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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
David Pérez Chico Philosophy as the Recovery of the Ordinary
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After centuries of philosophical explorations of the remote and the elevated, in our work we give credibility to the possibility that the time has come for philosophy to conquer back the ordinary. Nor only we assume this, but we would also conclude that the main task of philosophy is the recovery of the ordinary (world). A task that also helps to understand what philosophy is or should be or could be. We intend to explore philosophy traditional reluctance to the ordinary and its tendency to look for answers far from it explaining the reasons it has for it. Secondly we would explore the ordinary world itself, trying to characterize it and what does inhabiting it mean. And finally we would look at some philosophical problems (mainly epistemological and moral problems, but not exclusively) from the perspective that gives a philosophy that finds itself comfortable in the ordinary world.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Nader N. Chokr ‘Philosophy’ –after the End of Philosophy?
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In the past few decades, ‘postmodern philosophers’ have leveled severe and sustained criticisms against “the Tradition.” They have radically put in question and undermined our traditional conceptions of Philosophy, its tasks and goals, claims and pretensions, methods and methodologies, its public image and selfimage.In short, everything that Philosophers once held dear, and that some still hold dear today, moved as they are by a quest for Certainty and nostalgia for the Absolute. As a result, many have come to view these radical, postmodern criticisms as having brought on the “End of Philosophy.” If this is so, what is to be done? Where do we go from here? What are our real options? What is there left for Philosophers to do, if anything, that is worthwhile and meaningful? Do we simply accept ‘the postmodernists’ verdict,’ and simply take up whatever they have proposed to replace Philosophy? Or do we boldly and imaginatively consider an alternative? In my essay, I sketch out a 10-points proposal for a ‘philosophy’ –after the end of Philosophy—which, I contend, can only be a new kind of CriticalTheory.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
J.O. Famakinwa Philosophy Relevance in the Contemporary World
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If philosophy is conceived as a method, seeing it beyond the traditional issues it addresses, issues that are not, strictly speaking, peculiar to it, then philosophy need not share the same criteria of relevance with science and technology. The paper argues that the generally held major criteria of relevance – utility, suitability, and social acceptability grounded on human desires and need are not philosophically satisfactory. The paper also argues that the Universalist conception of philosophy is, like science and technology, capable of contributing to human good – material and non- material. The conclusion is that granted that development is basically human, and, derivatively, material then the acquisition of the skills of philosophizing constitutes part of the species of development. The philosophical task of identifying errors (human and non-human) in specific human scientific and technological fields is capable of affecting the material and non-material progress of the contemporary world.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Rocco Gangle Renovating Philosophical Practice through Diagrammatic Reasoning
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The approach to the question of philosophical practice has been dominated by a subordination of practice to theory corresponding in general to a representational conception of philosophy. Methods of diagrammatic reasoning developed within philosophical semiotics provide a more effective approach. Inparticular, Peirce’s system of existential graphs exemplifies how diagrammatic reasoning is able formally to express the processes through which philosophical dialogue and cooperation actually take place and to link such processes to the methods and practices arising in other disciplines and traditions, including those of science, politics, art, religion and technological production.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Aleksey Gromov Rethinking the Subject of Philosophy: Leo Lopatin's Concern
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конецформыначалоформыLeo Lopatin (1855-1920) elaborated the distinct and proved views on the subject, methods and tasks of philosophy. In this paper Lopatin's definition of the subject of philosophy is reviewed and his method of reasoning is shown. As Lopatin proves, philosophy has to be knowledge of theactual nature of things in their independent reality and in their internal attitude and interrelations; it is knowledge of the actual world. The exact and clear understanding of the subject, methods of philosophical knowledge is necessary for any scientist-researcher working in the field of philosophy, ethics, and psychology. It might be useful for a researcher in the field of natural sciences as well. Philosophy should have an independent position among other sciences and it differs from theology that allocates belief in the isolated and unique source of knowledge. Lopatin's example, who shows how one can distinguish philosophy from theology, poetry, art reflections of a writer, inspires everyone who tries to answer "eternal questions" of knowledge.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Ora Gruengard Dialectics in Everyday Life
