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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Tofig Ahmadov The Idea of Freedom in Context of the Eastern and the Western Thought
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In what way to understand of the idea of freedom is one of the major factors determining world outlook of a society. There are too many concepts of freedom. That kind of differences appears in individual, group and national level. But the major differences appear in perspectives of civilization understanding, in eastern and western world outlook. In eastern approach the idea of freedom is mostly individualistic, idealistic, spiritual one. In comparison with the eastern understanding, in the western thinking realistic and pragmatic concept of freedom has always been prevailed. It stands on difference of philosophical understanding of the world. In the eastern philosophical thought the idea of freedom mostly connected with mental perfection, higher moral-spiritual values, and the understanding of Truth. However, in the western philosophy freedom has been searched in human researches; in realization of his individual ability in scientific, cultural, political, social, economical spheres of life. Seeking freedom both in internal and external world are two extremes of one phenomenon – human freedom. Each of these extremes has some shortages. In a time of dialogue of civilizations it would be very beneficial for ideas to research in a lightof essence of a life of the human being. Mutual understanding of those who carry different ideas and approaches would be essential step for peace and harmony in the world.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Shin Ahn John Hick and Comparative Philosophy: A Critical Evaluation of Religious Pluralism
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Buddhism and Christianity have been main religions in contemporary Korea. In order to overcome their antipathies and conflicts, some philosophers of religion have suggested possible models for religious harmony and coexistence. This paper will examine John Hick's theory of religious pluralism by analyzing his autobiography and philosophical arguments. Korean scholars of religion have attempted to understand his theory in various ways, including philosophical, phenomenological, and psychological ones. Pointing out that Hick's pluralistic position, which has formed in a particular context, has inherent limitations for Korean situations, I will propose a viable alternative model for religious diversity, based on a phenomenological study of Korean religions, especially Buddhism and Christianity.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Arati Barua Schopenhauer’s Philosophy of Will and Sankara’s Advaita Vedanta: A Comparative Study
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It is a well established fact that Arthur Schopenhauer was the first major Western thinker who was so much influenced by the Upanishads that he wrote, "In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death”. This view of Schopenhauer about the Upanishads not only shows his familiarity with the Eastern thought but also it reflects his adoration for Indian philosophy, religion and culture, which influenced him in a significant way. Thus in the World As Will and Representation Schopenhauer clearly states that readers can understand his writings better with prior acquaintances with the philosophy of - Plato, Kant and that of Hindus. Unfortunately however, though some attempts have been made earlier by others to find out the links between Schopenhauer and the East, not much work has been done so far to find out the connection between Schopenhauer and Indian thought especially by Indian scholars. Being so motivated I propose to examine this relationship between Schopenhauer and Sankara, a great Vedantist of India in a comparative manner with a focus on the problem of the relationship between the ‘Will and the world as its representations’ in Schopenhauer and of the ‘Brahman and the world of multiplicity’ in Sankara’s philosophy of Monism. I do this in an analytical framework of interpreting the Ontology of the Absolute and its manifestation in the phenomenal world in the literatures of Schopenhauer and Sankaracarya and then I shall try to find out asolution to this problem through the application of the Vedantic notion of identity between the Brahman and the atman in both these thinkers.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Elias Capriles Heidegger’s Misreception of Buddhist Philosophy
