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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Robin Attfield Global Warming, Equity and Future Generations
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The phenomenon of global warming, the anthropogenic theory of its genesis and some of the implications of that theory are introduced as a case-study of a global environmental problem involving issues of equity between peoples, generations and species. We should favour the proportioning of emission quotas topopulation, if the charges of anthropocentrism and of discrimination against future generations can be avoided. It is argued that these charges can be replied to satisfactorily, if emissions totals are set low enough for the likely needs of other species and other generations. There should also be limits to the inter-state trading of quotas to ensure that all countries retain enough of their quotas to satisfy basic needs. The anthropogenic theory might instead be held to favourtying emissions quotas to aggregate historical emissions of the last two centuries. But intergenerational equity requires a sustainable international regime, based on universal principles rather than history.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Oyuna Dorzhiguishaeva Tolerance as the Basic Category of Buddhist Ethics
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The concept of tolerance is one of the basic ethical categories of Buddhism. Showing conscious tolerance, you control a situation and do not allow feelings, such as anger or arrogance to take top above reason. Besides, the tolerance to other people and different situation shows your wide scope and common emancipation. The tolerance is one of qualities inherent to bodhisattvas - sacred Buddhists. These qualities are called paramita, and paramita of tolerance - kshanti-paramita. Kshanti-paramita is triple: tolerance to other alive beings, tolerance to vital circumstances and tolerance coming with wisdom and penetration into essence of things and the phenomena. The man practicing tolerance, sympathizes with living creatures, understands their problems, mental condition and level of consciousness development. He can understand the true reasons of their behaviour. Buddhist tolerance is based on respect of other alive essences, by their potentially and permanently actualized trueness. Concept of tolerance propagates equality and peaceful coexistence of various essences. The tolerance in relation to vital circumstances helps the man to keep positive mood without dependence from modus of possession and external conditions. In this sense thespiritual sermons are very important drawing attention of a man to values of the internal world, his unity with the universe.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Ayo Fadahunsi Rethinking Environmental Ethics: A Case for Holism
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The paper discusses the critical need for ethical rethinking in relation to the environmental crisis in contemporary world. Beyond the present diversified perspectives in environmental ethical discourse (Anthropocentrism, Animal liberation/rights theory, Biocentrism and Ecocentrism), the paper makes a strong case for holism. The paper argues that while each of these schools of thought in environmental ethics has significant relevance and contributions to make, considered separately, they are for the most part, insufficient and inadequate toward revamping and protecting the world environment from further deterioration. As a consequence, the paper establishes that only a Holistic Environmental Ethics that synergistically adapts, integrates and encompasses the positive aspects of these four environmental ethical theories in a holistic whole is promising in challenging the environmental crisis.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Debashis Guha Facing the Challenges of Environmental Ethical Scepticism
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With the rise of Practical and Professional Ethics has risen Environmental Ethics. Ethical reflections pertaining to environmental and ecological problems is not new; in the recent times we have been discussing these issues in a more methodical and organised way. Methodicity taking centre stage in moral philosophical scrutiny of matters pertaining to life and world finds sceptics throwing stiff challenges to the method of ‘activism’ involving common men for their moral perceptions and resolution of the said ethical issues. Sceptics also challenge those who prefer ‘theoreticism’ involving ethicists and their sacred normative theories for the resolution of the said ethical issues. The paper tries to expound and face these sceptical challenges so that environmental ethics is not turned to a bundle of nonsense.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Yoshihiro Hayashi Toward an Imagination-based Environmental Ethics
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The aim of this paper is to examine the role of imagination in environmental ethics and introduce an imaginative dimension as an essential part of environmental ethics. Imagination constitutes a basic condition for ethical thinking and action. Matters of environmental ethics have revealed the indispensable role of imagination in ethics. I’ll advance an imagination-based environmental ethics by developing Hans Jonas’ ethical thought. From his viewpoint, various effects of our action on nature and future generations, generally out of our sight, have become an ethical concern. This necessitates the exercise of imagination because we must “imagine” those distant effects to act in an environmentally responsible way. Jonas’ “heuristics of fear” is an imaginative approach necessary for responsible action. Further, I reinterpret the role of imagination as motivating our “will to know.” In conclusion, I suggest the importance of environmental education as cultivating ecological imagination from the standpoint of environmental ethics.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Thomas Heyd Culture and Climate Change
