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Dialogue and Universalism

Volume 24, Issue 3, 2014
Philosophy: In Search for Knowledge and Ways of Life

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Displaying: 1-20 of 35 documents


philosophy on being
1. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Mikhail M. Prokhorov The Unity of Being and History as a Principle of Ontology, Gnoseology and Epistemology
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The principle of unity, interrelation of being and history is viewed here as a principle of ontology, gnoseology and epistemology, as a basis of updating philosophical outlooks, especially the problem of man and his relationship to the world (world-attitude). It is shown that consciousness was been interpreted in the context of a specific type of relations of man to the world. To overcome subjectivism a deep sense of objectivity of being and its development in relation to man is restored. A three-tier definition of being is given: substantive, attributive, and properly historical. The relationship of human activity to being and its development is explicated.
2. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Nathan M. Solodukho Situationality of Being: Principles
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In this paper, the author-developed conception of the “situationality of being,” i.e. the extension of the theory of the “philosophy of nonbeing,” is presented; the generalized definition of the notion “situation” is formulated; and the essence of the “situationality of being” is explained. The conception of the “situationality of being” makes it possible to develop the situational pattern of the world; in accordance with this conception, “the world is the situation of situations,” The world appears before us in the form of one gigantic situation due to the interaction of various situational factors of different level and different qualities, which lead in the long run to a certain situative dynamic balance (the so-called existent world).
philosophy on cognition
3. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Emiliya A. Tajsina An Advance to a New Theory of Cognition
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The theory suggested in the article is revealed in terms of existential materialism finding its source in Aristotle’s maxim that philosophy is a study of the essential unity of the grounds of being and consciousness. This theory still makes use of the old principle of reflection postulating the subject/object dyad. The here-proposed theory points out that there is not really a dyad, but a triad of a cognitive relationship: subject–language-object. To cope with the main epistemological problem of truth, we postulate that not only the paradigmatic, but also the syntagmatic axis be considered. The basic syntagma of gnoseology is contemplation on the absolute and relative in true knowledge, but not in a Hegelian way.
4. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Tatyana G. Leshkevich Major Directions of the Analysis of Epistemological Instruments
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The article examines the research of the innovative-oriented scenarios in modern methodology. The innovative-oriented epistemological instruments indicate an opposition between determinism and sociocultural constructivism. Methodology is understood in the context of the technology of activity which is projected onto the innovation sphere in the context of their genesis, adaptability, spread and consumption. The article conceptually analyses epistemological instruments; it considers positive and negative tendencies relating to NIBC (nano-, bio-, info-, cognitive) technologies. The author claims that the modern image of the world includes the sum of technologies which determine the world; the image of the possible future can be called “post-human.”
5. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Shane Ryan The Value of Knowledge
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In this paper I make the case that we should reject an argument that even knowledge of pointless truths has pro tanto final value. The argument draws on Greco’s virtue epistemological account of knowledge, according to which knowledge is an achievement and achievements have final value in virtue of being constitutive of the good life. I argue for my position by drawing on a case of knowledge of a pointless truth unlike previous cases of pointless truths discussed in the literature. This is a case in which knowledge of a pointless truth is very cheaply gained, and so it is a case in which the disvalue of the cost of gaining the knowledge cannot plausibly outweigh the supposed pro tanto final value of knowledge.
6. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Artur Karimov Analyticity and Modality
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In this paper I defend the concept of metaphysical analyticity, and argue for the notion of analyticity as truth in virtue of the reference determiner, introduced by Gillian K. Russell. Contrary to Russell, I try to show that necessary a posteriori statements are analytic under this notion. Also, I maintain that contingent a priori statements cannot be properly called analytic.
7. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Evgeniy Bubnov Truth in Religion, Science, and Postmodernism
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In this paper different approaches to the concept of truth are compared. Many changes in the concept of truth result in making it a zero notion. Similar processes are described in Max Müller’s conception of the genesis of religion. In this respect we suggest that postmodern philosophy should be treated as a new mythology.
8. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Timur N. Khalitov Sophistics and Its Modern Reading
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Whatever the theory of knowledge may be—classical, non-classical, or post-non-classical, idealistic or materialistic, dialectical or metaphysical—its core is always the question: “Is there absolute truth?” (which I doubt)—because I am (absolutely) convinced that there is relative truth, for it is obvious. In the last few decades post-non-classical views on truth, namely, relativistic have triumphed. Nowadays we witness a renaissance of theoretical paradoxes of sophistry that can lead, and often do lead to real social misfortunes. To avoid them, one has to consider how it all began in the times of classical ancient Greek philosophy. Such exploration is the aim of the present paper.
9. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Adel Ivanova, Valentin Pukhlikov The Heuristic and Methodological Potential of the Concept “Scientific Revolution”
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The concept of revolution in science is widely used in philosophy of science. We believe that the concept of revolution was borrowed from social-political literature and without any philosophical analysis was transferred to history of science. For this reason, attempts to transform that concept into an efficient instrument of building a theory of the development of scientific knowledge cannot be successful. This concept is nothing more than a metaphor for emphasizing empirical and theoretical discoveries of great significance in the history of science.
10. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Roman S. Kljujkov, Sergey F. Kljujkov Plato’s Philosophy of Cognition by Mathematical Modelling