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Heidegger attempted a “hermeneutics of human experience” that, by switching from the ontic to the ontological dimension, yet maintaining a phenomenological εποχη would bring to light the true meaning of being and, by the same stroke, ascertain the structures of being in human experience. It is now well known that Heidegger drew from Buddhism. However, in human experience being and its structures appear to be ultimately true, and since Heidegger at nopoint went beyond samsara, he failed to realize the phenomenon of being to be one of the two essential aspects of the most basic of delusive phenomena, which is the threefold apparitional structure produced by the threefold thought structure (Tibetan, ’khor-gsum), and therefore, instead of achieving a genuinely ontological understanding of being and its structures, he came to the wrong view of identifying being (the understanding of which was a priori in a somehow non-Kantian sense that will not be discussed here) with truth and taking the ontological structures of samsara to be somehow given. The problem is that he used the term Being (das Sein) roughly as a synonym of Buddha-nature, Tao and so on: whereas the latter is unthinkable and inexpressible, for Heidegger the word “being” is not an empty word, for it has its “appellative force.” In fact, for him it is not a mere sound or written sign that brings nothing to our mind; on the contrary, it causes us to immediately conceive something, and what we thus conceive manifests in our experience as a (non-Kantian) phenomenon.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Elias Capriles Hegel’s Inversion of the Tantric Buddhist, Bönpo and Stoic View of History
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Hegel inverted the Tantric Buddhist, Bönpo and Stoic view of human spiritual and social evolution by presenting it as a progressive perfecting rather than as a progressive degeneration impelled by the gradual development of the basic human delusion called avidya (unawareness). Since he cancelled the crucial map /territory distinction, he had to explain change in nature as the negation of the immediately preceding state, and since he wanted spiritual and social evolution to be a process of perfecting, he had to invent a negation that, rather than canceling former negations, or incorporating them and thus increasing fragmentation and delusion, incorporated them and thereby produced an increase of wholeness and truth: the Aufhebung or sublation, not found in any existing process—whether logical or in phenomenological—and existing only in Hegel’s imagination. The only existing negation that incorporates the preceding negation, rather than canceling or annulling it (as logical negation does), is the phenomenological negation occurring in Sartre’s bad faith, which Laing illustrated with a “spiral of pretenses,” and Hegel’s sublation is a misrepresentation of this phenomenological negation that he fancied to make his inverted view of spiritual, social and political evolution possible. In the Tantric Buddhist, Bönpo and Stoic view what increases is fragmentation and delusion. When these reach their logical extreme,they achieve their reductio ad absurdum in ecological crisis.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Elias Capriles Existential and Meta-Existential Philosophy
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In existential thought the thinking subject includes itself in its own thinking; this subject is not conceived as a substance that may be objectively determined, for its being lies in a making or constituting itself. Choice is thus the crucial concept of existential thought. Since choice involves awareness of the uncertainty of itspossible outcomes, anguish is inherent in it. Hence anguish in the face of our own freedom is essential to the human reality, and authenticity lies in facing anguish rather than fleeing it. The term metaexistential refers, (1) to those systems that acknowledge absolute authenticity and truth to consist in going beyond existence in all its manifestations—those which are more unauthentic and less conflictive and distressful, as well as those which are less unauthentic and more conflictive and distressful—and (2) to those Paths of Awakening possessing the means for effectively going beyond existence and thus achieving absolute authenticity and truth. In fact, (1) only the Contemplation state of higher bodhisattvas and the state of Buddhahood, which are free from the subject-objectduality and thus beyond the bounds of existence and of the human reality, constitute a genuine surpassing of alienation and delusion, and hence only these conditions are true to our innermost nature; and (2) only a really effective practice of metaexistential methods such as Buddhist Paths can be conducive to these realizations.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Tofig Ahmadov Svasamvittih/Svasamvedana In the Light of Sartre’s Philosophy