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Physical science is coming to an increasingly clear understanding of natural environmental changes, their causes and their effects on the landscape. Human beings have lived through significant climate variability in historical periods, and through repeated periods of relatively sudden climate change, as well asmultiple other drastic natural events in prehistory. In this paper I propose that we should take into account the cultural dimension when considering adaptation to drastic natural events, such as powerful storms (hurricanes), whose intensity may grow as a result of climate change. I discuss an example of a cultural pattern that offers an alternative conception of natural processes to the mainstream of Western societies, and point out how such alternative conceptions of the human‐natural relationship also imply alternative value systems. I conclude that a deeper understanding of the cultural dimension of human responses to drastic natural events may be of significant value in the development of resilience to events of the sort that characterise climate change.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Vyacheslav Kudashov Environmental Ethics in Modern Philosophy
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A brief history of environmental consciousness in the western world places our views in perspective and provides a context for understanding the maze of related and unrelated thoughts, philosophies, and practices that we call “environmentalism”. Environmental ethics is a collection of independent ethicalgeneralizations, not a tight, rationally ordered set of rules. Environmental ethics is a collection of interrelated independent tendencies - a process field that is brought together for a long time. Ethics really results from people’s perceptions, attitudes and behaviour. Society is facing many important decisions about the useof science and technology. These decisions affect the environment, human health, society and international policy. To resolve these issues, and develop principles to help us make decisions we need to involve anthropology, sociology, biology, medicine, religion, psychology, philosophy, and economics; we must combine the scientific rigour of biological data, with the values of religion and philosophy to develop a world-view. The goal of environmental ethics is not to convince us that we should be concerned about the environment. Instead of it, environmental ethics focuses on the moral foundation of environmental responsibility, and how far this responsibility extends. The challenge of duty-based eco-centrism is to explain how conflicts are to be resolved between human‐centered duties and environment-centered ones. An adequate duty-based approach to environmental obligation requires prioritizing environmental duties according to a ranked importance of the various ecosystems in question. Conflicts between prioritized environmental and human duties, then, can only be resolved on a case by case basis. Although eco-centrism fails as a normative theory, eco-centrism may have merit as a way of expressing emotionaloutrage at environmental damage and demanding change.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Toshio Kuwako Consensus Building towards Integration of Values in Flood Control, Environment, and Landscape
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This paper offers some ideas and methods of consensus building towards integration of values in flood control, environment, and landscape. These three factors sometimes oppose to each other in the process of construction of public infrastructure such as roadbuilding and river improvement. It is crucial to avoid or resolute conflicts between the government and the local people through project management with the consensus building process. In public works in Japan, flood control has been given priority over the environmental preservation and the landscape conservation due to the perception that it is through flood control that the life and property of individuals are adequately protected. As a consequence, the landscape and the environment have been paid only lip‐service. In the case of the Ohashi River Project in Izumo region presented in this paper, however, the river repair process might entail a severe blow to the tourism industry and have a dramatic impact on the fishery resources of the region, which would be considered a major loss in terms of the urban development of the city. One of our concerns is thus to avoid any losses, through proper consideration of the relationship between the three crucial factors. In this paper, the author reports some ideas and methods that appear in “Basic Policy for the Development of the Area around Ohashi River” composed by the Matsue Review Committee on the Development of the Area around the Ohashi River, in which the author is involved as a committee member. The most important task of the Committee wasto search for the ideas and methods to harmonize the values of flood control, environment, and landscape.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Ruth M. Lucier Science, Stewardship, and Earth: Clarifying Perspectives
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In this paper I discuss two views that focus on the natural environment, namely (1) a western or “W” view (hereafter W) basedloosely on the kind of liberal outlook offered by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice and (2) a primal or “P” view (hereafter, P) stemming from environmental teachings of primal peoples. I suggest that while the W tradition has produced many truly helpful and comfortable amenities, it is nevertheless oriented toward commitments to resource acquisition and “detached” objectivity of sorts that could ultimately lead human beings down paths of predictable and tragic destruction. I conclude that P needs to be seriously considered and, where possible, utilized to remold W to achieve a view with maximal environment-preserving possibilities.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
