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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Gilbert Burgh Professional Development and Training: A Case of Initiative, Inventiveness and Re-Adaptability
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The task of teaching students how to think well rests formally with schools and the classroom teachers who work within them. The education system has a responsibility to fulfil the need for relevance in the school curriculum. A corollary is that the teaching profession, through collective efforts, needs to transform the ways in which curriculum and teaching are conceived. This is not to say that teachers cannot or should not work with existing curriculum, but rather that we need to reconceptualise the ways in which we approach curriculum, teaching and learning. Professional development for teachers to teach philosophically needs to move away from an in-service model that relies on ‘skilling-up’ to one of an ‘apprenticeship’ in self-correction which allows teachers to help themselves. Teachers, as professionals, need to keep abreast of new ideas and insights; to extend their professional development to joining professional associations, attending and presenting at conferences, undertaking further study, and engaging in ‘collaborative negotiation’ with universities, consultants, teachereducators,professional bodies, and in-service providers in the development of deliberative and reflective capabilities, pedagogical practices, and classroom materials as ways of assessing their own philosophical progress.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Daniela G. Camhy Developing an International Community of Inquiry
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In this paper I want to analyse the meaning of the community of inquiry in multiethnic contexts and introduce best practice examples from Austria. The idea of community and the practice of philosophy are central to the work in Philosophy for Children. The development of community of inquiry is not only a method forfostering philosophical dialogue, it is a process that also leads to educational practice with community activity. So it has much to offer for the education for democracy: it can prepare young people for life in a culturally and ethnically diverse society. A philosophy for children community provides an ideal framework for working out intersubjective perceptions and understanding of complex cultural differences. It is one way that the next generation will be prepared socially and cognitively to engage in the necessary dialogue, judging and questioning what is vital to existence for a democratic society.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Young-Sam Chun Teaching Philosophy as a Tool for Helping Children Understand Problems Properly
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Children are surrounded by a lot of problems here and there, and they often show any tendency to answer them promptly. In this paper, I argue that helping children understand their problems properly before answering them is one of the good ways of meta-thinking teaching in philosophy for children, and then I suggest how teachers help them do so.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Clinton Golding The Philosophy Teacher as Guide: Balancing Following the Inquiry where it Leads with Introducing Philosophical Knowledge
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Central to Philosophy for Children is the commitment that children follow their inquiry where it leads. Teacher interventions that introduce questions and problems from the philosophical tradition are problematic for this commitment. They seem to be necessary to scaffold a rigorous inquiry, but they also threaten todirect the inquiry down the teacher’s chosen path rather than the students’. This paper suggests a way to balance following student inquiry where it leads with introducing knowledge from the philosophical tradition. It will be argued that conceiving of the P4C teacher as a philosophical expedition guide will be useful to find this balance.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Nimet Kucuk The Two Dimensions of Philosophy Education with Children: Curricular and Extra-curricular Philosophy Activities
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The Twenty-first Century will be the age of information, a century only those societies that reach to and produce information can achieve success. The individuals of this century must have along with the basic skill, the new and significant qualifications of problemsolving, learning how to think, creative thinking, decision-making, research and assume responsibility of one’s knowledge as active subjects. Therefore we have to teach our students how to think. Education of thinking is the education of philosophy. One has to be taught in philosophy in order to learn thinking. Only an adequate philosophy education can create individuals with above qualifications. Such an education has to be supported by both the curricular and extra-curricular activities. This article will review these two dimensions of the philosophy education in particular on Turkey example and assert the contribution thereof on the philosophy education.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Chun-Hee Lee, Daeryun Chung Young Children's Caring Thinking
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The purpose of this paper was to enhance caring thinking of young children through the community of philosophical inquiry. To find out how young children's caring thinking is expressed in the community of inquiry, the inquiry has been conducted against 5-year old children for 12 weeks a total of 24 times and the whole process has been recorded. Then, the collected data have been thoroughly analyzed. According to the analysis, young children with the community of inquiry showed 5 types of caring thinking and 38 kinds of characteristics. With increase in frequencies of discussion, various characteristics of caring thinking have been observed and a number of caring thinking-related vocabularies increased as well. As caring thinking changes, in addition, a pattern of discussion has alsochanged from teacher-child to child-child interaction. In conclusion, research findings indicated that the community of inquiry influenced the improvement of caring thinking. Through the community of philosophical inquiry, young children transformed themselves into thinking entities, showing caring thinking by discovering active meanings on problematic cases requiring care and manifesting it as behavior.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Maria Elena Madrid Multiculturalism, Extreme Poverty, and P4C: Teaching P4C in Juchitán, Oaxaca