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By the end of his life Plato had rearranged the theory of ideas into his teaching about ideal numbers, but no written records have been left. The Ideal mathematics of Plato is present in all his dialogues. It can be clearly grasped in relation to the effective use of mathematical modelling. Many problems of mathematical modelling were laid in the foundation of the method by cutting the three-level idealism of Plato to the single-level “ideism” of Aristotle. For a long time, the real, ideal numbers of Plato’s Ideal mathematics eliminates many mathematical problems, extends the capabilities of modelling, and improves mathematics.
philosophy on man, culture and social reality
11. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Mustafa I. Bilalov Ethnic Specification of Truth Interpretation
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The article examines the idea of constructing a truth theory that is ethnic and cognitive culture specific. To this task I use the hypothesis of ethnic and scientific mind. The substance and specifications of different ethnic minds and cognitive cultures are here described. According to the proposed conception, standard theories of truth are revised: correspondence, coherent, pragmatic, etc.
12. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Alsu F. Valeeva A Linguistic Paradigm of Ethnoreligious Traditions
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This article deals with the most significant versions of the confessional factor, acting in modern Russian society as a cultural resource of international consent. Analyzing the problem of confessional tolerance, the author traces the reflection of supporting religious values in communicative-speech space of the renewed society.
13. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Grigori V. Paramonov Language and Philosophy of Education
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The modern Russian linguistics still accepts V. V. Ivanov’s idea that there cannot be a unified (“uniform”) language for everybody. This view has a direct bearing on problems of education, especially mass education. Peculiarities of language for our contem-poraries arise; the main features of their “language behavior” are determined not only by the education system. It is not necessarily school. The centuries-old language experi-ence of family life, cultural traditions outside families, and, in addition, the quality of “near” and “distant” socio-cultural interaction influence people. Therefore, trying to adjust the language consciousness of pupils to the adopted system of education, the “nominative” Etalon, teacher often gains the opposite effect—strengthening of the forms of language (active, ergative or multi-structured), which he is striving to prohibit. But a multi-systemic multicultural society does not require each person to be the bearer of all possible forms. This requires a philosophy of education based on the modern philosophy of language that supports unprofane training and education and provides safety for the person.
14. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Mikhail D. Schelkunov Glamorous Education as a Phenomenon
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The glamorous culture affecting education gives rise to the phenomenon of glamorous education (glam-education). The main features of glam-education, concerning its substantial, communicative, valuable, organizational components, are discussed in this article. Glam-education is proved to be a demonstration of the personality’s existential crisis in the postmodern society. A brilliant package of glam-education camouflages the death of original thinking, the necrosis of genuine emotions and the lack of a productive imagination of a person.
15. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Athena Salappa-Eliopoulou Music Education and Kalokagathia in the Greek Antiquity
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Kalokagathia (καλοκαγαθία in ancient Greek) is the derived noun from the adjectives kalos k’agathos (καλός = beautiful, κἀγαθός = good or virtuous). The word was used by the ancient Greek writers and philosophers to describe the ideal of a person who combines physical strength and beauty along with a virtuous and noble character. It is the ideal of the personality that harmoniously pairs mind and body abilities and virtues, both in battle and in the activities of the everyday life. Its use is attested in many Greek writings (among them those of Xenophon, Plato and Aristotle), while the notion of kalokagathia imbued the moral thought in antiquity.
16. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Marina Zajchenko, Elena Yakovleva Characteristics of Recursive Structures of Modernity
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The focus of the authors’ interest is recursion, serving as one of the principles of design and existence of hierarchical systems. Its features are among others the infinite self-transformation associated with the return and playback based on the algorithm of its own unfolding, by analogy, which ensures the movement inward, on the basis of which complication of the system takes place. This method is quite common in cultural space, giving rise to a situation of multiplicity of values and interpretations.
17. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Irina V. Solovey Discourse Strategies of Individuals in Biopolitics Structures
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18. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Elena Yakovleva Epatage as an Element of the Media Performance of Modernity
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The subject of this article is epatage, widely spread in modern culture thanks to digital technologies. Today epatage associated to media performance is deliberately constructed, imposing mass consumerism with a ready-made-fictional image, and operating “anti-values.” There are a lot of causes of the existence of the epatage image which violates certain cultural codes. Meanwhile epatage can be described as a response to certain objective and subjective calls. As a peculiar form of culture, epatage contains both positive and negative pulses.
19. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Antonina N. Samokhvalova Philosophy of the Early Stoics: the Related as a Tentative Constituent of the Scope of Incorporeal
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The article considers the scope of the early Stoics’ notion of “incorporeal” and the ontological concept of the incorporeal as being incapable of interacting with bodies. First, an interpretation is proposed that the incorporeal is an important part of the con-cept of meaningful conduct of Homo sapiens, as one can trace its direct relationship with his assents, desires and expectations as the elements preceding action. Second, a reconstitution has been suggested, one showing that in the scope of the incorporeal the Stoic system has a concurrent “as is said” type of predicate, or lekton.
20. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Hülya Şimga Judith Butler and an Ethics of Humanization
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This paper argues that the question of the human is a major concern in Judith Butler’s philosophy. I believe that although this concern is more visible in her relatively recent works on ethics and politics, in her earlier works it is always in the background. I read Butler as a deep thinker on the nature of the human, and argue that her thoughts on ethics and politics should be read as a (non-utopic) yearning for a human condition where a collectively inhabitable world becomes possible. This paper will explore the question of the human as Butler discusses this in its relation to intelligibility, critique, and the opacity of the subject not only to understand the terms of dehumanization but also to offer ways of conceptualizing a more humane world.