V. V. Mantatov, L. V. Mantatova The Value Basics of Coming Civilization: Sustainable Development and Environmental Ethics
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The main philosophical question of the contemporaneity consists in that how far mankind is capable to change "direction of development" and to provide itself a Sustainable Future. Today it is obvious that any planetary actions driven by values of modern technocratic (material) civilization assume great risk and can lead tothe global ecological catastrophe. Consequently, the search for new values of civilization development has a truly decisive importance for man and mankind. In our opinion, Sustainable Development and Environmental Ethics are the main components of a new value paradigm of civilization’s transformation. To emphasize fundamental novelty of the above-named value basics of a future civilization and its alternative character with respect to the modern technocraticculture, we introduce the concept of "ecological civilization". We imagine the ecological civilization as the ideal form of integrity preservation of the Whole-Life-System with a view to provide sustainable future for mankind. This is spiritually oriented and highly moral society because the ecological imperative, as a matter of fact, coincides with the ideal of spirituality. We connect prospects of ecological (spiritual) civilization with forming of planetary value consciousness on principles of Environmental Ethics.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Georgeta Marghescu Philosophical Relevance of the Ecological Challenge: To Be or Not to Be Purely And Truly Human
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The emerging ecophilosophy is the expression of a philosophical perspective deeply attentive to the threatened complex natural world. It is an answer to global ecological crisis that we currently face, and that is considered by environmentalists as the result of the arrogant cultures built on the dichotomy man-nature.The European modern culture promoted and established an anthropocentric logic of human self-enclosure that is made responsible for our failure to consider ourselves as ecological beings. The issue concerned here is that of an eventually truly and purely human nature. Ecophilosophy proposes a reflection on man’s being-in-the-world ways in order to understand humanity as part of the world, not standing outside, and to evaluate the ontological and the ethical relevance of such understanding.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Rasmus Øjvind Nielsen Beyond the Moral Strategy: Notes on the Metaphysical Grounding of Environmental Ethics
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These notes take their starting point in the question posed by Lawrence Vogel: “Does environmental ethics need a metaphysical grounding?” and answers this question negatively. It is argued that Hans Jonas’ Das Prinzip Verantwortung does not come to an adequate understanding of the historical relation between metaphysics and technology, and that Jonas consequently fails to appreciate the specific role played by environmentalism within this relation. It is also argued that this specific role is more easily understandable if resources present in the work of Martin Heidegger concerning the above mentioned relation are employed. Whereas Jonas conceptualizes environmental ethics as a force to counter the reign of technology, Heidegger’s analysis of the essence of technology lends itself much more readily to an account of environmentalism which sees it as a maturation process within technology itself. Through this account, it becomes clear why environmental ethics never actually needed a metaphysical grounding, and why the strategy of industrial ecology marks a healthy step beyond the moralstrategy envisioned by Jonas.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Markku Oksanen Ecological Restoration as Moral Reparation
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The notion of reparation in ethical, political and legal discourse has become popular in recent years. Reparation refers to a category of actions for which there are morally compelling reasons to perform due to wrongful action in the past. ‘Reparation’ is often, but not merely, used in the context of collective responsibility. The debate around the concept has mainly focussed on humans, but the wrongs done to humans can be indirect, such as contaminating the soil or polluting the air, in cases of which the quality of human life has been significantly deteriorated. In the paper, it will be examined whether the concept of reparation is applicable to characterise our responsibilities to the rest of nature? And can ecological restoration be understood as an exemplification of reparation? In restoration,ecological system or natural landscape returned to some historically existed condition. In the context of reparations, the scope of concern would be limited to those changes that involve human presence or activity. Reparation is to be understood as corrective action when one has done something wrong. Ecological restoration aims to restore a situation that has prevailed at some point earlier. To say that ecological restoration is also moral reparation, we must assumethat nature or non-human entities and processes be wronged in the morally relevant sense. There are, of course, reasons for being sceptical over this assumption and its practical implications.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Dorzhiguishaeva Oyuna Tolerance as the Basic Category of Buddhist Ethics
