle Ages
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iii. traditions «occultes»
34. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Cristina Viano Une substance, deux natures: les alchimistes grecs et le principe de la transmutation
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In Greek alchemical texts, the dualism plays different roles. This paper’s purpose is to apply the category of “dualism” to the fundamental principle of transmutation, designated by most alchemists as “divine water” or “sulphur water” (theion hudôr). The analysis of this notion highlights the necessary shift from colouration to transmutation, a capital question in alchemy. In fact, it is both one of the most important ambiguities in alchemy and the focus of the relationship between theory and practice.
comptes rendus
35. Chôra: Volume > 13
Ioana Curuţ Nicholas of Dinkelsbühl and the Sentences at Vienna in the Early Fifteenth Century
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36. Chôra: Volume > 13
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iv. dualismes dans les textes bibliques, gnostiques, chrétiens et hétérodoxes
37. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
David Hamidović Les dualismes dans les manuscrits de Qumrân
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Very early after the discovery of the first manuscripts of Qumran in Cave 1, the scholars were agree to describe the Essene world‑view as dualistic. The close study of each document reveals today a more complicated literary situation. The manuscripts of Qumran attest to three kinds of dualism : cosmic dualism, relative dualism, and human dualism. This taxonomy is not to take too strictly because the dualisms can be combined inside a text to reinforce and justify the Essene world‑view, especially the sectarian perspective. The combination is also a proof of the multiple state of dualism in Ancient Judaism. Moreover, we note the relationship between dualism and apocalypticism. The apocalyptical literature may be a source of diffusion of different types of dualism.
38. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Jean‑Daniel Dubois Gnose, dualisme et les textes de Nag‑Hammadi
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Gnostic studies in the XXeth century have been influenced by Hans Jonas’ The Gnostic Religion and his existentialist approach of Gnostic movements, until the discovery of the Coptic Nag Hammadi texts, in 1945, gave access to a series of documents coming from the Gnostics themselves. Progressively, the panorama of Gnostic sects and movements deeply changed, calling into question the notion of “dualism” used by the Church Fathers when refuting their Gnostic opponents. If Plotinus criticizes the Gnostic contempt of the world and their life without ethics, the recently commented texts from Nag Hammadi attest the use of the Platonic demiurge understood in the frame of the biblical version of the creation. The beauty of the world is not absent from Gnostic texts. The role of the Gnostic demiurge in documents like the Apocryphon of John or the Valentinian Tripartite Tractate, for example, shows that access to salvation is possible in a philosophical and theological system that is monistic. The heresiological category of “dualism” has too often hindered the study of the Gnostics which does not correspond to what the new documentation brings out.
39. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Luciana Gabriela Soares Santoprete L’éthique gnostique au‑dela du dualisme hérésiologique: (réponse a J.·D. Dubois)
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40. Chôra: Volume > 13 > Issue: Supplement
Daniel Marguerat Le corps, lieu de conflit entre l’esprit et la chair: Anthropologie paulinienne et dualisme
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Pauline anthropology is of a fundamentally Hebrew nature : the body‑σῶμα is a holistic concept that designates man as creature in the world. The body is the way “I” is present in the world : man does not have a body, he is a body. Portraying the whole person, the body is the “temple of the Holy Spirit”, the setting for a sacred presence that transcends humankind (1Cor 6 : 12‑20). However, this body is also the scene of a conflict between flesh and spirit. The flesh‑σάρξ concept does not apply to a part of man but to the whole of man as a precarious, fragile and mortal being. As such, the human being stands up as an enemy of God, taking his human condition on as the foundation of his values (Rom 8 : 5‑8). The Spirit‑πνεῦμα is God’s sphere of influence in the world, to which one becomes affiliated through his spirit. Flesh leads to death while the Spirit turns to life. These two forces compete for the human body. Yet, such a dualism is not by nature ontological but historical : one remains capable of choosing between remaining a prisoner of mortal flesh or letting the Spirit of God dwell in him (Rom 8 :10).