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epistemology and cognition
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Elina Lasitscaya Э.В. Ласицкая
Cognition and its in Evolutionary Epistemology
Познание и его субъект в эволюционной эпистемологии

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The author investigates the content of the notion of subject from the evolutionary-epistemological point of view. She claims that evolutionary epistemology does not clarify this problem by itself and argues that this state of affairs raises a number of problems such as absolutization of adaptationism, biologism in knowledge, lack of a clear demarcation between animal cognition and human cognitive activity. It is argued that a man is the only subject of cognition in evolutionary epistemology. Inasmuch as person constructs and enriches the environment he becomes a pressure factor by himself. This claim is argued to counter the thesis of adaptation. So adaptationist interpretation of the evolution of human cognitive activity is insufficient. The phenomenon of environmental change through the development of cognitive abilities by the person is represented in society, communication and culture. Cognition is determined by anticipating the result of purpose. In this connection, the constructive activity of the cognitive person confronted with the limitations of her own cognitive capabilities and environmental restricting factors. Thus, the evolution of man is considered as self-development, which is carried out through the creative overcoming external and internal constraints through the constructive activity of the agent of cognition.
language and mind
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Petr Kusly П.С. Куслий
Philosophical Problems of the Binding Theory: Binding and Coreference in the Semantics of Reflexive Pronouns
Философские проблемы структурной лингвистики

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The paper discusses one of the central problems of contemporary formal semantics — counterexamples to the predictions of the theory of binding (due to N. Chomsky). In particular, the author addresses cases of the so-called coreferential readings of reflexive pronouns which are standardly predicted to receive only the bound reading. The author examines theories of T. Reinhart and I. Heim and suggests an extension ofthe latter theory in order to enable it to account for the aforementioned readings of reflexive pronouns.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Dimitris Kilakos Димитрис Килакос
How Could Vygotsky Inform an Approach to Scientific Representations?
Применение идей Выготского в исследовании проблемы научных представлений

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In the quest for a new social turn in philosophy of science, exploring the prospects of a Vygotskian perspective could be of significant interest, especially due to Vugotsky ’s emphasis on the role of culture and socialisation in the development of cognitive functions. However, a philosophical reassessment of Vygotsky's ideas in general has yet to be done.As a step towards this direction, I attempt to elaborate an approach on scientific representations by drawing inspirations from Vygotsky. Specifically, I work upon Vygotsky's understanding on the nature and function of concepts, mediation and zone of proximal development.I maintain that scientific representations mediate scientific cognition in a tool-like fashion (Like Vygotsky's signs). Scientific representations are consciously acquired through deliberate inquiry in a specific context, where it turns to be part of a whole system, reflecting the social practices related to scientific inquiry, just scientific concepts do in Vygotsky's understanding. They surrogate the real processes or effects understudy, by conveying some of the features of the represented systems. Vygotsky's solution to the problem of the ontological status of concepts points to an analogous understanding for abstract models, which should be regarded neither as fictions nor as abstract objects.I elucidate these views by using the examples of the double-helix model of DNA structure and of the development of our understanding of the photoelectric effect.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Sergei Kovalyov, Andrei Rodin С.П. Ковалев
Axiomatic Method in Contemporary Science and Technology: Pragmatic Aspects
Аксиоматический метод в современной науке и технике

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In 1900 David Hilbert announced his famous list of then-opened mathematical problems; the problem number 6 in this list is axiomatization of physical theories. Since then a lot of systematic efforts have been invested into solving this problem. However the results of these efforts turned to be less successful than the early enthusiasts of axiomatic method expected. The existing axiomatizations of physical and biological theories provide a valuable logical analysis of these theories but they do not constitute anything like their standard presentation,which can be used for transmission, evaluation, and justification of physical and biological knowledge. This state of theart in the axiomatization of physics is strong evidence that the standard notion of axiomatic theory stemming from Hilbert and Tarski is not appropriate for thet ask. However in the recent years in mathematics there emerged a new axiomatic approach best represented by the Homotopy Type theory (HoTT). We argue that the constructive axiomatic architecture used in HoTT has better chances to be successfully applied in physics as well as in computer science and engineering.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Lyudmila Markova Л.А. Маркова
On the Way to Transhumanism
На подступах к трансгуманизму