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The concept of tolerance is one of the basic ethical categories of Buddhism. Showing conscious tolerance, you control a situation and do not allow feelings, such as anger or arrogance to take top above reason. Besides, the tolerance to other people and different situation shows your wide scope and common emancipation. The tolerance is one of qualities inherent to bodhisattvas - sacred Buddhists. These qualities are called paramita, and paramita of tolerance - kshanti-paramita. Kshanti-paramita is triple: tolerance to other alive beings, tolerance to vital circumstances and tolerance coming with wisdom and penetration into essence of things and the phenomena. The man practicing tolerance, sympathizes with living creatures, understands their problems, mental condition and level of consciousness development. He can understand the true reasons of their behaviour. Buddhist tolerance is based on respect of other alive essences, by their potentially and permanently actualized trueness. Concept of tolerance propagates equality and peaceful coexistence of various essences. The tolerance in relation to vital circumstances helps the man to keep positive mood without dependence from modus of possession and external conditions. In this sense thespiritual sermons are very important drawing attention of a man to values of the internal world, his unity with the universe.
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Laxmikanta Padhi Environmental Holism in Hinduism
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Holism in environmental ethics is concerned with a harmonious relationship between man and nature. Hinduism seeks to identify and evaluate the distinctive ecological attitudes, values and practices of human beings by making clear their relations with the intellectual and ethical thought within scripture, ritual, myth,symbols, cosmology, and sacrament. In Hinduism the relation between man and nature is like the relationship between the microcosm (Pindānda) and the macrocosm (Brahmānda). The Panċamahābhuta in the Hindu tradition emphasizes that God is assigned to every bhutas, and human beings have no specialauthority over the other nonhuman. Even the Yoga system of Pātanjali also tries to integrate environmental policies with the daily needs of human beings. Hindu philosophy believes that an animal killer is considered as a murderer and goes directly to the hell. This justifies the intrinsic value of the nonhuman species, which entail them to come under the purview of morality. On the basis of the various attitudes in Hinduism we can develop an ecological paradigm and strategy which is based on the concept of Vasudheiva Kutumbakam: every entity and organism is a part of one large extended family which is presided over by the eternal mother Earth. This position will help us to formulate a global environmental ethics by individuals, theologians, environmental philosophers and groups, scientists, politicians, economists, industrialists, and different government and non-governmental social organizations.
16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Susan M. Parrillo Fake Nature: The Only Acceptable Alternative
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This piece explores the proposition that environmental restoration is the only acceptable alternative to a world left with diminishing natural regions. The article reviews the ethical debate concerning the moral obligation of humankind to restore regions that have been stripped of their resources. It demonstrates thatthrough the assistance of both legislative and technological measures nature can be renewed to spawn healthy ecosystems when permitted to do so. Furthermore, the article claims that the restoration thesis is proven by the paradigm of the Adirondack region – a region that was once clear-cut and enabled to restore itself through both rewilding and the “Forever Wild” clause in the New York State Constitution. The article is particularly timely and provocative given the current Bush Administration’s environmental policies.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Mamashakirov Saidmurad Modeling of Ecologic Policy of the States of the Central Asia
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In the last decades of the XX century the world community precisely realized the huge danger of the ecological situation which had been developed on our planet under influence of negative technogenic and other anthropogenous factors. Very complex there were ecological conditions in the territory of the former USSR, including Central Asian region, in particular Uzbekistan, which had experienced all the toughness of the former colonial regime. Understanding the consequences of the ecological catastrophe in the region helps to model sociopolitical and economic activities in the field of preservation of the environment, to realize the fact, that in the system of interstate and interethnic relations the ecological policy should have a priority direction, and its integration, in general,is a modern globalization of international sociopolitical, economic and other relations. Thus, necessity of all-round development of coordination and integration of the ecological policies of the all States of our region, and also near and far abroad. Main principles of interstate ecological relations have been fixed in the declaration of Rio de Janeiro (1992) where it is underlined that “close cooperation and mutual aid of the countries in economic, political, ecological andcultural fields” is necessary, demanding modeling of nature protection actions on a global scale. Principles of integration of the ecological policy which are carried out by the States of the Central Asia , correspond to the regulations of Conference of Rio de Janeiro and equitable to the interests of all people living both inside and outside the region.