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Most of the Latin American population, including in places like Mexico and Brazil, is becoming extremely poor, slipping in the last ten years from poverty to extreme poverty. Native communities are in this condition: to live only to survive, lacking any opportunity to improve or at least meet their basics needs of food and shelter. I practiced P4C in the multicultural community of Juchitán, Oaxaca, to find if P4C overcame the limitations of extreme poverty, respecting the cultural diversity while obtaining positive results.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Marzena Parzych Philosophy for Children: In the Historical Perspective of the Progressive Nature of Human Consciousness
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Philosophy for Children: In the Historical Perspective of the Progressive Nature of Human Consciousness. This paper will examine the importance of the Critical Thinking Movement and the Philosophy for Children Programme in a larger, more inclusive, and innovative perspective. The paper will explain why the CriticalThinking Movement appeared in our time and then offer a new interpretation of the importance of the Philosophy for Children Program – with both seen in a novel historical perspective as well as in the context of the progressive nature of human consciousness. At this point, it is essential to stress the novel importance andindispensable role of Critical Thinking Programmes in light of the larger historical perspective afforded by both the Graves and McIntosh models of human progressive consciousness. Although all Critical Thinking Programmes play a crucial role in this process, the Philosophy for Children Programme (P4C) will be especially crucial and influential in this endeavour of lifting human consciousness and awareness. First of all, P4C Programme operates with Matthew Lipman’s three dimensional model of thinking, namely with three equal and balanced components of Critical, Creative, and Caring dimensions and not simply a linear, one dimensional focus and concentration on rational and logical reasoning. Humanity is destined and already advancing to the higher levels of Post-Modernist, Integral, and Post-Integral Consciousness. These more advanced levels require full competence in Critical Thinking or the adequate and skillful full employment of logical and rational reasoning but they demand, in addition, increased competence in Caring and Creative Thinking.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Alina Reznitskaya Not By Faith Alone: A Quantitative Investigation of Philosophy for Children Pedagogy
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In this paper, I will discuss new approaches to investigating increasingly influential, yet under-researched, theoretical assumptions regarding the role dialogic interaction plays in cognitive development. I will present a psychological theory that refines social learning models by integrating them with schema-theoreticperspectives. I will then review Philosophy for Children pedagogy, demonstrating how it can provide a useful context for conducting empirical studies of learning theories that emphasize the use of dialogue for promoting individual argumentation development. Next, I will describe a research design and data-analytic tools used to examine the educational potential of engagement in a philosophical dialogue for the development of argumentation. Finally, I will present preliminary results of a study evaluating the connections between 1) specific features of group interactions experienced by elementary school students and 2) individual student performance on multiple measures of argumentation.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Ann Margaret Sharp Philosophizing about Our Emotions in the Classroom
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The classroom community of inquiry aims at helping children make better judgments. If we can show that emotions are judgments or appraisals, it follows that they are educable. Such education of the emotions optimally should take place within the environment of communal inquiry with its focus on respect for persons, dialogue, concept formation, critical, creative and caring thinking. Children need help learning to identify their emotions, detecting assumptions upon which they lie and justifying these emotions to themselves and to others. Such work involves helping children to be sensitive to the salient aspects of individual situations, developing a consciousness of criteria and the ideals from which these criteria ensue, and fostering a disposition to be willing to self correct when we discover through inquiry that our emotions are based on unwarranted beliefs.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Mitsuyo Toyoda Applying Philosophy for Children to Workshop-Style Environmental Education
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This paper examines possible applications of ideas and methods of Philosophy for Children (P4C) to workshop-style environmental education conducted in Sado, Japan. The theme of the workshop is the preservation of toki (the crested ibis) and the local community development. As a result of the success in new breeding, it was determined that the toki, which once became extinct in Japan, would be released to the natural environment in 2008. In order to achieve its successful settlement, local residents are expected to participate in natural and social restoration. Since children will take over this task in the future, they need to be familiar with this issue and to be equipped with necessary skills to think for themselves what can be done towards the betterment of personal, natural, andsocial well-being. As an approach to children’s education, a series of school workshop has been conducted in Sado. The focuses of this education are to introduce the value of thinking for themselves about the issues of toki, environment, and community, and to provide them with some of the necessary skills. A strict timeframe, however, is a crucial difficulty when applying P4C to the school workshop. The workshop must be conducted in two hours (or less), and can be given only one time at each school. In this paper, I consider how it is possible to incorporate the process of thinking into the school workshop and to examine the value of thinking-oriented environmental education. Based on the responses from the students and the teachers, I argue that the integration of P4C ideas into theschool workshop has been meaningful for providing different and creative learning opportunities for them.