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Sartre posited a (nondual), nonreflexive, nonthetic, nonpositional awareness which makes all consciousness possible, and which underlies dualistic, thetic, positional consciousness of object. Though his description assumes dualistic, thetic, positional consciousness of object to be inherent in nondual, nonreflexive,nonthetic, nonpositional awareness and hence to be ineradicable, with some modifications it can explain the view of rdzogs-chen that the sems-sde series of teachings illustrate in nonphilosophical terms with the example of the primordial mirror in which both dualistic consciousness and its objects manifest as the play of the mirror’s energy. Dualistic consciousness: (1) is not inherent in nondual awareness, but arises when the threefold thought structure (Tib. ’khor-gsum) causes the mental subject—an illusory, incorporeal phenomenon—to manifest in nondual awareness coemergently with the phenomenon of being that makes the subject in question appear to involve self-being, and as the (co)Gnitive capacity and motility of nondual awareness seems to lie in this subject, the latter seems to be a separate perceiver of experiences, thinker of thought and doer of action—so that the mental subject appears to be an individual, separate, autonomous dualistic consciousness; (2) together with the phenomenon of being, is the core of the basic human delusion at the root of unhappy consciousness (duhkha); and(3) can dissolve in nirvana, putting an end to the unhappy consciousness inherent in it.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
In Sook Choi Relations of the Mind to the Matter in Kant's Philosophy and Buddhist Philosophy
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Kant's epistemology and the Buddhist philosophy are an idealism. But these two different philosophies have in themselves the contradictory element, namely the element of the outer sense of bodies and of the inner mind. Although Kant's transcendental idealism and the school Vijnanavadin (唯識學派) acknowledge only the representations and the consciousnesses., the mind need to be affected by the outer part. In Kant's theoretical philosophy the outer sense of bodies plays an alien role. It stands outside the subject. In spite of this, the subject have to relate itself to the outer element. And in the Buddhism, in order to have consciousnesses, the subject have to be transformed from the fundamental ground, the Alayavijnana (第8 識). But the Alyavijnana need to have a certain moment in order to be transformed. In my paper I have concentrated myself on the problem of relation of the mind to the matter. I have tried to see into the way in which these two philosophies develop this relation. Moreover I am also interested in the problem in relation to the theoretical, practical, and aesthetical fields.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Gordon F. Davis Engaging with the Paradoxes of Consequentialism: Sidgwickian and Buddhist Approaches
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In the nineteenth century, Henry Sidgwick struggled with the apparent paradox that utilitarians might only attain their goal if they renounced utilitarianism in practice; he also noticed a parallel problem that anticipated what has been called the ‘paradox of desire’ in Buddhist ethics – the paradox that desiring desirelessness is self-defeating. In fact, he regarded only the latter as a genuine paradox. I consider three approaches that might mitigate the problematicimplications for Buddhist ethics and certain forms of consequentialism. One approach draws on recent defences of moral realism that find echoes in at least one Buddhist tradition. The other two draw on what I call the ‘comparative cartography of ethical concepts’; one is due to David Webster, who compares Western andPali-based Buddhist concepts, while the other offers an extension of his approach, comparing ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ ethical concepts, again mainly in the context of ancient Indian Buddhism. I argue that these latter two approaches offer promising defences of Buddhist ethics against objections based on the so-called ‘paradox of desire’.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Arjuna De Zoysa On Science and Philosophy: Discovery or Construction?
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I have argued here for a change in a scientific world-view, from that of the study of forms to that of process. In doing so we need to understand as to how process creates form. In showing this I have at first drawn from the history of Buddhist philosophy; with its concepts of ‘Sunyata’ (Emptiness) and radical interdependency (Huayen). Then showed its parallel with modern Fractal geometries, which thru’ rather simple mathematics, shows as to how process could derive form. I have then gone on to Quantum constructions, which is without doubt the most advanced scientific development in modern times, and attempted to show two vital directions which contradict the classical scientific world view. The usual scientific view retains a Descartian, ‘out there’ deterministic framework. I argue that with the break down of determinism, and the non locality of phenomena suggested by Quantum Mechanics allows for an independent functioning of consciousness; which then is not a mere epiphenomena of neural activity within the brain. Such a view has wide implications on how we live and how we die.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Ali Fathtaheri Leibniz's Monad and Mulla Sadra's Hierarchy of Being: A Comparative Study
