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Displaying: 1-20 of 404 documents


1. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Nerijus Stasiulis Visual Communication in the Politico-Cultural Sphere
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The article reviews the developing studies of visuality with respect to their own focus on cultural and political fields in which visual communication unfolds. I found that that some of the academic interests related to visuality can be located within the broader or intersecting field of cultural and political studies and provide successful tools of analysing and describing the communicational interactions within local communities situated in broader contexts of mobility. Some light is shed on the visualisations of the current condition of the nation-state with respect to globalizing or Europeanising tendencies. Also, I discuss a more general impact of mobility and novel visualisations of the public and cultural sphere.
2. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Carlo Alvaro The Incoherence of Moral Relativism
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This paper is a response to Park Seungbae’s article, “Defence of Cultural Relativism”. Some of the typical criticisms of moral relativism are the following: moral relativism is erroneously committed to the principle of tolerance, which is a universal principle; there are a number of objective moral rules; a moral relativist must admit that Hitler was right, which is absurd; a moral relativist must deny, in the face of evidence, that moral progress is possible; and, since every individual belongs to multiple cultures at once, the concept of moral relativism is vague. Park argues that such contentions do not affect moral relativism and that the moral relativist may respond that the value of tolerance, Hitler’s actions, and the concept of culture are themselves relative. In what follows, I show that Park’s adroit strategy is unsuccessful. Consequently, moral relativism is incoherent.
3. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Peina Zhuang Renewed Anthropocenic Body Narrative in The Anthropocene
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The participation of humanists, artists and social scientists has added much impetus to the study and story of the "anthropocene". Zhao Defa, the contemporary Chinese writer, is one of the pacesetters in this regard. His inspiration from the concept of the "anthropocene" transforms the body narrative in the novel The Anthropocene. This article argues that the changed triad of body narrative, or more specifically, the highly encoded bodily metaphors, the function of body in narrative and the relation between nature and body, succeeds in modelling a body charged with ballooning desires in the "anthropocene", which constitutes the humanity's the existential basis and the very cause of the "anthropocene", and if not hurdled, will bring fatal catastrophe to this planet.
4. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Gede Marhaendra Wija Atmaja, Ida Ayu Arniati, Gede Yoga Kharisma Pradana Bhineka Tunggal Ika as Source Politics and Identity of Indonesian Culture in The Formation of Law
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The purpose of this study seeks to analyze the problem of Unity in Diversity as a Source of Politics and Cultural Identity of the Indonesian Nation in Legal Formation. In general, the process of establishing customary, national, regional and international law in various parts of the world no one knows even uses Bhineka Tunggal Ika as the source of legal formation. However, often the formation of law in Indonesia refers to the philosophical meaning of Unity in Diversity. The formulation of the research problem: 1) What are the markers of Unity in Diversity in Legal Formation?; 2) Why is Bhineka Tunggal Ika so important in the Formation of Law in Indonesia?; 3) Is there a contribution of Bhineka Tunggal Ika in the formation of customary law? This research was completed using qualitative methods. All data in this study are descriptive which have been collected directly or indirectly. Data acquisition is optimized through a literature study. All data were analyzed qualitatively to solve the research problem. The results showed that: 1) Unity in Diversity can be a marker of Indonesian national cultural identity in Legal Pluralism; 2) Bhineka Tunggal Ika in the formation of state law is considered relevant as a political source that is able to accommodate Customary Law and Religious Law into State Law; 3) Unity in Diversity as the identity of Indonesian Nation Culture, as well as political sources, has contributed in the spirit of the formation of Customary Law in the midst of the times.
5. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Hazel T. Biana Philosophizing About Clutter: Marie Kondo’s The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up
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With its own Netflix program, Marie Kondo's The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up has received a huge cult following. Considering that clutter sweeps 21st century daily living, what this paper aims to do, is to unravel the philosophical foundations of Kondo's work. Considering the trendiness of the KonMari method, one wonders why and how decluttering modern homes and one's day-to-day existence inspires certain profound reflections and raises social criticisms. Through a sweeping review of Kondo's tenets, this paper tackles common philosophical themes such as joy, human existence, happiness, the environment and extension.
6. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Reena Cheruvalath Analysing the Concept of "Paradox" in the Liar Paradox Arguments
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This paper examines the concept of "paradox" in the Liar paradox. The paradox in the "Liar Paradox" arguments is created with the support of law of contradiction. Four arguments consist of different versions of the Liar paradox are analysed. The author explains the issues related to communication, beliefs and the principle of identity in the various arguments of the Liar paradox leading to inconsistencies. There are ambiguities in these arguments and if the ambiguities are removed, then there is no contradiction which constitutes the paradox. Thus, the "paradox" in the "Liar Paradox" arguments is questionable.
7. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Mohd Faizal Bin Musa Shia Influence in the Axiology of Malay Culture
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Over the years, there are various research on cultural development seen from socio-historical perspective. The uniqueness of Islam in Malay region as it is diverse and open to outside influences is important to be look at; as it differs greatly from "the Islam" that have been practiced in the Middle East. Based on the discussions, the ulemas or Muslim clerics of this region and the Malays themselves have already practiced the supra-madhhab model as proposed by many contemporary scholars. Using Shia influences in the Malay culture, this paper attempt to show how sectarianism within Islam was never entertained by the Muslims in this region. In fact, Shi'ism was so embedded in Malay culture. Although being dominated by Sunnism, most of the Shia doctrines and pillars were widely accepted and embraced. The axiology of Shi'ism in Malay culture reflected in many religious texts, classical literature and cultural events. However, as sectarianism rising in this region, the Shia influence and its axiology slowly eroded and were victimized by unnecessary foreign interventions.
8. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Vilija Targamadzė, Vaida Asakavičiūtė, Vilija Grincevičiene Generation Z: Modus Vivendi (The Case of Lithuania)
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The novelty of this paper is that modus vivendi of 13-14 year old teenagers is viewed from the perspective of the new generation Z teachers. Teachers, belonging to the same generation as students, participated in the qualitative study and ex-pressed their opinions on the modus vivendi of 13-14 year old teenagers. This age range was selected specifically because it is close to the generational boundary of generation Alpha. Teachers from generation Z were purposefully selected as informants, since the researchers noticed a difference in modus vivendi of generation Z members closer to the generation Alpha and the older ones. The study is based on the methodological attitude of social constructivism. Its essence lies in perceiving that individuals construct their own personal understanding and it is not the mirror of their acquired knowledge. It is constructed on the basis of attitudes, experience, relationships between people, things and events. The aim of the study is to elucidate modus vivendi of teenagers from generation Z, as viewed by the teachers from generation Z. The paper contains the results of the conducted qualitative study and formulated conclusions.
9. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
I Wayan Mudra, Anak Agung Gede Rai Remawa, I Komang Arba Wirawan Wayang Kamasan Painting and Its Development in Bali’s Handicrafts
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The puppet arts in Bali can be found in the wayang Kamasan painting at Kamasan Village, Klungkung Regency. This painting inspired the creation and development of new handicraft in Bali. The objectives this research: 1. To find the wayang Kamasan painting in Klungkung Regency; 2. To find the development of handicraft types in Bali inspired by wayang Kamasan painting. This research used a qualitative descriptive approach, and data collection by observation, interview, and documentation. The results that wayang Kamasan painting is estimated to have existed since the reign of the ancient Bali kingdom, which was during the reign of King Dalem Waturenggong in Semarapura Klungkung. The wayang Kamasan painting character painted on a canvas with a light brown base color, stiff, two-dimensional, and the description follows the applied standards. The figures depicted taken from Ramayana and Mahabharata story. The Balinese handicrafts inspired by wayang Kamasan painting include ceramics, wovens such as sokasi/keben (basket made of woven bamboo), keris sheath, dulang (trays), bokor (bowls), guitars, beruk (coconut shell containers), and others. The authors expect in the future the wayang Kamasan painting can survive, and emerges the world's concern for its preservation.
10. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
I Wayan Adnyana The Scene of a Woman Grabbing a Horse’s Tail in Yeh Pulu Relief, and Its Connection to Panji Narrative: The Basis of Contemporary Painting Creation
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The study of the scene of a woman grabbing the tail of a horse ridden by a male figure in Yeh Pulu relief is the author's basis of concept in the creation of contemporary painting. Before the concept was discovered, a study was conducted of the scenes in the relief based on Panofsky's iconological theory and three stages of analysis, namely pre-iconography, iconography, and iconology. The attempt to connect the Panji narrative with the scene of a woman pulling a horse's tail aims to enrich the analysis of the interpretation. Both the narration and the scene revolve around a love story of two people separated by distance and time. The Panji narrative tells about a love story between Raden Galuh (Rangkesari), a princess of Daha Kingdom and Prince Panji, the crown prince of Kahuripan Kingdom, who have long been separated before they finally reunite at the end of the story. The scenes in the Yeh Pulu relief revolve around everyday heroism (which includes a love story). This connection is framed as a post-iconological interpretation, which results in three concepts of art creation: reframing, recasting, and globalizing.
11. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Eun Kyeong Yun, Hee-Yul Lee, Dong-Hwan Kim Is Halal Certification Necessary for Exporting to Islamic Countries?: Focus on OIC Countries
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Halal means permissible or lawful in Arabic and is applied to both the religious and daily life of Muslims. Islamic Law Shariah requires Muslims to consume halal products only. But with the expansion of supply chains around the world and the development of many new products, Muslim consumers have found it difficult to confirm whether food is halal or not. Also, as many foods are produced in non-Muslim countries and exported to Muslim countries, interest in halal certification in non-Muslim countries is increasing. With several Islamic countries strengthening their halal certification regulation for import in recent years, there is no accurate information on whether halal certification is necessary to export to Muslim countries or the Islamic State, and is lack of clear study of the definition of the Islamic State. Therefore, in this research, we will investigate the constitution and food import regulations of the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states, called the Union of Islamic States, to study the definition of Islamic State and whether halal certification is necessary for food exports.
12. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Qiuqi Li The Confucian Approach to Justifying Human Rights: Beyond the Opposition between Universality and Particularity
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In the discussion whether Confucianism supports human rights, it is necessary to distinguish between the content and the form of human rights. Regarding the content of human rights, only the normative texts in Confucianism can contribute to the discussion. Even though Confucianism concedes that people are equal in nature, this equality is restricted in certain areas of normative justification. Regarding the form of human rights, the Confucian idea of graded love is against the universal nature of human rights. However, the pre-ontology of Heidegger shows us how graded love can actually be the ground of the Confucian approach to universality, which overcomes the opposition between universality and particularity within Western metaphysics. Therefore, in the Confucian approach to universality, graded love can be the motivation to universalizing of human rights. Moreover, as the Confucian approach to universality is not a principle that transcends all particularities, it helps construct an inclusive form of human rights.
13. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Jiang Sun Preface: Koselleck’s Theses (These) and Transcultural Conceptual History
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14. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Donglan Huang The Concept of “Asia” in the Context of Modern China
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As a part of the geographical knowledge introduced by Matteo Ricci from the West into China at the beginning of the 17th century, the concept of “Asia” had undergone a cool reception for over three hundred years and did not become a common idea of world geography until the early 20th century when it was publicized by textbooks and other mass media. As the author points out, Asia is not merely a geographical concept, but also refers to history, culture, and politics. Although early Western missionaries and Chinese scholar-officials like Wei Yuan endowed Asia with a positive meaning as the origin of world civilization, from the mid-19th century on, Chinese intellectuals, out of a sense of crisis caused by the European invasion of Asia, tended to describe Asia as a backward continent subjugated by the white people. In the 1910s, against the background of Japan’s annexation of Korea, Asia was divided into two opposing parts, “the country invading other countries” (Japan) and “the countries being invaded by other countries” (India, Korea, and China). Along with the occupation of other Asian countries by Japan in the name of “the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere” in the 1930s and 1940s, the concept of Asia also lost its charm among Chinese nationals.
15. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Jiang Sun “Overcoming Modernity” in Asia?: A Critical Review
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Discussing the issues of “Asia,” Takeuchi Yoshimi’s discourse of “Overcoming Modernity” (近代超克) has received broad attention among the international community of scholars. Commentators try to identify the ideological elements of this discourse that, as they hope, could help to solve post-modern problems. After analysing Takeuchi’s understanding of the war and its context, this paper shows that his discourse of “overcoming modernity” has an anti-historical tendency, which stems from the ideological ambiguity of his attitude towards the question of who was responsible for the war.
16. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Jingdong Yu Transition in Knowledge of Chinese Geography in Early Modern Europe: A Historical Investigation on Maps of China
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During the 17th and 18th centuries, European investigations into Chinese geography underwent a process of change: firstly, from the wild imagination of the classical era to a natural perspective of modern trade, then historical interpretations of religious missionaries to the scientific mapping conducted by sovereign nation-states. This process not only prompted new production of maps, but also disseminated a large amount of geographical knowledge about China in massive publications. This has enriched the geographical vision of Chinese civilization while providing a new intellectual framework for Europeans to understand China. Concurrently, it has formed another route for the travel of knowledge and intercultural interactions between the East and the West. Those interactions between space and knowledge have been reflected in the production, publication and dissemination of numerous maps of China in early modern Europe.
17. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Xiaobo Lu The Introduction of Minbenzhuyi and the Return of Its Traditional Chinese Meaning
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The concepts of Minben 民本, Minbensixiang 民本思想, and Minbenzhuyi 民本主义 are rather popular in current Chinese discourse. However, “Minben” was hardly found in Chinese ancient literature as a noun. Around the year of 1916, “Minbenzhuyi” became widely accepted in Japanese intellectual circles, interpreted as one of the Japanese versions of democracy. In 1917, “Minbenzhuyi” was transferred to China as a loanword by Li Dazhao and developed into one of the Chinese definitions of democracy. Nevertheless, Chen Duxiu questioned the meaning of the term in 1919. It was not until 1922 did Liang Qichao bring Minbenzhuyi back into Chinese context and conduct a systematic analysis, which had a lasting impact on Chinese intellectual community. In the following 20 years, Minbenzhuyi was largely accepted in two different senses : 1) interpreted as Chinese definition of democracy; 2) specifically refers to the Confucian idea of “Minshiminting and Minguijunqing” (民视民听, 民贵君轻). Gradually, it became evident that Minbenzhuyi in China had grown distant from the meaning of democracy and returned to its traditional Confucian values.
18. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Yinli Ge The Earliest Chinese Translation of Kropotkin’s Mutual Aid
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In 1908, the first and second chapters of Kropotkin’s Mutual Aid were first translated into Chinese by Li Shizeng, greatly influencing Chinese anarchists. Li Shizeng followed Kropotkin’s scientific argument of anarchism and strengthened the viewpoint for praising “public” and suppressing “private”. When translating Kropotkin’s thoughts, Li Shizeng focused on political revolution, glossing over the criticism of the capitalist economy, and barely referenced Kropotkin’s original anarchist communist ideology.
19. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Ke Zhang The Concept of Rendaozhuyi in Late Qing and Early Republican China
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This paper examines the concept of Rendaozhuyi in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Appearing as early as 1903, Rendaozhuyi is the Chinese rendering of both humanism and humanitarianism. For the Chinese intellectuals during the Late Qing and Early Republican period, “rendao” itself represented a modern value of humanity and human dignity. In the wake of the Great War, Rendaozhuyi gained tremendous popularity among the May-Fourth scholars. Some of them held it up as a universal ideal and tool to critique Chinese tradition, while others respectfully disagreed, worrying it would undermine the collective morale of “strengthening the nation”. Finally, the late 1920s saw the rapid ebb of the discussions of Rendaozhuyi. Keywords: Rendaozhuyi, humanism, humanitarianism, conceptual history
20. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 16 > Issue: 2
Xinhui Min Preaching the Gospel in China: Changes in the Concept of “Gospel” since the 17th Century
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This paper focuses on the change of the meaning of “gospel” in Chinese context since the 17th Century. In the late Ming dynasty, Catholic missionaries were the first to translate “gospel” into Chinese with their writings about the Bible. Then the term became intermingled with traditional Chinese belief of seeking blessings. After the ban on Christianity imposed by the Emperor Yong Zheng, Chinese Catholics hid their faith and disguised it as Buddhism, Taoism and folk religions. At the end of the 19th century, “gospel” was connected to colonialism and became a trigger for Sino-Western conflict. The critique of and hostility toward the term abruptly arose. In the 20th century, “gospel” turned into a new concept, which went beyond its religious connotation and gradually referred to all kinds of “good news”.