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Wittgenstein, in his first period, where he adopted a theory of meaning as representation, can be thought to consider language and reality as separated entities. However, in the second period, where the use theory of meaning is put forward, he can be thought to conceive language as something dependent on the human agencies that employ it, as something into which actions are interwoven. So, in his later work, Wittgenstein can be said to consider language as a unit together with reality -as far as the notion of meaning is concerned. In this sense, his two theories of meaning are the opposites of one another. My claim, in this paper, is that the gist of this radical change on Wittgenstein’s position on the connection between language and reality can be found in the private language argument given in Philosophical Investigations. For, reminding that this is a semantic claim, I think, the repudiation of private language in Wittgenstein’s philosophy amounts to the repudiation of the representational relation between language and world -or reality- as distinct entities; and hence, the traditional dichotomy of mind-body or inner-outer which is inherited from Descartes. This, I think, also means the rejection of the traditional distinction of language (as a vehicle of thought) and world as two different realms where skepticism is possible. In parallel with the rejection of this dichotomy, in this paper, by focusing on Wittgenstein’s understanding of meaning by which his overall philosophy is structured, I will examine his rejection of the representational theory of meaning (to avoid skepticism) and evince the effect of it to his later understanding of meaning (or vice versa). I will come to the conclusion that the gist of the radical change in his view on meaning and language can be found in his private language argument.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Dongkai Li Target the Object of Philosophy
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From the daily life, how to get the access to philosophy, what is the approaches to philosophy? Regarding the big topics /big affair in the world, are they related to the philosophy? what and how shall the philosophy do ? About some concept, word, have we already fully confirmed their meaning? What shall the philosophy do to make their meaning clear and confirmed? Refers to the philosophy itself, have we already confirmed its study object? What is Philosophy? what is the main study object for the philosophy? It is the pity that till now, for the whole world philosophy field, the main study object for the philosophy have not been confirmed. There are various kinds of answer, this means philosophy, from the past one hundred years, till now, has not work out the state of downturn and confusion.Since the philosophy itself is not clear, then no wonder from the late of 19 century to now, philosophy seems did litting achievement for the human being, for the civilization, for the progress, its glory looks gray, compared with Science, which is in fact born by philosophy although. So, before the philosophy could work well for the civilization, firstly, we should make the philosophy clear, confirm the main object of philosophy, target the correct object for philosophy! Only after this first work, we could expect philosophy do well on its tasks and function. For my this paper, its essential point is to present an answer for the target object belongs to the philosophy. Through demonstrate as per scientific logic and philosophy’s whole history, this answer, namely, the only target object belongs to philosophyis the Ontology and Cognition. Let philosophy go back to its correct place, its correct way. Then, it could move ahead. only after we get new progress on the study of Ontology and Cognition, and with the help of this new achievement of Ontology and Cognition, we can get progress on the study of the fields related to the human being and progress of civilization. As far as what is the Ontology and Cognition, which kind new achievement of Ontology and Cognition we couldexpect, that is the next step.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Hugh P. McDonald Can Environmental Ethics Become a First Philosophy?
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I briefly discuss first philosophy (metaphysics), including different “paradigms’ of first philosophy in the history of Western philosophy. I then discuss the rise of environmental ethics as a new field of philosophy and the debate over anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric values. I suggest that ecocentric value theories could constitute a new first philosophy using the “paradigm” of value in first philosophy and why they should constitute a first philosophy.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Britta Saal Towards a New Historiography and Conceptual Decolonization
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Considering two recent trends in the Humanities – the cultural turn and the increase of critical sociohistorical reflections on a global level – in this paper it should be looked at their influences especially on philosophy. One of these influences can be located in the emergence of “intercultural philosophy” since the 1990s which calls for a reorientation of philosophy in general. Regarding mainly one of the favored methods, the polylogue, it is important to take into account the postcolonial perspective, too. For such an interculturally and postcolonially motivated approach there are two tasks which are highly relevant: 1) the deconstruction of history in direction towards a new critical historiography and 2) the due reflection of crucial philosophical concepts and categories in direction towards a conceptual decolonization. Mainly the latter, in my opinion, marks a necessary and already overdue project for rethinking the philosophical vocabulary and for overcoming its colonial impact. Perhaps this may finally become a really intercultural philosophical project in which philosophers engage wherever they may be from.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Jeffrey Benjamin White How Did Socrates Become Socrates?: On the Socratic Recipe for the Philosophic Life
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Socrates is philosophy’s greatest hero, and a model for the philosophic life. Yet, why did Socrates live the way he did? How did Socrates become Socrates? How can a contemporary philosopher aspire to be like Socrates, even in ways and contexts in which there is no record of a Socratic example? This short paper explores the implications of Socrates’ encounter with Callicles in the Gorgias on the aspiring philosophic life. In this dialogue, we find Socrates’ own testimony as to why he lives the way he does, how he comes to die the way he does, and also discover how it is that we can presently pursue the philosophic life by his recipe.