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Mulla Sadra and Leibniz are two philosophers of the East and the West, and belong to two different worlds. Though they were unaware of ideas of each other, they share certain points that are comparable. Monads constitute the basis of Leibniz's thought and he refer to their features in his various works. Mulla Sadra's philosophy also is based on being and he tried to deal with its reality in his philosophy. Though Leibniz's monads are many and Mulla Sadras being is one, they use certain terms for monads and being which are very close to each other and are comparable from different points of view. Leibniz monads while being many are one as well. Similarly Mulla Sadra's philosophy too enjoys multiplicity in unity. Leibniz's monads enjoy perception and Mulla Sadra's being too coexist withknowledge. In this paper apart from comparing Leibniz's monads and Mulla Sadra's concept of being, their philosophies also have been compared and their common and different points have been unraveled.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Vasiliy Gritsenko Rethink Russian Philosophy Today
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There is its own philosophical tradition in Russia. The traditional Russian philosophy is idealistic and religious. The basic categories of traditional Russian philosophy: "Ideal", "Sofia", "Sobornost", « Beauty, True, Kind (the Blessing)». The basic problem of Russian philosophy is to find the way of rescue mankind. One of the cardinal problems is the problem of civilization choice: East – West - Russia. According to the method of Russian philosophy it is not so analytic, but it is synthetic. Synthetic character of Russian philosophy was most full embodied in V.S.Solovjev's philosophical system (1853-1900). In Russian philosophy the person, its destiny in the world was considered as a rule, globally - in universal, space scale. Russian cosmizm has formulated antropocosmik a paradigmon principles coevolution the nature and a noosphere which demands special culture.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Yong Shik Hwang On the Core Principles of Wŏnhyo’s Harmonization in Non-Obstruction Thought and Wilberian Integral Theory
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The core principles of 7th century Korean Buddhist thinker and practitioner Wŏnhyo’s harmonization in non-obstruction thought and Wilberian Integral Theory may help us to understand ourselves and the world better and thus act and live well together accordingly in this contemporary world facing global crises. Whatare particularly noteworthy in Wŏnhyo’s thought and life is that as much as reality is unobstructed (無礙) in its profound calm so can our mode of being and relationships be awakened to its natural harmony free of conflicts (和諍會通). This ideal can be optimally pursued by coming back to the source of One Mind (一心) while extensively benefiting sentient beings. Wŏnhyo consistently pursued and realized this soteriological project through his practice, works, and expediently dedicated life. The most recent version of Wilber’ Integral Theory consists of Integral Approach, Integral Methodological Pluralism, and Integral Post-Metaphysics. Their core principles consist of the AQAL (all quadrants, all levels, all lines, all states, and all types) and holons with their twenty tenets (holonic laws). Extensively utilizing scientific achievements Wilber attempted to map the whole developmental territory of occasions ranging from matter to Spirit or Emptiness and to formulate the Theory of Everything and then apply it to various fields including business, spirituality, and ecology. Within this framework, however, MarkEdwards tried to add an integral epistemology with its interpretive part and to complement Wilber’s more evolutionary ranking ascent with involutionary egalitarian descent. By also critiquing representational—and thus somewhat reifying—tendency of the AQAL framework and proposing to read it as an interpretive lens hesaves Integral Theory from internal conflicts and rendered it more consistent. Being based on experience and vast scholarship both Wŏnhyo’s and Wilberian visions have an integral nature. Whereas Wŏnhyo’s Enlightenment-anchored high vision-logic enabled him to actualize harmonization unobstructedly, backed by scientific achievements as well as his practice Wilber pioneered the AQAL Integral Theory, and then by adding an interpretive dimension Wilber has made it more balanced and consistent system. Now facing the human-caused threats of various global crises as well as the usual complexities of our ordinary life, we need to draw on mankind’s cultural resources including these two spectacular achievements. We may then further develop these soteriological visions in such a way as to satisfy hopefully all justifiable needs of men as well as the world in a futuristic perspective.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Yong Shik Hwang On the Basic Components of Knowledge Acquisition in Integral Theory: A Comparative Appraisal of Wilber and Edwards
