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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Miguel Angel Carrillo Lacayo Let the Beggars Die
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All around the world, but especially in the Third World, we are confronted by beggars who appeal to our sympathy. Most of us have no principled way to deal with the situation. Should we give to them? How much? To what purpose? We are inclined to let our momentary feelings dictate our response. Although applied ethicists have been tackling the general question of poverty in the world and what we ought to do, if anything, to alleviate it, nobody seems to have taken an interest in the specific part of the general question which involves mendicity. This paper argues, firstly, that the question of our duties, if any, towards beggars demands a reasoned answer, and secondly, that careful reasoning indicates that we should channel the resources we are ready to give to beggars not tothem directly but rather to charities, for they have more and better information on who can and should be helped.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Nesy Daniel Indian Ethics and Contemporary Bioethical Issues
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Two fundamental problems in all thought can be identified: One, life and world affirmation and second, life and world negation. Indian approach is characterized as the second and hence it is claimed that moral problems have not been persistently pursued and successfully tackled in India. Points like the advaita concept of liberation, law of karma, the system of social stratification, stages of life and duties associated with them are picked up to show that theIndian system is ethically bankrupt. But along with the science of salvation, the science of statecraft (arthasastra) and four objectives of human life are emphasized. The two functions of knowledge namely, theoretical and practical (arthaparicchiti and phalaprapti) referring to fact and value are recognized and it is held that knowledge of facts lead to the pursuit of values. Value is taken as the ‘object of desire’. The concept of svadharma and ahimsa are basic to it. The ‘ought of ethics’ (Dharma) is foundational to all Indian thought. A comprehensive value system consisting of spiritual, moral, material and social values and the distinction between instrumental and intrinsic values are recognized. Contemporary ethical issues relating to human rights and women, suicide, abortion and the host of problems thrown open by science and biotechnology find proper place in it.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Tomás Domingo Moratalla, Agustín Domingo Moratalla The Applied Ethics of Paul Ricoeur
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The latest philosophy of P. Ricoeur offers the opportunity to articulate an applied ethic responsive to the challenges of our time. This proposal is basically collected in his book The Fair 2, which compilates several works and makes cohesion of core issues of practical philosophy. Published a few years before his death, this work of Paul Ricoeur completes the itinerary of a moral and political philosophy devoted to the theme of justice. Extends and develops the works included in The Fair 1 (Caparrós, Madrid, 1999) and Love and Justice (Caparrós, Madrid, 1993). He starts from an original sense of justice where "the right thing" does not arise as a name or an abstract category, but as a nominalized adjective. This is not an abstract value but a value whose scope, accuracy and sense depends on its realization in the unity of human life. Retrieving the original sense already appeared in the Socratic dialogues of Plato, The Fair describes, defines and fulfils the praxis of justice. This analysis is productive in applied ethics because sets out the "application" in an originative and original way. It is not an activity posterior or outside the foundation, but an exercise of philosophical interpretation and moral creativity. By understanding applied ethics in this way, we findthrough The Fair the central issues of the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur: an anthropology of the capable human being, a hermeneutics of action and imagination, a reconstruction of the history of practical philosophy, and also an ethic of fair distance. This hermeneutics of The Fair as applied ethics is the leitmotif of the three parts of the book: studies, readings and exercises. He continues discussion with the contemporary moral philosophy (Rawls, Taylor, Apel and Habermas), placing it in a new philosophical perspective, for two reasons: First, it broadens the historical horizon retaking the Aristotelian matrix of moral philosophy (prudential wisdom, truth, goodness), and secondly, because Ricoeur opens up unexplored horizons for an personalist and communitarian anthropology in times of globalization (critical solicitude, transculturality, hospitality). We would like to present the creative possibilities offered by this hermeneutical philosophy to think, as Ortega y Gasset says, "at the height of our time".