articles in german
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Michael Ch. Michailov, Eva Neu Anthropologie und Philosophie: Was ist der Mensch?
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One Seit Platon (mit dem Spott von Diogenes) über Kant ist die Fundamentalfrage "Was ist der Mensch?" bis heute nicht nur von der Philosophie (als regina scientiarum), sondern von der Wissenschaft überhaupt nicht beantwortet. Phänomenologisch hat der Mensch a posteriori physische (somatische), psychische(perceptio, emotio, cognitio), mentale (logische), spirituelle (conscientia, volitio, actio) "Sphären". Ontologisch in Kontext von to ti en einai (Aristoteles) sollte der Mensch a priori ein "Programm" (Information) vor der Kosmogonie haben. Der (Neo‐) Positivismus (z.B. Hume bis Carnap, Russel*; * Nobel Laureate) verwirft Fragen der Metaphysik als Scheinprobleme. Damit bleibt das Menschen‐Wesen in Kontext von Postulaten, wie res cogitans (Descartes), Monaden(Leibniz), "Gott, Freiheit, Unsterblichkeit", Seligkeit und (moralischer) Vollkommenheit (Kant), absoluter Geist (Hegel) in der theologischen Dimension. Antwort könnte eine zukünftige (holistisch‐multidimensionale) philosophische theoretische und Experimentaltheologie (kontrollierbare Beobachtung) durch weitere Forschung geben, in Kontext (bzw. Existenz) von A. Physikotheologie bzw. (a) höhere (als drei) geometrische/physikalische Dimensionen (Hilbert, Riemann /Friedmann, Minkowski, Schmutzer), (b) Paralleluniversen (z.B. L. Randall), (c) Quantentheorie/‐philosophie (Planck*, u.a.), (d) Gravitations‐/Relativitätstheorie (Newton/Einstein*), (e) Vakuumenergie (Sato), etc. B. ChemoBiotheologie bzw. "psychischen" (Fechner) und "spezifischen" (Joh. Müller) Energien,"biologischem Feld" (Gurwitsch), künstlicher Biogenese (Oparin, Fox, Urey*, u.a.; 32 Fragen von John Bernal). C. Psychotheologie bzw. parapsychische Phänomene (Carrel*, Richet*/France, Rhinne/USA, Vassilev, Bechterew/Russia, etc.). D. Religionstheologie: (über‐) Bewußtsein, übersinnliche, immaterielle, supraphysikalische Phänomene (Sri Aurobindo, Dalai Lama*, Konfuzius/Laotse, Gopi Krishna, Papst Benedikt, Paramahansa Yogananda, Sri Yogendra, etc.)und ihre physiologische Begründung (Anand/Chinna, Kasamatsu/Hirai, Ornstein, Pauli*, von Weizsäcker, etc.). Damit hängt die ontologische Frage nach dem MenschenWesen mit der Lösung des Problemkomplexes "Gott Geist/Seele Mensch Natur" zusammen.