18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Abha Singh Ecology and Indian Culture
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Since time immemorial Indian culture has been upholding a symbiotic relationship between man and environment. It has led to the all round evolution of Indian culture as an integral whole. This assimilation has been possible due to the spiritual vision of Indian seers. Every Culture is based upon certain values. In India values are usually discussed in the context of the principal ends of human life (chatuspurusartha): dharma (moral value), artha (political and economic values), kama (sensual value) and moksha (spiritual value). Indian cultural tradition shaped human behaviour in accordance with these values, which impinged ecological issues as well. Again, Indian classification of value is based on two percepts. These are (1) the essential infinitude and divinity of all souls and (2) the essential oneness and solidarity of universe and all life. Supreme being resides in all; hence no area of life is alien to spiritual influence. It emphasizes the presence of an infinite knowledge, power, purity and bliss behind the body-mind complex of human beings, which is called Atman. Upanisads express this truth as Aham Brahmasmi (I am Brahman) or Ayam Atma Brahma (the individual soul is Brahman) or Tat Twam Asi (thou art that). Acceptance of the presence of God in everything led Indian culture to maintain and protect the natural harmonious relationship between human beings and nature. Moreover, Indians discovered the essential unity of all existence. The universe is holistic. Here at the deeper level of all pervading consciousness everything in the world is interconnected. Oneness of the entire reality is the basic presupposition and the guiding principle of the spiritualistic approach of Indian culture. The paper is an attempt to show that the holistic view of Indian culture is mirrored in the philosophy of ecology.
19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Gordon Steinhoff Mitigation Banking and The Problem of Consolidation
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A mitigation bank is a large wetland or wetland complex that is developed for the sake of selling credits to private developers or government agencies to compensate for the destruction of natural wetlands. The United States Army Corps of Engineers often sets as a condition for issuing a Section 404 permit the purchase of a certain number of bank credits. Mitigation banking is now emphasized within Corps’ policy, and it has become big business within the United States. Arguments for mitigation banking stress the efficiency in permitting and monitoring that banking makes possible. Proponents of banking claim that banking is ecologically beneficial to wetland plants and animals, but recent studies have shown that mitigation banking threatens biodiversity. The problem, generally, is consolidation. Underlying mitigation banking, and embedded within Corps policy, is the assumption that preservation of wetland functions must accommodate to a large extent desired levels of economic development and efficiency in the development process.
20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 23
Wang Xinyan How is Environmental Ethics Possible?
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In the history of ethical thoughts of China and the West, ethical relations are always regarded as social relations among people, and the objects to which ethical norms apply are targeted for social business or man’s behavior. What traditional ethics concerns is ethical relationship among people or ethical feature of socialbusiness or man’s behavior. By comparison with it, environmental ethics has a good reputation for its research on ethical relationship between human being and natural environment. It has been discussing and reconstructing ethical relationship between man and nature from the very beginning, and requires ethical solicitude or moral concern for natural environment. As a result, environmental ethics has to answer the question how it is possible. However, the mainstream views in environmental ethics, based on the position of moral expansion and non-anthropocentrism, can't and won't explain how environmental ethics is possible. What environmental ethics deals with is no other than the ethical relationship between man and man represented by the relationship between man and nature, what it confirms is no other than our obligations and duties to others and next generations when dealing with the relationship between man and nature, and finally, the criterion of evaluation it pursues in dealing with the man-nature relationship is no other than the integrated and long-run interest of all human beings. All these are the ground on which the contemporary environmental ethics stands possibly.