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Susan T. Gardner Agitating for Munificence or Going out of Business: Philosophy’s Dilemma
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If you cannot, then you ought not. Taking its own precepts seriously, philosophy, in the face of scientific deterministic success, has abandoned its original calling of inspiring munificence and, in doing so, has undercut much of its own relevance. But this need not be the case. If we adopt a more finely grained set of theoretical glasses, we will see that human freedom is simply the icing on a deterministic layer cake that launches entities, both phylogenetically and ontogenetically, from the object base, through consciousness, and then through self-consciousness, and finally to the possibility of reasonably based self-legislation. Greasing the wheels of the last step is Philosophy’s calling and responsibility. We can—and we ought because we can—fall inline with the Socratic echo, and agitate for munificence.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Debashis Guha Is Structuralism Unavoidable in the Application of Ethics?
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Serious thinking about the models of application of ethics has enabled us to move away from ethical engineering and adopting a social-scientific vocation that is an aid to moral-engineering. Time is ripe to rethink about the charge of “structuralism” on the non-engineering model of applied ethics. If we fail to resolve this issue, a structuralist application of ethics will be unavoidable, leading way to the old engineering. The paper argues why “structuralism” is undesirable and how it is avoided in a model of discourse, that clears off engineering of any kind.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Yogesh Chandra Gupta The Place of Ethics in Business: A Critique
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The paper aims to reflect upon the significance of interrelationship of ethics and business in multinational corporate world. The issue of focus is: Which is appropriate course for pursuing business without ethics or business with ethics? To arrive at a just resolve, the paper attempts to see the pros and cons of introducing ethics into business. The pivotal problem seems to lie with regard to the concept of 'profit making' in business. Business corporates are apprehensive of not being able to earn 'maximum'-profit if business activity is pursued with moral considerations. On the other hand, those who argue for ethics in business emphasize that ethical values are prior to 'maximization' of profit making. On their view, the point of emphasis is that it is after-all human beings for which business activity is carried out. As such, business (must) is to 'serve' them rather than make them 'suffer'. By the term 'human beings', we mean here the concept of 'society' and not 'individual'-in-isolation from other individuals. Nevertheless, to mean this, it is not to deny the fact that individual is a species of society. Also, it is defensively argued that the apprehension that ethical behaviour negatively affects profit making in business is not true on the ground that contrarily in fact ethical attitude is really consistent with rather than obstructive to business pursuit for a healthy society and abhyudaya (i.e., for rise and prosperity for all). Hence the case for ethics in business.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Celine Kermisch Cultural Theory, Risk, Rationality and Ethical Implications
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This paper intends to highlight the philosophical and ethical implications of cultural theory as initiated in the seventies by the British anthropologist, Mary Douglas. The first part will present cultural theory, mainly through her early works. We will particularly insist on the originality of this functionalist theory based on four interpersonal relationships patterns – defined according to grid and group dimensions – and their associated cultural biases, namely the egalitarian bias, the hierarchical, the insulated and the individualist one. In the second part of our study, we will show that in each of these biases, people behave and perceive differently and we will concentrate on these differences regarding risk. Finally, we will focus on one essential implication of this theory, its conception of rationality. Indeed, cultural theory implies a framework of plural rationalities, which is of paramount importance if we consider its ethical consequences. We will try to lighten these and show how it might influence risk management.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Sambalkhundev Khash-Erdene, Vladimir Krasikov Ecological Humanism and Stable Development