articles in korean
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Dae-Ryun Chung A Study on Developing Picture Books and Parent-Teacher Manuals for Philosophy for Korean Young Children
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This paper is a short report about a series of picture books and manuals designed for P4C (especially Philosophy for Korean Young Children). There were not proper educational reading materials or books to help Korean young children to think by (or for) themselves and dialogue with. Dr. Sharp’s <Doll Hospital> is a very helpful guidebook for young children to think by themselves, dialogue with friends, and discuss with others (peers, older or younger children, teacher and parents, etc.). However, there remain some needs for consideration of Korean culture. I developed new eight picture books for young children and short manuals for parents and teachers to do ‘thinking experiments’ with children. The stories were created in the contexts of Korean young children’s daily lives and typical episodes. The community of inquiry, which Korean young children participate in, needs to consider general and special aspects, such as the relationship between peers, children-parents, and children-teachers, Confucius or new western customs, new and old generations, moral and cultural atmosphere of Korean kindergartens or childcare centers, etc. Various episodes and scenes in the picture books will revoke and encourage Korean children’s deeper or higher thinking, interesting and creative dialogues, vivid and harmonious discussions based on their own experiences and contexts of life in the community of inquiry.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Hyun-Joo Lee, Dae-Ryun Chung 한국 유아를 위한 철학적 탐구공동체 활동의 실제
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This paper is about activities of ‘community of inquiry’ on the basis of Lipman’s model applied at a kindergarten in Seoul, Korea. The activities of community of inquiry, basically, includes a series of activities, for example, reading textbooks, making up questions, discussing on themes, working out exercises and further responding. At the beginning of P4C lessons, young children had difficulties in reading texts with no pictures, and making up questions. Having philosophy lessons repeatedly, they were accustomed to the activities, felt joy of thinking by themselves, and enjoyed dialoguing with friends and discussing together. The young children in the community of inquiry showed intimacy and curiosity about the stories written by Dr, Chung, which described typical Korean young child’s daily life and were full of situations experienced in their families and kindergartens. The young children were interested in inquiring philosophical aspects of the stories, tried to think by themselves like philosophers, and finally could achieve the goals of P4C, in short, to think by themselves, to cultivate ethical and aesthetic mind, and to harmonize with others.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 27
Jinwhan Park 도덕판단에 있어서의 추리의 역할
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In 2007 Korea began to focus on moral thinking ability in her National Curriculum. So far Korean moral education stressed personality education, therefore the contents of texts filled with persuasive lectures instead of various moral view points or inquiry based learning material. New curriculum encourages text makers todeal with subject oriented contents for improving student’s autonomy and thinking abilities. Nevertheless there are no specific suggestions about what kind of moral thinking exactly. So far moral thinking was interpreted in Kholbergian paradigm and Hare’s judgment model. I would like to introduce new moral thinkingparadigm in this paper. I will try to fulfill the spirit of new curriculum. New curriculum stressed ethical approach as the academic background. My discussion centered on 7th grade curriculum. There are following teaching targets : moral inquiry and moral reasoning. What is the meaning of moral inquiry and moral reasoning? If it is not Kholbergian or Hare’s model, what kind of model should be introduced? I tried to figure out what kind of inquiry is needed to develop moral thinking ability and sound judgments. Inductive, deductive and analogical reasoning were discussed with the relation to these subjects.