articles in russian
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Alexandrov Vladimir Ivanovich Перспектива существования метафизики и философии в XXI веке
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The keynote idea of the theses is contained in the author’s assumption that modern philosophy doesn’t meet its claiming pretensions: to be universal form of knowledge. First of all philosophy is connected not with knowledge but with ideas and secondly being authentic it “exists only in everyday life”.1 In orderthat philosophy could realize its innate essence corresponding conditions of social being should exist but they are still absent and therefore philosophy is absent as well. Its place is occupied by metaphysics which is free movement of thinking that has no definiteness as the condition of being of any form of thought. That iswhy we watch crisis state of “philosophy” which becomes apparent in vagueness of its subject: “philosophy is not only one, there are many of them”. The author supposes that philosophy as the highest relation of mankind to objective reality is the only one. Philosophy lowered down from the heaven (Platon, Ciceron) in the field of human being must raise people not only to purity of thought, but mainly to purity of their activity both with each other and with nature. Then real interaction of men and nature will take place. This will be the beginning of spiritualization of the Universe. It may exist only under the conditions of social uniformity as historical form of Weltanschauung (world outlook) that removes religious form. Realization of its being supposes fundamental change of social life. It is necessary that private property should be replaced with social property in the sphere of social production. Only under these conditions philosophy may appear and exist as historical form of Weltanschauung.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
Руслан Ханаху, Олег Цветков Неомифология Как Предтеча Российского Постмодернизма
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The atmosphere of plurality appears gradually and becomes more noticeable. Speaking the language of postmodernism the wellknown “truths” are undergoing the radical reconsideration. The postmodernism “competition of truths” is taking place instead of usual seeking of truth. Aware or no aware radical plurality becomes the starting principle of many philosophical studies. One of the preconditions creating the base for native postmodernism formation and developing are neomythologies which have been spread in Russian regions, have been transformed into self reproducing false ideologies and have got its false language. The relationship between neomythologies and postmodernism is based on the worldview systems of “overcoming of history”, permanent “problems” of present and historical discourses, “radical plurality”, the refusal of classical casualty and logo centrism, “the disappearing of subject” of time and historical and other actions, and also many other signs. Making unsteady the logic of classical and non-classical philosophical studies, neomythology becomes the precursor of Russianpostmodernism.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
С. Н. Некрасов Кризис философии в современном мире: конец постиндустриальной глобализации
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The last crash of the «kingdom of rationality» organized by postindustrialist globalization in the end of XX century is in reality a deadline of human prehistory. The mechanical thought told us about the prohibition of scientific research in such fields as artificial intellect with an appeal to war against science. From one side of left mondialism in style «West against the rest» we see a pseudophilosophical avantgardist idea of thousands truths, deconstruction, tolerance with the rhetorique of struggle against terrorism. From second side in the spirit of wright avtarkism a la «The rest against the West» postulates the global evel and thedevelopment of planet to a neofeudal state. It is necessary to point out ten questions to philosophers. Only ten questions to philosophers world community. The positive answer will turn philosophy to social reality and will define the degree of decline of world philosophy in the end of postindustrialist globalization.
articles in chinese
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
DongKai Li 明确哲学的研究对象
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From the daily life, how to get the access to philosophy, what is the approaches to philosophy? Regarding the big topics /big affair in the world, are they related to the philosophy? what and how shall the philosophy do? About some concept, word, have we already fully confirmed their meaning? What shall the philosophy do to make their meaning clear and confirmed? Refers to the philosophy itself, have we already confirmed its study object? What is Philosophy? what is the main study object for the philosophy? It is the pity that till now, for the whole world philosophy field, the main study object for the philosophy have not been confirmed. There are various kinds of answer, this means philosophy, from the past one hundred years, till now, has not work out the state of downturn and confusion. Since the philosophy itself is not clear, then no wonder from the late of 19 century to now, philosophy seems did litting achievement for the human being, for the civilization, for the progress, its glory looks gray, compared with Science, which is in fact born by philosophy although. So, before the philosophy could work well for the civilization, firstly, we should make the philosophy clear, confirm the main object of philosophy, target the correct object for philosophy! Only after this firstwork, we could expect philosophy do well on its tasks and function. For my this paper, its essential point is to present an answer for the target object belongs to the philosophy. Through demonstrate as per scientific logic and philosophy’s whole history, this answer, namely, the only target object belongs to philosophy is the Ontology and Cognition. Let philosophy go back to its correct place, its correct way. then, it could move ahead. only after we get new progress on the study of Ontology and Cognition, and with the help of this new achievement of Ontology and Cognition, we can get progress on the study of the fields related to the human being and progress of civilization. As far as what is the Ontology and Cognition, which kind new achievement of Ontology and Cognition we could expect, that is the next step.