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This paper is about comparison and appraisal of Ken Wilber’s theory of the “three components or strands of knowledge” set forth especially in his Eye to Eye and Mark Edwards’s “Integral Cycle of Knowledge” which attempts through its critique to integrate Wilber’s developmental and epistemological models. Realizing the problem of today’s scientism, Wilber introduces the concepts of the “three eyes”—the eye of flesh, of reason, and of contemplation—thusconceiving science in a broad sense. Then in order to secure verification of the knowledge he proposes the three basic components of knowledge acquisition: 1. instrumental injunction 2 Intuitive apprehension 3. Communal confirmation. In his essay, “The Integral Cycle of Knowledge,” Mark Edwards then points out themissing of an interpretive component and then he proceeds to form his own Integral Cycle of Knowledge by adding the component. Hen then integrates it into Wilber’s 4-quadrants framework as follows: UR: Injunctive strand → UL: Apprehensive strand → LL: Interpretive strand → LR: Validative strand. Their attempts to provide a solid epistemological basis to their Integral Theory are really laudable. However, they do not seem to have sufficiently reflected the intense debates surrounding especially justification or validation. According to them in spite of development in securing epistemological justification no complete answer has been found out. Moreover, the type of communal validation is scarcely seen at least among the viable alternatives the philosophers are seeking. Thus somethinginternal or externally related to truth that would eliminate or minimize the possibility of falsehood needs to be added to the validative component. If a balance is recovered among spirituality, science, and philosophy in this way, it would be of a great benefit to respective discipline.
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Stefan Gaarsmand Jacobsen An Early Attempt to Rethink Sino- Western Philosophy: A Critique of Chung-Ying Cheng’s Interpretation of Leibniz
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In the last decade a great amount of literature that elaborates on Leibniz’ cultural and philosophical openness has emerged. It is therefore odd that there has not been made any direct comments on Chung-Ying Cheng interesting analyses of Leibniz’s writings on Chinese philosophy (Cheng 2000, 2002). By giving a critical review of Cheng’s work on this topic, it is the aim of this paper to integrate some problems of Sino-western philosophical encounters into the Leibniz scholarship of today. In the course of analyzing Cheng’s arguments the paper points to some problems in his approach to Leibnizian philosophy and its “encounter” with Chinese classics. After challenging Cheng’s reading of Leibniz and suggesting alternative interpretations, the paper discusses whether thisunderstanding of Leibniz could designate a positive approach to Sino‐western philosophical exchange. Central to this, the question is raised whether or not it can be shown that Leibniz remained open to rethink his own philosophy in the light of his meeting with Chinese philosophy. While the paper agrees with Cheng in the judgement that Leibniz did not arrive at a complete understanding of the Chinese classic Yijing, it claims that Cheng’s analysis contradicts some of Leibniz’s other writings on China as well as Leibniz’s general ambition of supporting global philosophical exchange.
16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Nevad Kahteran Rethinking Bosnian Philosophical Heritage in the Context of Comparative Philosophy
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The history of Bosnia is a history of struggle for its own identity and independent position on the dividing line between two worlds. In the Middle Ages that desire to belong neither to East nor West, or to belong to both, is well illustrated by the phenomenon known as Bogumilism or the ‘Bosnian Church’. But, despiteeverything, Bosnia - situated at a major fault-line - has continued to develop as a multinational and multicultural community, in a world made up of various races, nations, religions and cultures. The cultivation of a new spirit of philosophy that cuts across the classical borders and opens its understanding to a multitude of cultural and intellectual histories is very much needed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is important part of the historical reconstruction now in progress. Exceptionally important in this context are the positions of the Islamic cultural world beyond fanatical absolutism and Bosnian first contacts with that world, interwoven in multi-layered, definitive cultural contexts, which represents a dialogue of different cultures and religions in that region. Actually, this is old Bosnian way of living, its social 'nomos', both pre-modern and pre-political, which can be epitomized as a philosophical, intercultural dialogue among various positions, which is today also important for the human community as a whole, i.e. as a symbol of interreligious and international harmony and cooperation. Although specific in its context, the deliberations of this Bosnian first contacts with Islamic medieval philosophical tradition have implications for an increasingly globalized world by creating more opportunities, or even a pressing need, for an increasingly intercultural interaction today for the human community as a whole, who looks for this part of the world for inspiration and guidance in achieving a multireligious and multicultural peace, writing completely new chapter in the history of the world's philosophy. Wrapped any other way it just wouldn't be Bosnia.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
