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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Paul Anand Rationality and Intransitive Preference: Foundations for The Modern View
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“Radical The paper provides a survey of arguments for claims that rational agents should have transitive preferences and argues that they are not valid. The presentation is based on a chapter for the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of Rational and Social Choice.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Ana Bazac The Endlessness of Work?
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Starting from the counter-position of the traditional model of labour and the traditional aim and ideal of a good life, the paper emphasises that philosophy had to solve the problem of the possibility to generalise the model of a creative and pleasant life. Therefore the goal of the paper is two-fold. The one is to question thenecessity of labour from the standpoint of the rebel thinking transfigured in the literature of laziness as alternative to the ancient tradition of hard labouring. The other is to mention some present philosophical theories about the cognitive labour. By asserting the fundamental changes in the regime of work opened up by the new industrial revolution begun more than thirty years ago, a mere conclusion would be that the present philosophy still has a big duty toward this crucial and obviously open problem.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Piotr Boltuc Philosophy and Thin Social Capital
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Reiterative coordination games in large groups demonstrate that social norms, once attained, create stable equilibria. This shows that thin social capital is stable, and in some cases preferable to thick SC since it lowers transacting costs. This finding, supported indirectly by R. Putnam’s own early research, runs counter to his claim that the loss of thick social capital is detrimental to the modern society and to Coleman’s argument that closure is required for maintaining social capital.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
César González Cantón Globalisation, Technology and Reason: Hans Blumenberg’s Ethics of Memory
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This paper intends to explore an aspect of Blumenberg’s metaphorology as memory of mankind and the ethical commitment derived from it. It is seen as the culmination of the fight that the human being maintains against the senselessness of reality. It manifests itself and it is perceived by a human being as theimmensurability of world time and life time (i.e. that the human being is born and dies), that impedes the human being from having all of the world i.e. the satisfaction of its infinite desires. In the fight against finity technology and money play a vital role. They have in common the power to enable an expansion of human capacities over the boundaries of factual existence: through technology and money the human being can do more or, do the same in less time. That is: tobring closer life time and world time. But in this process the instrumental character of technology and money causes homogenisation in the societies where they thrive. That’s one of the characteristics of globalization. This homogenisation is to be understood as the forgetting of other essential possibilities of the human creation of meaning. Thus, what technological and monetary processes construct on one side, come to be destroyed on the other side. Blumenberg’s metaphorology is the adequate response: it is understood both as the self-consciousness of the process of reason in its making sense of the universe, and as an “ideal store” of everything the human being has come to make in this process.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Aleksandr V. Gevorkyan Innovative Fiscal Policy: Dialectics of Philosophic and Economic Identity
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The article uncovers an inherent link between philosophy and political economy. Application of the dialectical analytical framework to economics opens up distinctly innovative opportunities in social policy and theoretical advancements. Evolutionary understanding of a phenomenon in its totality rather than its break up into seemingly unrelated bits is crucial. Such analysis is capable of offering an all encompassing scientific explanation of the social and economic transformations taking place in modern times. To ensure sustained and socially fair growth, a proactive fiscal involvement is called upon in the areas of a)infrastructure, b) human capital [i.e. education and healthcare] and c) labor migration. Innovative approaches to fiscal policy focus on Infrastructure Development Fund, Strategic Learning Systems, Migration Development Bank, involvement of the Diaspora mechanism and Sovereign Diaspora Bond program [managed viaState–Diaspora Supervisory Boards] to support developmental initiatives. A policy prescription cannot be a “one-fits-all measure.” Considerations of individuality of country specific development patterns as well as the need for understanding history and evolution of the economy, i.e. society, evolve in the dialectical analysis ofphilosophic and economic identity of the totality of social change. This prompts innovative fiscal policy in adequate balance with monetary policy and other development tools.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Craig Hanson Hyperbolic Discounting, Selfhood and Irrationality
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I argue that George Ainslie’s model of Hyperbolic Discounting fails to yield strict akratic action. But it does yield a deflated view. Furthermore, by understanding the nature of a hyperbolically discounting self, we can also offer a deflated view of self-deception, according to which self-deception is motivated error by hyperbolic discounters who desire to view themselves as rational.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Boris Kalachev Movement of Narcogenes: From the Past through The Present Time and to the Future
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The subject of my report is Movement of Narcogenes: From the Past Through the Present Time and to the Future.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Jordi Mundós The Political Economy of the Household: An Institutional Approach to the Limits of The Freedom of Labour Contract
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Neoclassical economic theory has often failed to reflect adequately the particular features of labour. The assumption that there are no political relationships between capital and labour has led to the development of incomplete—and sometimes false—economic models. An institutional approach, one which takes intoaccount the historical social dynamics underlying the relationship between capital and labour, shows more clearly how the asymmetry of power in the labour contract affects freedom in a wider—and political—sense. Through consideration of the different forms of household government in Locke and Aristotle we can reach a better understanding of how the ancient contract of servitude, which Roman law defined as locatio conductio operarum, became today’s ‘labour contract’. This paper aims to show that the supposed contractual freedom is structurally limited by social asymmetries, in other words, by the fact that one of the parties to the contract is not completely autonomous as he/she is not a property owner. Good economic theory should seek to incorporate not only the economic dimension of social asymmetries but also their unyielding political dimension.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Donald V. Poochigian An Economic Paradox: Entropy and Growth
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Economics presents the paradox of the entropy of the law of diminishing returns and infinity of the substitution effect. Resolution assumes the substitution effect is greater than diminishing returns. Technology presupposing entropy, introduced is a new paradox of entropic technology generating infinite growth. Resolution assumes serial substitution of technologies, generating an infinite continuum. Physics and economics contest mechanic entropy and organic growth conceptions. A mechanic conception resolves set disjunctives exclusively, every set disjoined from a contiguous set, constituting entropy. An organic conception resolves set disjunctives inclusively, every set conjoined with a contiguous set, constituting growth. Causally each instance of something decreases the preexistent set of all possible instances by one, dying. Functionally each instance of something increases the postexistent set of all possible instances by one, living. Economists have the advantage here. Endlessly divisible, substance is something constituted of nothing, ungoverned by the law of conservation of energy. Physicists implicitly concede this assuming substance emerges from a Big Bang. Alas lunch is not free. Product of an economic growth equation being endless and non-repetitive, calculation is irrational, rendering growth economics irrelevant. Calculation requires marginal analysis, sequences initiating anywhere within a set governed by conservation of energy and entropy converging in parallel upon a common limit, “the unseen hand.” Energy conserved, however, economic growth is bounded.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Mauro Rossi Interpersonal Utility and Pragmatic Virtues
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It is a commonplace that, in everyday life, we compare different people’s preferences with respect to content and strength. We typically make such comparisons with relatively little difficulty. Furthermore, we often do not find inter-personal comparisons of preferences more difficult than intra-personal comparisons, that is,comparisons involving our own preferences. This contrasts with the difficulties that comparing preferences across individuals pose at the theoretical level. Since preferences are typically represented numerically through a utility function, the problem is known as the problem of interpersonal utility comparisons (IUCs for short). In this paper, I examine the most common solution to the problem of IUCs. According to it, we can assume that preferences are interpersonally comparable on pragmatic grounds (i.e. explanatory power, parsimony and simplicity) I argue that, contrary to our intuitions, the assumption of interpersonal comparability is not pragmatically advantageous. I conclude that this strategy to solve the problem of IUCs fails.