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Ecological humanism is a new broadened form of human ethics that coming into being as an answer to an ecological crisis and an ideology of total consumption. There are two approaches in basing of ecological humanism. The first of them is founded on traditional human values or on anthropocentrism. Milieu is considered as important living conditions that must be conserved with great care but the number of one is man here. The second approach is more radical. It strives to overcome anthropological egoism and is based on Earth-altruism. Its credo can be presented as general weal for all geobiocoenosis. Good is all that helps to preserve integrity, stability and beauty of Earth-community. Stable development can be defined as safeguarding of human living inharmony with ecological systems. As it is well known, 57-th session of UNO announced that 2005-2014 years will be devoted to a program of education for stable development. The Mongolian Government asseverated a national program of ecological education for Mongolia from 1997. Its main object was a forming of common ecological culture for stable development. This program provided:‐ ecological training for common life‐ laying organizing structures and law grounds‐ co-ordinating tacks of stable development with other national projects‐ including ecological knowledge in educational programs.We think also that there is need to elaborate new human ethics that could provide new common living culture for Mongols. There is ecological ethics or ecological humanism that, above all, will remove a tradition of human predominance over nature and establish equality between human beings and animate nature.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Dan Lin, Xiaonan Hong Science Ethics’ Problem and Strategic Response in World Risk Society
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As we can see, the side effects caused by the continuous development of science and economy have gradually brought human society into a risk society. While currently, the power of globalization is unceasingly forming a world risk society. German renowned philosopher and sociologist Ulrich Beck has opened a unique and novel researching angle to review science difficulty and abuse of modern world risk society, and has made comprehensive and profound analysis. World risk society has three main characters: First, the emergence of the world risk society is linked to the two fundamental changes still influencing our lives, which is the so-called “end of nature” and “end of tradition”. Second, in world risk society, mankind lose their dependence on “expert system”. The religion is replaced by the concept uncertainty and uncontrollable. In addition, there are other series of problems and abuses between world risk society and traditional society. The prime mover of social changes in world risk society exists in the side effects instead of the instrumental ration in traditional times, etc. The problem in world risk society’s science ethics are as follows: First, expansion of ration. It is mankind’s extreme confidence in ration that causing unlimited development of technology and exploitation of resources. Thus almost everywhere in nature becomes man‐made nature. Second, rupture of knowledge. From “knowledge is virtue and virtue isknowledge” (Socrates) to “knowledge is power” (Bacon), now “knowledge is money” (Bacon). Third, displacement of science value. In traditional society, science research is scientists’ personal interests. Now science research turns its target to meeting social needs, and scientists gain more profits from the technologicalproducts directly. Beck has raised the theory of risk society, and attempted to use “reflexive modernity” as the strategic plan to respond the global consequence of modern science crisis, and expressed revelatory viewpoint on diagnosis of the essential of “reflexive modernity”. Similarly, Lash emphasizes risk culture toremind human to pay attention to the ecological threat and risk. In addition, Bauman and Habermas also have some statements, etc. So my conclusion is, we should consider the autonomy of science development and its inherent relationship with economic interests. In addition, what we concern is the science dual identity of both defendant and expert. Also, the public’s understanding of the uncertainty provides a space for democratization.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Willem Moore Applying Applied Ethics through Ethics Consulting in Bioethics
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In Rethinking Applied Ethics Today, this paper would like to advance the concept of Ethics Consulting as a means of applying Applied Ethics in the practice of Bioethics. Applied Ethics is frequently described as a discipline of Philosophy that concerns itself with the application of moral theories such as deontology andutilitarianism to real world dilemmas. These applications however often remain restricted to the academic world and rarely reach the actual practice of those in urgent need of ethical guidance. Ethics Consulting is an emerging concept in the field of Applied Ethics, but has already shown great potential in extending the gains of academic thought to everyday deliberations on ethical dilemmas. Connected to the Coherence and Common-Morality Theories in Bioethics, the focusof Ethics Consulting has since the mid-1980’s shifted from issues of content to those of process - from what the ethicist knows to what the ethicist does or enable. This shift not only remodelled the ethicist’s role to that of a facilitator in an inherently social process of moral inquiry, but also added the responsibility of keeping moral reflective spaces open where sound and shared processes of ethical deliberation can take place. Applying these developments in the Namibian context has already proved to be of great value to patients and Medical Aid Funds and also holds great potential in addressing the ethical demands placed on medical practitioners and clinics.