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101. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 2
Reviewers of Articles Published in 2015
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102. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 2
Note about Forum Philosophicum
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103. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Marcin Podbielski A Note from the Editor
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articles
104. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Paul Kabay Nonetheism: A Non-atheistic Account of a Non-existent God: A Non-atheistic Account of a Non-existent God
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I briefly defend a view I call nonetheism: the claim that God is a non-existent item. I develop a defense that might be acceptable to a theist, but I also note that arguments for atheism would also support this claim. As such, nonetheism is a form of theism that is actually supported by the case for atheism. I begin by showing that it is possible for there to be a non-existent object—that such an idea is coherent. I then argue that a non-existent item is actual and follow this with a defense of the coherency of claiming that God is a non-existent object. The paper concludes by demonstrating that the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo entailsthe non-existence of God and so any evidence in support of creation from nothing is evidence in support of nonetheism.
105. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Paul Kucharski Speaking Rationally About the Good: Karol Wojtyła on Being and the Normative Order
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In this paper, I explain and defend Karol Wojtyła’s claim that “if we wish to speak rationally about good and evil, we have to return to the philosophyof being. If we do not set out from such ‘realist’ presuppositions, we end up in a vacuum.” I begin by outlining Wojtyła’s existential understanding of the good,according to which the good for x is found in those ends that complete the being that is lacking in x, or that enhance its existence in keeping with its nature.(Here Wojtyła is drawing from, and building upon, Thomas Aquinas’s account of goodness and being.) Then I explain how Wojtyła moves from an existentialunderstanding of the good to the thesis that “exemplarism is the very heart of the normative order.” Finally, using representative thinkers from both the Continentaland Analytic traditions, I defend Wojtyła’s claim that when we divorce goodness from being we end up in a moral vacuum, in a kind of nihilism wherethe good signifies nothing other than the rationalized articulation of one’s subjective needs, desires, or wishes. In such a state, the only means for resolving moraldisagreements is through the consensus of the majority or the forceful rule of the strongest will.
106. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Leland Harper Epistemic Deism Revisited
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In 2013 I wrote a paper entitled “A Deistic Discussion of Murphy and Tracy’s Accounts of God’s Limited Activity in the Natural World,” in which I criticized the views of Nancey Murphy and Thomas Tracy, labeling their views as something that I called “epistemic deism.” Since the publication of that paper another,similar, view by Bradley Monton was brought to my attention, one called “noninterventionist special divine action theory.” I take this paper as an opportunityto accomplish several goals. First, I take it as an opportunity to clarify and correct some of my previous claims. Secondly, I present and analyze Monton’sview. And, finally, I discuss the similarities that Monton’s view holds with those of Murphy’s and Tracy’s and discuss how they all can be reduced to being partof the same family of ontological views which are, ultimately, implausible.
107. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Francis Jonbäck How to Be a Very Friendly Atheist Indeed
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Friendly atheists hold atheism to be true, and believe that theists may be rational when holding theism to be true. Theists may be rational, they claim, either because they lack the evidence for atheism, or because they are mistaken regarding the evidential force of the arguments for theism. Both these reasons canbe interpreted as suggesting that theists are making a mistake, and perhaps even that they are blameworthy for having made that mistake. In this paper, I arguethat friendly atheists might even say that the most intellectually oriented theists are rational and blameless for holding theism to be true. I give two reasons forthis. The first reason is based on the denial of doxastic voluntarism regarding at least some of our beliefs. Theists might not have voluntary control with respect totheir belief that God exists. The second reason is based on a meta-epistemological consideration. Often, we choose our epistemology by looking at paradigm examples of knowledge. Growing up in a theistic context might lead one to regard the belief that God exists as a paradigm example of knowledge, and a theist could be considered perfectly rational and blameless for doing so, even though they may be aware of reasonable arguments for atheism. With these odifications, I suggest that Friendly Atheism is very friendly indeed.
108. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Józef Bremer Mental Disorder or Creative Gift? The Cognitive Scientific Approach to Synesthesia
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In cases where one sense-modality is stimulated by another, we speak of synesthesia, i.e., of a subjective experience of multiple distinct sensations as being quite literally conjoined. The term “synesthesia” is derived indirectly from the Greek words “syn,” meaning “together,” and “aisthesis,” meaning “sensation.” This article focuses on the question of whether synesthesia is in fact a mental disorder or a creative gift. Both the commonsense views that have emerged in recent times, and neurological research, demonstrate that our knowledge of this relatively uncommon phenomenon is slowly but constantly expanding. Proper experimental research conducted with the right sorts of synesthete, and philosophically and scientifically nuanced conceptual studies of synesthesia, can all be helpful when seeking answers to the question posed above, while also confirming general claims about the extent to which our perceptions are reallysubjective. Most synesthetes see themselves as gifted, and claim that this “conjoining of the senses” enriches the quality of their lives.
book reviews
109. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Roman Darowski Jakub Gorczyca: Zarys etyki fundamentalnej; Być dla drugiego
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110. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Marek Lechniak Jason Stanley: Know How
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111. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Note about Forum Philosophicum
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articles
112. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Mark S. McLeod-Harrison Christian Feminism, Gender, and Human Essences: Toward a Solution of the Sameness and Difference Dilemma
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Christian feminist theory faces many stresses, some due directly to the apparent nature of Christianity and its seeming patriarchy. But feminism can also be thought inherent in Christianity. All people are made in God’s image. Christians should view women and men as equals, just as they should see peopleof all races as equals. The basic question discussed, within a biblical and philosophical framework, is if it possible for Christian feminist theory to hold thatthere is an essence to being a woman, being a man or being human all the while recognizing vast differences among women, among men and among human persons? I propose a beginning solution to this problem.
113. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Travis Dumsday Can Causal Chains Extend Back Infinitely? Entailment, Determinism, and a Cosmological Argument
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I develop a new argument to the effect that past causal chains cannot extend back infinitely, but must instead terminate in a first uncaused cause (or causes). It has the advantage of sidestepping a historically prominent objection to cosmological arguments of this general type, one leveled by Aquinas and various other Scholastics.
114. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Mikael Leidenhag Is Panentheism Naturalistic? How Panentheistic Conceptions of Divine Action Imply Dualism
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This paper will argue that panentheism fails to avoid ontological dualism, and that the naturalistic assumption being employed in panentheism underminesthe idea of God acting in physical reality. Moreover, given panentheism’s lack of success with respect to avoiding dualism, it becomes unclear to what extent panentheism represents a naturalistic approach in the dialogue between science and religion.
115. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Jonathan S. Marko Above Reason Propositions and Contradiction in the Religious Thought of Robert Boyle
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In this essay, I argue that Robert Boyle does not hold that true religion requires us to believe doctrines that are in violation of the law of noncontradictionor that it yields logical contradictions. Rather, due to the epistemological limitations of human reason, we are sometimes called to believe doctrines orpropositions that are at first blush contradictory but, upon further inspection, not definitively so. This holds for doctrines considered singly or together and is animportant qualifier to the traditional line of scholarship’s flat claim that Boyle’s limits of belief are logical contradictions. My conclusions here are at odds withJan W. Wojcik’s claim, in her important, revisionist work on the famous natural philosopher, that he teaches that sometimes we are required to believe religiousdoctrines that violate the law of noncontradiction.
116. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Sotiris Mitralexis Maximus the Confessor’s “Intelligible Creation”: Solving Contradictions on Imperishability and Corruptibility
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Saint Maximus the Confessor’s voluminous corpus constitutes a coherent and lucid philosophical and theological system, notwithstanding the existence of obscure, difficult, and at times even contradictory passages. A question stemming from Maximus’ work is whether the “intelligible creation” (noēte ktisis) is imperishable or corruptible, which would have important implications for a number of other issues like the created / uncreated distinction, Maximus’ relationshipto Neoplatonism, et al. However, Maximus provides us with contradictory passages concerning this subject, characterizing the noēte ktisis as both corruptibleand imperishable. While in certain passages of the Ambigua ad Ioannem he states that created intelligible beings move “according to corruption,” excludingthe possibility of natural incorruptibility for them, in other passages he states that the noēte ktisis possesses imperishability by nature, and not merely by grace. Inthis paper I will attempt to examine this apparent inconsistency on the basis of these two examples and to discuss which of both positions should be consideredas Maximus’ “primary” position.
book reviews
117. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Piotr S. Mazur Roman Darowski: Philosophical Anthropology; Outline of Fundamental Problems; Translated from Polish by Łukasz Darowski SDS
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118. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Marek Lechniak Józef Bremer: Osoba — fikcja czy rzeczywistość? Tożsamość i jedność ja w świetle badań neurologicznych [Persons: Fiction or Reality? The Identity and Unity of the “Self” in the Light of Neurological Research]
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119. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Reviewers of Articles Published in 2014
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120. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Note about Forum Philosophicum
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