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Social Epistemology today is argued to allow an adequate formulation of questions for exploring the issues in the process of scientific cognition. A formulation of such questions is claimed to have been impossible in the framework of classical thinking. One such issue is claimed to be the theme of transhumanism which moved from the realm of science fiction to the sphere of rational discussion. The author argues that today philosophers and scientists are discussing the question whether material objects, both natural and man-made, can think. Obviously, the author continues, we cannot assume that the thinking of man-made devices is human. Material carriers of programs also differ radically by the type of their materiality from the human body and brain. But, the man is also changing in his communication with the machine, adapting to it. The process of thinking itself is argued to have become different, especially given that an increasing number of organs of the human body are now replaced with artificial ones. The author states that today one of the central problems of philosophy is what would result from such humanization of machines and mechanization of humans. This problem is argued to be open.
interdisciplinary studies
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Vasily Zuev В.В. Зуев
Methodological Programs of Modern Biological Taxonomy
Методологические программы современной биологической таксономии и перспективы ее развития

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The difficulties of the biological taxonomy development are argued to have been historically associated with two main problems: 1) the problem of searching for essential features which was unachievable within the framework of empiric taxonomy andcould be solved as a part of the mature theory; 2) the problem of developing of a model of the biological object the remedies of which were developed only in the XX century. The author argues that both problems are associated with the development of classificatory and system ontology and the relevant methodologies. The classificatory methodology from its inception is argued to have developed as a means of classification of biological diversity; furthermore it is claimed to have been assumed that the features representing classes possessed ontological nature that is they actually represent individual objects. The author concludes that taking into account the empiric nature of taxonomy that assumption turned to be false. In the modern taxonomy along with the classical approach a classificatory-system approach was developed. Fundamentally, it is a transition from the classical approach to the modern one which is held to imply the development of a system model of the study subject.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
William Whewell Уильям Хьюэлл
The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, Founded upon their History
Философия индуктивных наук, опирающаяся на их историю

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book reviews
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Igor Dzhokhadze И.Д. Джохадзе
Back to princeton: rereading rorty
Рорти в Принстоне: повторение пройденного

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The fifth volume of Richard Rorty's "Philosophical papers" published by Cambridge University Press, consists of the works which American philosopher wrote at the very dawn of his career in 1960s and early 1970s. In these essays Rorty addresses issues of transcendental argumentation, the internalism/externalism controversy, mind-body dualism and psychophysical monism, semantic truth, reference and justification. Supplemented by Daniel Dennett's Foreword, the book gives an excellent idea of Rorty's «analytical» writings and his evolution from eliminative materialism to pragmatism.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Galina Sorina Г.В. Сорина
Interdisciplinary Studies
Трансдициплинарные штудии

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The article provides analysis of the findings of the interdisciplinary studies presented in the book "Interdisciplinarity in Philosophy and Science: Approaches, Issues, Prospects" (edited by V. Bazhanov and R. Scholtz. M. : Navigator, 2015) published in 2015. In the paper, the collective monograph is described as the first Russian book on the interdisciplinarity issues which covers such abroad range of subjects and has been written with the participation of the leading foreign specialists in the field of interdisciplinarity. Specifics of philosophical issues of interdisciplinarity and issues of interdisciplinarity in science are analysed in the article following the authors ofthe book. The author ofthe article points out significance of education and educational environments the formation of the idea of interdisciplinarity itself. It is concluded in the paper that learning about the issues of interdisciplinarity might be usefulfor a broad range of scholars from a great variety of fields of scientific knowledge.