B.R. Shantha Kumari Conclusions of Science: The Hypothesis of Advaita
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A person experiences and functions in two worlds – the external material world, and the internal mental world – whose objects differ in their nature, constitution, and reality. The 20th century scientists confess that hitherto the sciences were examining with their sophisticated apparatuses merely the observable externalappearances of phenomena, and that behind these lie a sensorily unobservable universe and the observer oneself! Exploring the external world for truth, through experiment and experience, contemporary scientists at their quest’s farthest end confront Consciousness – the ineffable transcendental greatest mystery/Reality. The paper explains how while modern science is still grappling with Consciousness; the ancient philosophy of Advaita‐Vedanta has succeeded in identifying and isolating Consciousness – Brahman – through its psycho-physical-ethical spiritual praxis for “appropriating” it from the web of experience in the lived-world environing one and the all, to encapsulate the contemporary conclusions of the sciences (physics, biology, and psychology) in its holistic hypothesis which declares: Consciousness alone is real; the world is illusory; and oneself - no other than Consciousness/Brahman!
18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Young-sook Lee On Human Freedom: A Comparative Study between Spinoza and Zhuang-zi
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For both Spinoza and Zhuang-zi, the goal of life is attaining freedom, namely, human freedom. What do they mean by “human freedom”? What are the necessary conditions for humans to attain freedom? Seeking for answers to these questions, I’ve noted that Spinoza and Zhuang-zi suggest remarkably similar answers to these questions. First, both Spinoza and Zhuang-zi understand human freedom as a form of complete independence from externals: self-determination in Spinoza and union with the Dao in Zhuang-zi. Second, both Spinoza and Zhuang-zi assert that human freedom is attainable when one sees things truly or adequately: in Spinoza, when one sees things from the viewpoint of eternity, and in Zhuang-zi, when one sees things from the viewpoint of the Dao.
19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Sergey Yu Lepekhov The Principles of Open Society and Ideals of Buddhist Civilization
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According to Popper, democracy, and the one of the western type at that, is the best form of the state system which makes open society possible. At the same time, democratic traditions and institutions have been historically developing not only in the West but also in the East. A number of crucial principles of Buddhistcivilization forming throughout the millennium appear to be quite corresponding to the model of open society. The principles of universal humanism and compassion as the staple of the world; the principle of universal responsibility for forming social institutes and organizations aimed to solve problems common to all people; the principle of tolerance and common ethical direction of all world religions can be attributed to such principles. The humanistic ideal of Buddhism is an individual satisfied with life in society and living in harmony with nature. Buddhism encourages self-restriction and social solidarity, justice and equality, pure thoughts and deeds. Buddhist civilization lies “in between” since in most cases it acts a close-to-perfect mediator among other cultures and civilizations, various ethnic groups and peoples.
20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 8
Yihong Liu Islamic Philosophy in China: The Combination of the Spiritualities
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This paper is talking about the philosophical way of the combination between Islamic philosophy and Chinese traditional thoughts through a specific study on the representative works of Chinese Muslim thinkers during Ming and Qing Dynasties. So a new theory of philosophy which could be named “Chinese Islamicphilosophy “emerged. I have reached a point that the main features of forming Chinese Islamic philosophy is as follows: In order to make a clear understanding of Islamic philosophy, the Chinese Muslim scholars had interpreted the doctrine of Islam by adopting either the cosmological concept of the ancient Chinese philosophy, or the idea of geomancy from the Book of Changes, or some philosophic aspects from Confucianism. And the main characteristics of the ChineseIslamic philosophy could be described as follows: “to interpret the thought of Islam through Confucianism”, “to make a supplement to Confucianism by Islam” and “to achieve flourished development of both Islam and Confucianism”.